Mani is an annual, spreading,
hairy, branched herb, with stems 30 to 80 centimeters long. Leaves are pinnate,
8 to 12 centimeters long, with a clasping petiole base and the sheath
produced in 2 linear-lanceolate stipules. Leaflets are in two
pairs, oblong to obovate, 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are axillary,
few, fascicled, yellow, about 8 millimeters long. Pods ripen underground
and are oblong, leathery, reticulate, 1 to 5 centimeters long, containing
1 to 3 seeds that are oval and smooth.
Cultivated in the
many parts of the Philippines for its edible seeds.
- Has a high protein and fat content, with considerable carbohydrates and a fair
source of calcium and iron.
- The seeds yield arachis oil, colorless and with a pleasant taste.
- The fixed oil is 43 to 45 percent.
- Peanut oil contains glycerides of palmitic, oleic, stearic, lignoceric,
linolic, and arachidic acids.
- Three alkaloids have been isolated: betaine, choline, and arachine which
may be a cause of poisoning in animals.
- Phytochemical study yielded isoflavonoid, 1-pentene-3-ol, geraniol.
- Study yielded a new 3,9-dihydroxy-4, 8-dimethoxycoumestan. (4)
- Study of various peel extracts yielded bioactive compounds such as tannins, saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, beta cyanin, coumarins, quinones, and steroids. (see study below) (20)
- Study of oil from seeds of six varieties yielded varying compositions of fatty acids viz. capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric. The major fatty acids were oleic (41.67-44.20%) and linoleic (19.58-20.89%). (21)
- Oil is considered aperient, demulcent, emollient and pectoral.
- Considered aphrodisiac, decoagulant, anti-inflammatory, peptic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, sedating properties.
- Seed In grams (g) or milligrams (mg) per 100 g of food.
- 500 calories per 100 g
- Protein, 29g; fat, 45 g; carbohydrate, 15 g; fiber 2.7 g.
- Minerals: calcium 49 mg; phosphorus 409 mg, iron 3.8.
- Vitamins: A, 15mg, B1, 0.79 mg; B2, 0.14 mg; niacin, 15.5 mg, vit C, 1 mg.
- Seeds are edible.
- Kernel of the peanut used for oil extraction; an ingredient in many
food products: peanut butter, candies and desserts.
- Peanut oil used for salads; an inexpensive substitute for olive oil.
- Peanuts also contain resveratrol, touted for its varied health benefits.
- Teaspoon of oil in milk
used for gonorrhea.
- Oil used for bladder conditions.
- In China, used for gonorrhea and rheumatism;
also used for insomnia.
- In Zimbabwe, used for plantar warts.
- Oil used in liniments
- Lower grades of oil used for making soap and illumination.
- Peanut cake makes excellent cattle feed.
- The leafage makes good fodder and hay for livestock.
- Some portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers.
- Peanut shells are used in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives and fuel. Also, used to make cellulose (for use in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).
• Diabetes and HDL-C: Peanut (Arachis
hypogaea) Consumption Improves Glutathione and HDL-Cholesterol Levels
in Experimental Diabetes: Peanut consumption may improve oxidant-antioxidant
status without increasing blood lipids. Increased HDL-C may have cardioprotective
benefits in diabetics. (1)
• Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic:
Aqueous extract study in alloxan-induced diabetic
rats caused a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar, decrease
in TC, triglycerides, LDL and HDL-C. (2)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory:
Biosynthesis Enhancement and Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities
of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Arachidin-1, Arachidin-3, and Isopentadienyl resveratrol:
Peanuts yield bioactive stilbenoids, which except for resveratrol have
not been investigated The study showed all the test stilbenoids to have
potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. (3)
• Antioxidant / Luteolin:
of peanut hulls (Spanish variety) exhibited strong antioxidative activity;
further study showed luteolin as the active antioxidative flavonoid
present in the peanut hulls. (5)
• Immunochemical Studies:
Study yielded 14 antigenic constituents in A. hypogea seeds. Arachin contains 4 antigens and conarachin contains 2. (7)
• Decrease Fat Absorption / Decreased lipolytic Activity:
Study of peanut shell extracts showed inhibitory effect on lipid metabolic enzymes and also increased fecal fat suggesting use in reducing dietary fat absorption. The reduction of intracellular lipolytic activity may reduce circulating levels of free fatty acids. (8)
• Sedative / Sleep Effects:
Study on peanut leaf aqueous extracts (PLAE) showed a mild hypnotic effect on sleep ameliorations. As a mild tranquilizer, the PLAE significantly elevated GABA-mediated neurotransmission and reduced Glu/GABA in target brain region, suggest some efficacy on spontaneous sleep improvement. (10)
• SIRT1 Gene / Resveratrol:
SIRT1 is a gene found in humans and mammals, a principal regulator of lifespan, involved in repairing damage from free radicals and boosting mitochondrial energy production. It is activated by caloric restriction or by resveratrol. Resveratrol is believed to modulate the growth of cancer cells. Resveratrol is naturally found in grapes (providing the anti-aging attribute to red wine), some green teas, and even peanuts. Study is being designed to determine if A. hypogaea extract can be a source of resveratrol. (12)
• Peanut Phytoalexins / Stilbenoids / Sleep Effects:
Study evaluated peanut phytoalexins, together with related natural and synthetic stilbenoids. Results suggest peanut stilbenoids, as well as related natural and synthetic stilbene derivatives exhibit a wide range of biologic activities. (14)
• Effect on Metabolism of Osteoblastic Cells: Study evaluated the effects of A. hypogaea extracts on metabolism of osteoblastic cells. A hydroalcoholic extract stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of ROS cells and differentiation of without effect on osteoblastic cells. The action was attributed to phyto-estrogens, notably isoflavones and/or to non-estrogenic substances. (15)
• Lectin / Anti-Cancer: The D-galactose binding lectin PNA (Pea Nut Agglutination) was successfully isolated and purified from the seed of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The isolated PNA showed marked cytotoxicity towards human cancer cell lines viz. HeLa and Hep-2 in a dose-dependent manner. The isolated lectin was found to induce DNA fragmentation in treated HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. (17)
• Biosorbent / Cr VI / Peanut Hulls: Study reports on the effectiveness peanut hulls as low-cost biosorbent for Cr (VI) biosorption from aqueous solution. Thermodynamic study showed the biosorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and suggests potential for the use of peanut hulls for industrial wastewater treatment. (18)
• Anti-Diabetic Effect / High MUFA: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of peanut in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. Results showed an anti-diabetic effect by reducing fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels. The anti-diabetic effect may be due to high MUFA (mono-unsaturated fatty acid) content and the free radical scavenging activity of peanut. (19)
• Larvicidal Against Chikungunya and Malarial Vectors / Peels: Study evaluated various peel extracts of Arachis hypogaea for larvicidal activity against mosquito vectors. A crude extract showed potent larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. stephensi. Results showed the presence of effective constituents that can be a potent source for the production of natural larvicides. The large biomass of agricultural waste can be exploited for integrated mosquite control programs. (see study above) (20)
• Effect on Dyslipidemia in Young Adults: Study the effects of 4-8 weeks of peanut supplementation on 30 dyslipidemic young adults of both sexes, aged 30-40. Results showed the mean serum TAG, LDL-C and TC were significantly decreased, with increase in serum HDL-C level after 8 weeks of supplementation. The lipid lowering effects of peanut may be due to high Mg+2 content and other active components. (22)
Allergy & toxicity
Allergy: Peanut allergy is
common and can be severe, occurring with a prevalence rate of 0.5% in
the general population, accounting for 10-47% of food-induced anaphylactic
reactions. Symptoms vary from mild urticaria to severe systemic reactions
that can be fatal. Hypersensitivity starts in childhood and usually
lasts the lifetime. For many, the history is obvious, commonly occurring
in atopic individuals with other food allergies; laboratory will reveal
a peanut-specific IgE antibody. Although immunotherapy is promising,
present treatment consists of strict avoidance and self-injection of
Data Collections) (6)
Toxicity / Aflatoxins: A concern is the possible contamination of damaged or spoiled seeds with teratogenic, carcinogenic aflatoxins – the principal toxins aflatoxin B and G, and the less toxic dihydro-derivatives, aflatoxins B2 and G2, formed by aflatoxin producing molds (Aspergillus flavus, etc). Arachin, with 4 antigens and conarachin with 2 antigens are also reported. source