Melendres is a shrub growing up to 3 meters or less in height. Branches are slender, 4-angled, and narrowly winged. Leaves are entire, stalkless, obovate, elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Flowers are white, pink or purplish, about 4 centimeters in diameter, borne on small, terminal panicles. Capsules are globose-ovoid, about 1 centimeter long.
- Cultivated in Manila and neighboring towns for ornamental purposes.
- Nowhere spontaneous.
Native of China.|
- Now planted in most warm and tropical regions.
- Biocolorants isolated from the fruits were found to be quercetin and apigenin.
- Study isolated two new biphenylquinolizidine alkaloids, 5-epi-dihydrolyfoline and its sterioisomer, dihydrolyfoline, along with lagerine, from the aerial parts of L. indica. (2)
- Aqueous methanol leaf extract yielded 2 natural products for the first time—brevifolin (15) and decarboxy ellagic acid (21) together with known polyphenolics: p-methoxy gallic acid methyl ester (1); Gallic acid (2); 3-O-methylgallate (3); Tellimagrandin (4); Nilocitin (5); 1,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-4 C 1 -glucopyranose (6); 2,3-hexahydroxydip-henic acid-α/β-glucoside (7); Isovitexin (8); Vitexin (9); Iso-orientin (10); Orientin (11); Astralagin (12); Rutin (13); Apigenin-7-O-4 C 1 -β-D-glucoside (14); Catechin (16); Epicatechin (17); Luteolin-7-O-4 C 1 -β-D-glucoside (18); 3-methoxyellagic acid (19); Ellagic acid (20); Apigenin (22); Kaempferol (23); Luteolin (24) and Quercetin (25) (See study below) (9)
- Aerial parts of L. indica yielded four new biphenyl and biphenyl ether quinolizidine N-oxide alkaloids, 5-epi-dihydrolyfoline N-oxide (1), decamine N-oxide (2), lagerstroemine N-oxide (3), and lagerine N-oxide (4). (10)
- Leaf analysis yielded protein 22.53, carbohydrate 37.25, and ash contents 12.23 g% on dry wt. basis. (1)
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded terpenoids, tannins, deoxysugars, saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids.
(see study below) (13)
- Considered astringent, insecticidal, purgative, febrifuge, stimulant.
- Root considered detoxicant, diuretic and astringent.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombin, insecticidal,
Roots, bark, leaves, flowers.
- In India, decoction of roots considered astringent, used as gargle.
- Roots, leaves and flowers are purgative.
- Bark used as febrifuge and stimulant.
- Decoction of flowers used for treatment of colds. Flower paste applied to wounds and cuts. (12)
- Charcoal made from it used in Japan for thickening laquer.
• Phytochemicals: High content of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium and sulfur present in the leaf. Study yielded alkaloids in high concentration, followed by tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, sterols, triterpenes and anthraquinones reducing compounds. (see constituents above) (1)
• Biphenylquinolizidine Alkaloids / Aerial Parts:Study yielded two new biphenylquinolizidine alkaloids, 5-epi-dihydrolyfoline and its sterioisomer, dihydrolyfoline along with lagerine, from the aerial parts of L. indica. Study evaluated the inhibitory effects of isolated compounds on rat lens aldose reductase. (2)
• Antithrombin: L. indica was one of seven of 30 plants of central Florida studied for antithrombin activity. In the bioassay used, the seven demonstrated activity of 80% or higher. (3)
• Natural Colorants: Biocolorants isolated from the fruits were found to be quercetin and apigenin. The dry samples exhibited good colour fastness to washing and perspiration. The colorants showed a potential source as dye for textile dyeing. (4)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of LI on lung inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. The LI extract inhibited increased cytokine concentrations, significantly inhibited leucocytosis and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples, and inhibited the increase in mucus secretion by goblet cells. Results suggest the LI extract may be used as a valuable agent for treating allergic diseases such as asthma due to its anti-inflammatory property. (5) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of L. indica on airway inflammation in mice. Results showed inhibition of cytokine concentrations and suggests a potential agent for the treatment of allergic diseases such as asthma. (14)
• Insecticidal: The insecticidal activity of 14 varieties of Chinese plants were screened through diet-incorporated method against the larvae of Helicovepa armigera. The inhibition rate of Lagerstroemia indica was the highest among the treatments. (6)
• Biologic Activities: Aqueous methanol leaf extracts from two extraction methods (A & B) showed significant activities viz. anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective. Extract B showed ore antihyperglycemic activity. (9)
• Biphenyl and Biphenyl Ether Quinolizidine N-oxide Alkaloids: Four new biphenyl and biphenyl ether quinolizidine N-oxide alkaloids. (See constituents above) The inhibitory effects of isolated compounds on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) were examined. (10)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of L. indica and Annona reticulata against human bacterial pathogens viz., K. pneumonia, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. vulgaris, and P. aeruginosa. Results showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against the test bacterial pathogens. (13)
- Seeds in the cybermarket.