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Family Ochnaceae
Mickey mouse bush
Ochna serrulata Walp.

MICKEY MOUSE PLANT

Scientific names  Common names
Ochna serrulata (Hochst.) Walp. Bird's eye bush (Engl.)
Ochna atropurpurea sensu Harv. non Dc. Bird's eye plant (Engl.)
  Carnival bush (Engl.) 
  Carnival ochna (Engl.)
  Mickey mouse bush (Engl.) 
  Mickey mouse plant (Engl.) 
  Small-leaved plane (Engl.)
Ochna serrulata Walp. is an accepted name. The Plant List
Bird's eye bush is a common name shared by both Ochna kirkii and Ochna serrulata.
Mickey mouse plant is a common name shared by (1) Ochna serrulata and (2) Solanum mammosum, utong.

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Fynblaarrooihout.
FINNISH: Kiiltomikinpensas.
ZULU: Umbomvane

Gen info
- Etymology: Ochna, of Greek origin from the word Ochne means 'wild pear'; serrulata, of Latin origin from the word serrula means 'little saw' referring to the fine-toothed margins of the leaves.
- Taxonomy: Ochna serrulata was first described by German naturalist Christian Ferdinand Friedrich Hochstetter, and Its binomial name was given by Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers.
- Ochna serrulata, from the family Ochnaceae, is one of the 86 species of Ochna shrub and trees. It is similar to Ochna kirkii, also called Mickey Mouse plant, which has larger and rounder leaves and larger flowers.

Botany
Ochna serrulata is a shrub that grows up to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are simple, alternate, narrow-elliptic, up to 5 centimeters long, with finely serrate margins; blade is stiff and dark shiny green. Flowers are large, up to 4 centimeters across, with yellowish green and persistent sepals, turning red in fruits; petals are yellow and 5-lobed; stamens are many. Fruit is an enlarged red receptacle.

Distribution
- Native to South Africa.
- Considered an invasive weed in some parts of Australia and New Zealand.
- In temperate regions, grown as greenhouse ornamental.
- Planted in Philippine gardens; not widespread.

Constituents
- Study of methanol extract of pulverized roots yielded three new biflavonoids, viz., 4,4′,7-tri-O-methylisocampylospermone A (1), 4′′′-de-O- methylafzelone A (2) and serrulone A (3), along with irisolone 4′-methyl ether (4), 3',4'-dimethoxy- 6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone (5), iriskumaonin 3′-methyl ether (6), lophirone L (7), a mixture of biflavanone 1 and campylospermone A, syringaresinol (8), and 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (9). (see study below) (9)

Properties
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, non-mutagenic properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, roots, fruit.

Uses
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, bark or root use for wound treatment; also, applied for pain relief.
- Zulu people of South Africa use the decoction of roots to treat children suffering from bone diseases or gangrenous proctitis. (2)

Studies
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity and number of antibacterial compounds in acetone leaf extracts of five Ochna species against S. aureus, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. The order of activity of the species to the tested organisms was O. pretoriensis > O. pulchra > O. gamostigmata > O. serrulata > O. natalitia. (5)
Non-Mutagenic: Five Ochna species, including Ochna serrulata, were evaluated for cytotoxicity in monkey kidney (Vero) cells, human hepatocellular carcinoma (C3A) cells and bovine dermis cells using the mitochondrial viability MTT assay. The plant extracts were relatively cytotoxic but not genotoxic.(6)
Biflavonoids: Phytochemical investigation yielded a number of new biflavonoids. Isolated compounds were evaluated for antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. (7)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Screening of extracts and fractions showed significant antioxidant activity on DPPH and reducing assays. Ochna serrulata also demonstrated slight toxic activity against Artemia sauna and potential inhibitory allelopathic activity on Lactuca sativa seed germination test. Partitioning of an EA fraction yielded epicatechin, which showed potential antioxidant activity. (8)
• Antimalarial Biflavonoids / Roots: Study of pulverized roots yielded three new bioflavonoids along with six known compounds. Study evaluated a methanol extract of pulverized roots got antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resiztant strains of Plasmodium falcifarum (FCR-3). Study Compound 1 showed antimalarial activity with IC50 11.46 µM. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed antimalarial activity with IC50s of 38.43, 26.52, and 40.72 µM, respectively. The compounds showed not cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines tested. (see constituents above) (9)

Availability
Cultivated.


Updated March 2019 / January 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / File:Starr 080313-3391 Ochna serrulata.jpg / P Ochna serrulata (sepals green fruit and leaves). Location: Maui, Kula Experimental Station / Attribution: Forest & Kim Starr / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license / Click on image to go to source page ./ Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ochna serrulata Walp. / Synonym / The Plant List
(2)
Ochna serrulata / A Database of Indigenous South African Flora / Kumbula Indigenous Nursery
(3)
|
Harnessing the healing properties of medicinal plants / Dr. Monica Ndoile
(4)
Ochna serrulata (Mickey Mouse Bush) / Ten Random Facts
(5) /
Five Ochna species have high antibacterial activity and more than ten antibacterial compounds / Tshepiso J. Makhafola and Jacobus N. Eloff / S Afr J Sci 2012; 108 (1/2)
(6)
In vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of five Ochna species (Ochnaceae) with excellent antibacterial activity
/ Tshepiso J. Makhafola, Lyndy J. McGaw, , Jacobus N. Eloff / South African Journal of Botany, Volume 91, March 2014, Pp 9–13 / doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.11.010
(7)
Structure, Activity and Synthesis of Bioflavonoids from Ochna serrulara (Hochst.) Walp.
/ F. R. van Heerden, M. M. Ndoile, Y. Ding / Bi-national Organic Chemistry Conference 2014
(8)
Antioxidant, Allelopathic and Toxic Activity of Ochna serrulata / Guilherme Colla, Mariana Andrade Silva, Gustavo Silva Queiroz, Llenes M C Brighente / LATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, May 2011; 30(4): pp 809-813

(9)
Antimalarial Biflavonoids from the Roots of Ochna serrulata (Hochst.) Walp / Monica M. Ndoile and Fanie R. Van Heerden / International Research Journal of Pure & Applied Chemistry, 2018; 16(4): pp 1-9


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