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Family Moraceae
Marang
Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco
JOHEY OAK

Scientific names Common names
Artocarpus mutabilis Becc. Marang (Tag., Sulu)
Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco Loloi (Tag.)
Artocarpus tarap Becc. Johey oak (Engl.)
  Terap (Engl.)
Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Benturung, Jarap hutan.
INDONESIA: Pelah, Kiran, Kian, Kiang, Da'eng, kegheng, Monyet hutan.
MALAYSIA: Tarap, Terap.
THAILAND: Khanun sampalor.

Botany
Marang is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 18 to 25 meters, sometimes with low buttresses. Twigs are 4 to 10 millimeters thick, with long, yellow to red, spreading hair and stipule-scar rings. Leaves are alternate, ovate, 7- to 9-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, glossy, dark green above, green below, stiff and petioled. Inflorescences occur in the leaf axils. Male flowers are minute, in stiff spikes. Female flowers are in conical heads. Fruit is subglobose, up to 20 centimeters in diameter, green yellow, densely covered with stiff, hairy processes about 1 centimeter long, borne at the end of long flexible branches, with a mass of seeds embedded in pulp. Fruit flesh is white, edible, juicy, and fragrant but strong-smelling edible pulp.

Distribution
- Abundant in Mindanao, cultivated for its edible fruit.
- Also occurring in Mindoro, Basilan, and the Sulu Archipelago.
- Probably introduced from Borneo.
- In Borneo, common in the wild state.
- Usually cultivated for its edible fruit.

Constituents
- Fruit is 24 to 33% of fresh fruit weight; 100 g of edible portion yields water 65.7 to 84.2 g, protein 0.8 to 1.47 g, fat 0.2 to 0.3 g, carbohydrates 32.4 g, ash 0.5 to 0.8 g, fiber 0.6 to 0.77g, calcium 17 mg, phosphorus 35 mg, iron 2.1 mg and vitamin C 30 mg. (6)
- Crude protein from the seeds is higher than that found in other fruits.

- Study yielded a prenylated pyranoflavone derivative, artosimin.
- Dichloromethane extract of Artocarpus odoratissimus afforded ß-sitosterol and squalene, and unsaturated fatty acids from the flesh of the fruit and seeds; and ß-sitosterol, unsaturated fatty acids and hydrocarbons from the fruit rind. (5)
- Analysis of minerals in flesh and seed yielded (in mg/100g): Potassium 176-298 (F), 352-443 (S); magnesium 15-31 (F), 103-132 (S); sodium 1.1-1.7 (F), 0.9-3.8 (S); calcium 0.5-1.4 (F), 1.5-3.0 (S); iron 0.3-0.5 (F), 0.8-1.2 (S); nickel 0.01-0.06 (F), 0.13-0.29 (S); cobalt 0.11-0.26 (F), 0.10-0.15 (S); manganese 0.02-0.93 (F), 0.27-8.64 (S); copper 0.39-0.67 (F),0.58-0.83 (S); zinc 0.17-0.45 (F), 0.71-1.83 (S); cadmium 0.0104-0.0149 (F), 0.0125-0.0172 (S). (8)
- Proximate composition of flesh nutrient per 100g yielded: Moisture (%) 67.9-73.4; ash 0.6-0.8 g; carbohydrate 12.0-25.2 g; protein 1.31-1.52 g; fiber 0.90-1.13 g; fat 0.2-0.3 g (wet basis), energy 90.7-100.6 kcal. (8)


Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is esteemed for its sweet, juicy, aromatic perianths surrounding the seeds. with a flavor similar to jackfruit. Used as ingredient for cakes.
- Seeds are roasted or boiled, yielding a delicious nutty flavor.
- Young fruit also cooked in coconut milk and eaten as curried vegetable.
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Ibans in Sarawak drink root decoction for diarrhea. Ash from leaves applied on scorpion stings and centipede bites. Mixed with a little coconut oil, the ash is used for scabies and kuris.
(6)
Others
- Ritual:
In the Iban community in Sarawak, leaves are hang on the door to drive away evil spirits from entering the premises to steal men's testicles. (6)


Studies
Artosimin / Anticancer / Antioxidant::
Study yielded a new prenylated pyranoflavone derivative, artosimin, together with traxateryl acetate. Artosimin was found to be significantly cytotoxic against cancer cell lines (HL60 and MCF7)and also showed to have strong antioxidant property on the DPPH assay.  (2)
Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the flesh, kernel and peel from M. pajang and seed and flesh from A. odoratissimus for total antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins contents. The phytochemical and antioxidant properties of M. pajang and A. odoratissimus, especially their kernel/seed by-products indicate they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidant-rich nutraceuticals. (4)
Antioxidant / Flesh and Seed: Study investigated the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of two fruits endemic to Borneo Island: Mangifera pajang (bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (tarap). The kernel of M. pajang extract displayed strongest antioxidant activity as assessed DPPH and FRAP assays, followed by M. pajang peel, A. odoratissmus seed, M. pajang flesh and A. odoratissmus flesh. (7)
Adaptogenic / Seed: Study evaluated dried seed extract of Artocarpus odoratissimus for adaptogenic activity using anoxic tolerance test with male Albino mice. Extract prolonged the time of convulsion and minimized the increase of biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides). Results suggest the seed extract may be explored as an adaptogenic agent. (9)
Artosimin / Antimicrobial / Seed Oil: Study yielded a new prenylated pyranoflavone derivative, artosimin. Artosimin exhibited significant cytotoxicity against HL60 and MCF7 cancer cell lines.
• Antiangiogenic Effect: Study evaluated crude leaf extracts of Artocarpus odoratissimus and A. heterophyllus (jackfruit) for angiogenic activity using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay on 12-day old duck embryo. Both plants showed antiangiogenic activity as evidenced by a decrease in number of collaterals. A 300ppm dose of A. odoratissimus exhibited highest inhibitory effect which was attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, sterols, tannins and anthocyanins. (12)
• Friedelinol / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study isolated friedelinol (triterpene) from leaf extracts of Artocarpus odoratissimus. The compound showed moderate toxicity against brine shrimp A. salina with LC50 of 48.39 ppm. (13)
• Biosorbent / Methylene Blue and Methyl Violet / Skin: Study of Artocarpus odoratissimus skin showed great potential as an effective low cost biosorbent for toxic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet 2B (MV). (14)
• Adsorption Characteristics / Crystal Violet / Leaves: Study reports on the use of A. odoratissimus leaves as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic crystal violet (CV) dye. Langmuir was the best fit isotherm model. The adsorbent showed potential to be regenerated and reused, maintaining high absorption of CV even after four consecutive cycles. (15)
• Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye / Skin: Study reports on the feasibility of utilizing A. odoratissimus skin as a potential adsorbent for removal of crystal violet dye. The dye showed strong affinity toward the adsorbent, which is enhanced upon treatment with a NaOH solution. Based on thermodynamic parameters, the sorption of CV dye is a spontaneous and endothermic process. (18)
• Modification of Skin for Enhancement of Adsorption Capacity toward Toxic Malachite Green Dye: Study modified the surface of A. odoratissimus skin to more efficiently attract malachite green dye molecules. Results showed increase in maximum adsorption capacity of chemically modified TS (Tarap skin) compared to untreated TS. (19)
• Potential Source of Sugar / Fruit: Study suggests marang fruit is a potential source of an alternative to expensive commercial sugar. Researcher suggested further studies. (16)
• Alternative Source of Flour / Seeds: Study evaluated the potential for seeds as alternative source of commercial flour. Seeds, preferably fresh, were gathered from marang, and soaked in water for at least 5 minutes, then dried for 20-30 minutes. Preliminary results suggest a product comparable to commercial flour. (17)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.


Last Update January 2017
March 2012


IMAGE SOURCE: Artocarpus odoratissimus leaves and fruit from Kutai Barat, East Kalimantan, Indonesia / File:Arto odor F 070202 ipe.jpg / W. A. Djatmiko / February 2007 / GNU Free Documentation/ Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: PI 560976 Artocarpus odoratissimus HART 64 / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Artocarpus odoratissimus / AgroForestryTree Database
(2)
Artosimmin- A Potential Anti-Cancer Lead Compound from Artocarpus odoratissimus / Gwendoline C.L. Ee,Siow H. Teo,Mawardi Rahmani,Chan K. Lim,Yang M. Lim,Choon F.J. Bong / Letters in Organic Chemistry, Vol 7, No 3
(3)
Artocarpus kemando and Artocarpus odoratissimus - two potential anticancer agents against LH60 and MCF7 cancer cell lines / 16th Malaysia Chemical Congress 2010.
(4)
Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different parts of bambangan (Mangifera pajang) and tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus) / Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Asmah Rahmat, Jeffrey Fry / Food Chemistry, 04/2009 / DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.081
(5)
Chemical Constituents of Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus odoratissimus./ Consolacion Y Ragasa*, Vincent Antonio Ng, Jea Hun Park, Dong Woo Kim, Kimberly Cornelio, and Chien-Chang Shen / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
(6)
Artocarpus odoratissimus / T. K. Lim / Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits
By T. K. Lim / DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2534-8_45 / Google Books
(7)
Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties of selected fruits endemic to Borneo: investigation on Mangifera pajang and Artocarpus odoratissimus / Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly (2010) / Nottingham eTheses
(8)
Proximate analysis of Artocarpus odoratissimus (Tarap) in Brunei Darussalam / *Tang, Y. P., Linda, B. L. L. and Franz, L. W. / International Food Research Journal 20(1): 409-415 (2013)
(9)
Adaptogenic activity of marang Artocarpus odoratissimus (blanco 1837) seed extract in male albino mice by anoxic tolerance test / Evander O. Buhisan, Tisha Grace L. Marquez / Herdin Record #: R07-USC-14031717022380
(10)
Artocarpus odoratissimus / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
ARTOCARPUS ODORATISSIMUS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF GLUTEN / Dindo S. Premacio II, Clem Carlo Clemena, Van Melbert Pongase, Kent Henry Engracia / An Investigatory ProjectPresented to theFaculty of Research StudiesOzamiz City National High School Science and technology Implementing High School, Ozamiz City, Philippines
(12)
A comparative study on the angiogenic effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Langka) and Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco (Marang) crude leaf extracts on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 12-day old duck embryo / Maurice Olivier M. Baylan, Charles Cedric P. Antolin and Airill L. Mercurio* / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (6):54-58
(13)
ISOLATION AND MS STUDY OF FRIEDELINOL FROM THE LEAVES OF TERAP (ARTOCARPUS ODORATISSIMUS BLANCO) / *ERWIN, SRI SULISTYANINGSIH AND IRAWAN W.KUSUMA / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2015 Jan; 6(1): (P) 598 - 604
(14)
Artocarpus odoratissimus skin as a potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue and methyl violet 2B / Linda B.L. Lima, Namal Priyanthab, Chieng Hei Inga, Montri Suklueng / Desalination and water treatment 53(4) · October 2013 / DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2013.852136
(15)
Adsorption characteristics of Artocarpus odoratissimus leaf toward removal of toxic Crystal violet dye: Isotherm, thermodynamics and regeneration studies / Linda B. L. Lim,* Namal Priyantha, Hui Hsin Cheng, Nur A qah Hazirah, Mohamad Zaidi / Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 32-40, 2016
(16)
Production of Sugar from Marang Fruit
(17)
Marang seeds as an alternative source of commercial flour (Artocarpus odoratissimus) / Fahad Silongan
(18)
Adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto chemically treated Artocarpus odoratissimus skin: equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics studies / Linda B.L. Lim, Namal Priyantha, Tasneem Zehra, Cheow Wei Then & Chin Mei Chan / Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 57, 2016 - Issue 22 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1033474
(19)
Chemical Modification of Artocarpus odoratissimus Skin for Enhancement of their Adsorption Capacities toward toxic Malachite Green Dye / L. B. L. Lim*, N. Priyantha, N. A. H. Mohamad Zaidi, U. A. N. Jamil, H. I. Chieng, T. Zehra and A. Liyandeniya / J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 7 (9) (2016) 3211-3224

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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