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Family Zingibereaceae
Milk thistle
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Da ji

Scientific names Common names
Cardus lactifolius Stokes Blessed milk thistle (Engl.)
Cardus mariae Crantz Holy thistle (Engl.)
Cardus marianus L. Lady's thistle (Engl.)
Cardus versicolor Salisb. Mediterranean milk thistle (Engl.)
Carthamus maculatus (Scop.) Lam. Mary thistle (Engl.)
Centaurea dalmatica Fraas Milk thistle (Engl.)
Circium maculatum Scop. Saint Mary's thistle (Engl.)
Mariacantha maculosa Bubani. Scotch thistle (Engl.)
Mariana lactea Hill Spotted thistle (Engl.)
Mariana mariana Hill Variegated thistle (Engl.)
Silybum intermedium Willk.  
Silybum leucanthum Jord. & Fourr.  
Silybum maculatum (Scop.) Moench  
Silybum mariae (Crantz) Gray  
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.  
Silybum pigmaeum Cass.  
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Da ji, Shui fei ji (seeds).
FRENCH: Chardon-Marie, Silybe de Marie,
HINDI: Doodh patra.
SPANISH: Cardo de Maria, Cardo lechero, Cardo mariano, Cardo santo.

Gen info
- The "giant thistle of the Pampas" reported by Darwin in the Voyage of the Beagle is thought to be Silybum marijuana. (1)
- Originally grown in souther Europe and Asia, it is now found throughout the world. Milk thistle has been used for medicinal purposes for over 2000 year, commonly for treatment of liver diseases or protection of the liver from toxic substances.

Milk thistle is an upright herb with a conical shape that can grow up to 2 meters tall, with a maximum base diameter of 160 cm. Stem is grooved, hollow in large specimens, and may be covered with a light cottony fuzz. Leaves are large and variegated, shiny green, oblong to lanceolate, 15-60 cm long, typically pinnately lobed, with spiny edges like most thistles, hairless, with milk thistle veins. Flower heads are red purple, 4-12 cm long and wide, surrounded by bracts which are hairless, with triangular, spine-edged appendages, tipped with a stout yellow spine. Fruits are black achenes with a single long white pappus—acting as a "parachute", which supports seed dispersal by wind—surround by a yellow basal ring. (1)

- Introduced.
- Originally native to southern Europe and Asia, now found throughout the world.

- Reported as a highly invasive weed as far back as the 1800s.
- It invades pastures, and once established eliminates other plant species and hinder movement of livestock and people. (2)

- Seeds yield many compounds such as silibin, silibinin A and B,silicristin, silidianin, apigenin, dehydrosilybin, deoxysilyn cristin, deoxysilyn dianin, among others. (5)
- Extract of dried seed yields up to 4% silymarin, which is a combination of flavonoids such as silibinin A and B, silidianin, silicristin, and dihydroxysilibin. Other flavonolignans present in the plant extract include sylandrin, silybinom, silyhermin, and myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids which may have hepatoprotective properties. (5)
- HPLC study revealed marker constituents, namely: taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silibinin A, silibinin B, dehydrosilibinin, isosilibinin A, and isosilibinin B.
- Study for seed oil using capillary GLC and HPLC yielded oil rich in linoleic acid (53.3%) and oleic acid (21.3%). HPLC detected five major triacylglycerols containing linoleic acyls, namely: LLL, LLO, LLP, LOO and LOP. Total tocopherol content was 260 ppm. The oil contained alpha-tocopherol as a major constituent (84.5%), resembling sunflower oil. Sterols included campesterol, 5-stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, 7-stigmasterol, avenasterol, and spinasterol.  (30)

- Considered antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anticancer, antihypertensive, antihypercholesterolemic, and antiviral.
- Studies have suggested hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, analgesic, antifibrotic, antibacterial, anti-COVID-19, antioxidant, antidiabetic, tyrosinase-inhibitory, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-echinococcus, anticancer, anti-Candida, anticariogenic properties.

Parts used
Seeds (fruit)


- Young stalks, leaves, roots and flowers can be eaten. Roots and leaves can be eaten raw or cooked, but for leaves, the sharp leaf-spines must first be removed. Flower buds can be cooked. Stems can be eaten raw or cooked. Stems can be eaten raw or cooked, but best when peeled, and soaking recommended to reduce bitterness.
- Cooked leaves make a good spinach substitute.
- Roasted seeds used as coffee substitute.
- In Israel, young fleshy stems traditionally eaten by Arab sector.
- Sprouts are edible. (see study below)  (34)
- A medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years.
- Used in the treatment of jaundice, liver and gall bladder diseases.
- Used for kidney problems, rheumatism, gastronomic disturbances, and cardiac disorders.
- Used as galactagogue.
- Fuel: Seed oil has potential as new non-edible feedstock for biodiesel.  (see study below) (33)
- Fodder: Under cultivation, it is grown as an animal crop.

Toxicity concerns, side effects, interactions
- Milk thistle based supplements have been found to have high mycotoxin concentrations of up to 37 mg/kg compared to plant-based dietary supplements.
- Toxicity to cattle and sheep is attributed to its nitrate content. When potassium nitrate is eaten by ruminants, it is broken down by bacteria in the animal
's stomach to produce nitrite ions, which combine with hemoglobin to produce methemoglobin, which blocks the transport of oxygen, resulting in oxygen deprivation. (1)
- It can cause allergic reactions, Risks may be higher with a history of allergy to other plants in the same family, such as: ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and daisies.  (36)
- Milk thistle may lower blood sugar. If you are diabetic discuss your use of the supplement with your physician.
- Likewise, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should discuss supplement use with their healthcare provider.

Review summarizes high-quality publications related to pharmacologic effects and mechanisms of actions. It has been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic effects among others. It is reported to counter the toxicities of antibiotics, metals, and pesticides. Review discussed potential, perspectives and insights for its application for the development of new drugs. (5)
Silymarin: Seeds and fruits of Silybum marianum contain a flavonolignsn
complex called silymarin, with active compounds including silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, dihydrosilybin, silydianin, among others. Silymarin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract reaching maximum blood concentration after 2 to 4 hours, with a half-life excretion of 6 hours. Eighty percent of the drug is excreted in the bile. Bioavailability depends on the type of formulation. (5)
Hepatoprotection: Its use as hepatoprotective dates back to 2000 years ago. Studies have shown the plant to protect the liver from toxicities resulting from toxins such as carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen, and tetrachloromethane. (5)
Beyond Hepatoprotection / Review: The plant has long been used as a hepatoprotective remedy for liver conditions characterized by functional impairment or degenerative necrosis. Its mechanisms of activity is varied,: antioxidant,, anti-inflammatory, cell permeability regulator and membrane stabilizer, stimulation of liver regeneration and inhibition of deposition of collagen fibers, which may lead to cirrhosis. Recent studies have suggested renal protective, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective properties. (5)
Antidiabetic / Clinical Trial: A 4-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 51 patients with type-II diabetes. One group received silymarin (200 mg) tablets 3 times daily plus conventional therapy while the other group received placebo tablets. Results showed a significant decrease in HbA1c, FBS, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, SGOT and SGPT levels in silymarin-treated patients. (6)
Hypoglycemic / Type 1 Diabetes Model / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of Fraxinus excelsior and Silybum marianum in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed the extracts exhibited potent hypoglycemic and anti-hypoglycemic activities without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations. (7)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder / VS Fluoxetine / Aerial Parts: Study compared the efficacy of the extract of S. marianum with fluoxetine in the treatment of OCD in an 8-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. The minimum score of Yale-Brown Scale for OCD was 21 for all patients. Results showed no significant difference between the extract and fluoxetine. There was also no observed difference in side effects. (8)
ZnO Nanoparticles / Antidiabetic / Antibacterial / Seeds: Study reports on the green eco-friendly microwave-assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using S. marianum seed extract. The ZnONP showed good antidiabetic activity with a major fall in fasting blood sugar and rise in HDL levels in diabetic rats and good antibacterial activity against E. coli. (9)
Silymarin in CCl4-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated ethyl acetate and ethanol seed extracts of S. marianum were tested against injections of carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Activity was compared with standard hepatic drug hepaticum. The ethanolic extract showed the most significant decrease in liver enzymes. For oxidative experiments, the ethyl acetate extract showed the most increase in glutathione level and risk factor HDL/LDL significantly. Hepaticum showed most significant decrease for malondialdehyde and fucosidase activity. (10)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Antifungal / Fruit: Study evaluated ethanol, methanol, and dichlormethane extracts of fruits fro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results showed high antioxidant activity Extracts showed more activity against gram negative bacteria, and showed activity against Candida species. (11)
Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity / Antimelanogenesis / Flavonolignans / Seeds: Studies have reported the anti-melanogenesis effects of silimaryin from milk thistle evaluated the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of flavonolignans of S. marianum. Study substantiated tyrosinase inhibition and its mechanism. The responsible components for tyrosinase inhibition were flavonolignans, namely: isosilybin A (1), isosilybin B (2), silydianin (3), 2,3-dihydrosilychristin (4), silvchristin A (5), silvchristin B (6) and silybin (7). The isolated flavonolignans (1-7) significantly inhibited both monophenolase and diphenolase of tyrosinase. Inhibitions were 10-fold more effective compared to mother skeletons (8-10). The isolated inhibitory compounds were found to be the most abundant metabolites in the target plant. (12)
Effect on Pharmacokinetics/ of Irinotecan: Silybin, a principle constituent of milk thistle, significantly inhibits cytochrome P450 isoform 3A5 (CYP3A4) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase isoform 1A1 (UGT1A1) in vitro. Study evaluated whether S. marianum affects the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan, a substrate for CYP3A4 and UGT1A1 in humans. Results showed silybin concentrations after intake of milk thistle are too low to significantly affect the function of the enzymes, indicating milk thistle is unlikely to alter the deposition of anticancer drugs metabolized by these enzymes. (13)
Anti-COVID-10 Infection / Silybin: In a study of 30 plants screen for phytochemicals, Silybin, an active constituent found Silybum marianum exhibited higher binding capacity with targets SARS-Cov-2 in comparison to currently used repurposed drugs against SARS-Cov-2. Other plant compounds viz. Withania somnifera (Withaferin A), Tinospora cordifolia (Cordioside), and Aloe barbadensis (Catechin and Quercetin) also exhibited higher binding energetics than widely used hydroxychloroquine and other repurposed drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19. (15)
Gastrointestinal Absorption of Flavonolignans / Membrane Permeability: Study evaluated the gastrointestinal absorption of natural flavonolignans from Silybum marianum by combine in vitro and in silico methods. A parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used to evaluate the transcellular permeability of the plant main compounds. Results showed most flavonolignans were highly permeable in the gastrointestinal tract, which is a prerequisite for sufficient bioavailability and use as lead structures in drug development. (16)
Antidiabetic Effects Before Insulin Therapy / Seed: / Clinical Trial: Most uncontrolled type-II diabetic patients prefer to continue oral therapy or alternative treatments such as herbal therapy instead of insulin therapy. Study evaluated the effects of Silybum marianum seed extract on glycemic control in type II diabetic patients who are candidates for insulin therapy. A 2-month clinical trial was done on two groups of patients: one group received silymarin tablets 200 mg 3x daily plus standard therapy, while a control group received placebo plus standard therapy. Results showed a significant decrease in HbA1c from 9.81 to 8.25 in the silymarin group, while the control group showed an increase from 9.83 to 10.21. There was also a drop i FBS, 2hr-ppbs, total cholesterol and LDL, and no significant change in the control group. Results suggest positive glycemic control effects as well as hypolipidemic effects in patients who need to be on insulin therapy. (17)
Silybin / Fruit: The main component of a fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan, silybin, It is also the most active ingredient of the extract. Since the 1970s, silybin has been considered a substance with hepatoprotective properties. Research has imbued it with many other healthy properties. This study focuses on the silybin molecule—its structure, chemistry, bioavailability, and metabolism. (18)
Anti-Echinococcosis / Scolicidal: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus larvae in liver and lungs of both humans and animals. Surgical intervention has been the mainstay of treatment. This in-vitro study evaluated the scolicidal effects of Silybum marianum ethanolic extracts and its combination with albendazole. HPLC analysis showed the main constituents of the ethanolic extract of S. marianum were silydianin (14.41%), isosilybin A (10.50&), and silychristin (10.46%). Results showed scolicidal activity in vitro. The highest scolicidal effects were obtained with a combination of S. marianum and albendazole (79%), the extract alone (77%), and albendazole (69%). (19)
Supportive Phototherapeutic Use in Oncology: The potential therapeutic use of Silymarin in cancer patients has drawn attention recently. Study reviews available information on the therapeutic effects of milk thistle in oncology patients and its potential as a supportive therapy either as an anticarcinogenic agent or as an agent that attenuates the side effects of oncological treatments. Evidence from clinical studies suggest it has mainly beneficial effects in hepatotoxicity and radiotherapy-induced skin and mucosa damage, especially for treatment of side effects of anticancer chemotherapeutics at dosages of 160-600 mg daily. (20) Silymarin (140 mg three times daily) has been found significantly effective in reducing pain and inflammation, enhancing antioxidant capacity and accelerating healing of ulcers in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. (22)
Efficacy on Liver Cirrhosis in Chronic Hepatitis B / : Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells. Study evaluated the efficacy of herbal medicine Khar maryam or silymarin on liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect. Patients treated with silymarin for 12 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased AST and ALT. (21)
Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Studies have suggested the positive roles of milk thistle in hepatoprotection and regeneration. Administration of 250 mg/kg of silybin was found to restore oxidant-antioxidant balance and reduce biomarkers of inflammation and immunomodulation in induced liver oxidative stress in rats. Silymarin promoted the hepatic generation of glutathione, which enhanced the antioxidant defense in the liver of mice models.. In humans, studies revealed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation in patients with alcoholic liver disease after administration of 450 mg/day of silymarin from dry fruit extract of the plant.
Anticariogenic: Following biofilm formation, gram negative bacteria were found to upregulate the inflammatory immune response thorough production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2. Silymarin can exert anti-inflammatory effect through alteration of the pathways of transcription factor NF-kB activation and translocation. Silymarin and silibinin (silybin A and B) were found to both exert antimicrobial actions against some cariogenic pathogens like C. albicans, E. faecalis, L. acidophilus, S. aureus, and S. mutans with silymarin showing higher efficacy at lower concentrations than silibinin. (22)
Effect on Oral Candidiasis: An invitro study has noted that silymarin at concentrations from 30 to 300 mg/ml can inhibit C. albicans cellular growth. It was found to have anti-virulence properties through downregulation of the involved gene in virulence, biofilm destabilization and inhibition of hydrolases secretion. Another study has shown inhibitory effects of milk thistle extract silibinin on C. albicans membrane damage and biofilm formation. (22)
Oral Cancer: Oral cancer is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide. Milk thistle has proven chemopreventive and anticancer effects in various cancers i.e., liver, lung, prostate, breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. In invivo and invitro studies, silymarin (silybin A and B, isosylibin A and B, silychristin, silydianin, taxifolin and apigenin 7-glucoside, equivalent to 45% silybin by weight) significantly inhibited cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis in different oral cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner Caspase 8 and death receptor 5 were possible mechanisms for apoptosis.  Silymarin also had effect on tumor size and growth suppression in mice without toxicity.  (22)
Preventive Effect on Galactose-Induced Cataract / Seeds: In diabetes, the oxygen free radical and reduced glutathione level are important risk factors for cataract formation. In the study,, Silybum marianum seed extract (silymarin) with its antioxidant property, increased cellular glutathione level and cellular membrane stabilizing properties was tested against development of galactose-induced cataract in male rats. In the silymarin treated group, all stages of cataract development were significantly delayed. The preventive effect may be due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, increased glutathione level and membrane stabilizing properties of the herbal medicine.  (23)
Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Effects: Study evaluated the effects of milk thistle extract on differentiation and survival of cultured neural cells. Milk thistle enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC-12 neural cells and prolonged their survival in culture. The extract also protected cultured rat hippocampal neurons against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Results demonstrated milk thistle can promote neuronal differentiation and survival.  (24)
Variable Silymarin Content in Commercial Tinctures: Silymarin, the active fraction of Silybum marianum tinctures, accounts for 70-80% of the plant's hydroalcoholic extract and extracts of a mixture of flavonolignans and a flavonoid. Studies have shown inconsistency in the therapeutic efficacy of Silybum marianum tinctures, which has been attributed to content variability of silymarin, resulting from lack of standardized and regulated manufacturing processes. Study quantified the silymarin content in commercial Silybum marianum tinctures and reported on the total silymarin content in 11 different commercial tinctures in the UK using commercial and accurate HPLC-UV method. There was significant variability between herb and liquid as well as percentage of ethanol used during the extraction process. Results showed a direct correlation between silymarin content in tinctures and alcohol strength. Silymarin could not be detected in tinctures extracted with 25% ethanol. Effective therapeutic doses were found in tinctures with concentration ratio of 1:1 herb to liquid and an alcohol content of 70%. To guarantee quality and safety of herbal medicinal products, legal requirements to produce plant-based products under regulatory frameworks are needed.  (25)
Vitiligo / Phototherapy Plus Silymarin / Clinical Trial: A double-blind, controlled randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of phototherapy plus oral Silybum marianum on the treatment of, skin lesions of vitiligo. Results in the mean VASI score showed a statistically significant decrease in both group—phototherapy plus Narrow-band UVB plus oral silymarin vs P+NBUVB + placebo—with more decrease in the silymarin group. Study suggest silymarin is probably a good choice for patients vitiligo, and recommends further studies. (26)
Hepatoprotective / Probable Synergism with Glycyrrhizin: Study evaluated the ability of silymarin (SLN) and glycyrrhizin (GLN) to lessen oxidative stress in rats with hepatic injury caused by carbon tetrachloride. Both significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Results showed both plants have hepatoprotective effects. Study also showed that SLN and GLN have marked hepatoprotective effects when used in combination at 200 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. (27)
Effect on Morphine Addiction / Compared to Naloxone: Study evaluated the effects of Silybum marianum in animals treated for morphine addiction compared to chemical drug Naloxone. Results showed treatment of addicted rats at dose of 400 mg/kg led to a major reduction in serum morphine compared to Naloxone. The extract also caused a significant reduction in MDA levels compared to control. The silymarin in milk thistle was more selective toward u-opioid receptor than morphine or Naloxone as a narcotic receptor antagonist.  (28)
Analgesic Effect / Possible Mechanisms: Study evaluated the analgesic effects of single and multiple-dose of IP administration of silymarin and the probable role of nitric oxide or opioid receptors using tail flick assay. Results showed only silymarin 100 mg/kg exhibited analgesic properties. Since naloxone did not change silymarin;s analgesic effect, study concludes that opioid receptors are not involved. In the presence of L-arginine, the analgesic effect of silymarin remained intact, but the involvement of the nitric oxide pathway is unclear. Results suggest an analgesic effect via other mechanisms, Possibly, it could be via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and neutrophil chemotaxis to inflammation location.  (29)
Flavonolignans Study on Dermal Delivery: Study evaluated flavonolignans interactions with human skin and potential for dermal delivery. HPLC determined the partition coefficients log of main constitutive flavonolignans, taxifolin and their derivatives. During transdermal transport, all the studied compounds permeated the human skin ex vivo; none reached the acceptor liquid. The polyphenols were divided into two groups: low (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin) vs high (silybin, dehydrosilybin, isosilybin) lipophilicity and skin intake. No dermal delivery differences could be provided for the compounds with very similar physico-chemical properties.  (31)
Silymarin Inhibition of Collagen Deposition in Biliary Fibrosis: Silymarin (SIL), a standardized extract containing about 60% polyphenol silibin, was evaluated in Wistar rats subjected to complete bile duct obstruction (BDO) by injection of sodium amidotrizoate (Ethibloc), which induces progressive portal fibrosis without significant inflammation. Untreated rats showed an almost 9-fold increase in total liver collagen, reduced total HYP (hydroxyproline). Study concludes SIL can ameliorate collagen accumulation even in advanced biliary fibrosis. PIIINP appears to be a suitable serum marker to monitor the inhibition of hepatic fibrogenesis in this model of biliary fibrosis.  (32)
Potential for Biodiesel: Study evaluated the alkaline transesterification of S. marianum seed oil to biodiesel using methanol and ethanol. Oil was extracted from the seeds, which contained 46% oil with low fatty acids (0.68%). Linoleic acid (65.68%) was the main component of the oil. Ultrasonification transesterification with methanol gave the highest yield (95.75%). Findings of the study complement the abundance of S. marianum oil at cultivation and silymarin industrial production as by-product suggests a potentially new non-edible feedstock for biodiesel.  (33)
Nutritional Potential of Sprouts: Study in Israel evaluated the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. Seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%) except for striated seeds. Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than from white ones. Results suggest milk thistle as a good source of healthy edible sprouts.  (34)
Potential for Marginal Agricultural Environments . Review: Silybum marianum is a versatile crop that has adopted to different soils and environmental conditions throughout all contents. The fruit (seeds) of the plant are the only reliable source of silymarin. which has been studied extensively and recognized for its potential and many therapeutic uses. Its potential for livestock feed can be a significant boon for enhancing and stabilizing farm income. It presents as a most interesting alternative crop, even for marginal environments. The review discusses issues on constraints and agronomic challenges, lack of field data on suitable cropping protocols. The review focused on updating information on morphological and phytochemical traits of the crop and agronomic characteristics and novel uses, and guidelines for farmers eager to cope with the cultivation of a challenging and resource-rich crop.(38)

- Wildcrafted.
- Capsules, tablets, powders and extracts in the cybermarket.


April 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Silybum marianum flowerhead by fir0002 flagstaffotos / GFDL 1.2 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration Silybum marianum by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thome / Public Domain / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Silydbum marianum / Wikipedia
Silybum marianum (Variegated thistle) / CABI
Health Benefits of Silybum marianum
: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Applications / Xin Wang, Zhen Zhang, Shuai-Cheng Wu / J Agric Food Chem, 2020; 68(42): pp11644-11664 .
DOI: 10.1021/acs.iafc.0c04791
Milk thistle / Mayo Clinic
Silybum marianum: Beyond Hepatoprotection / Mahmood Vahmani PhD, Hedayatollah Shirzad PhD, Samira Rafieiab et al / Journal of Evidence-Vased Integrative Medicine, /
DOI: 10.1177/2156587215571116
The effucact of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial / H Fallah Husseini, Mohsin Raza et al / Phytotherapy Research, 20(12)
Study of the hypoglycemic activity of Fraxinus exelsior and Silybum marianum in an animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus / M Maghrani, M Eddouks et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, April 2004; 91(2-3): pp 309-316 / DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.008

Comparison of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. with fluoxetin in the treatment of Obsesssive-Compulsive Disorder
/ Mehdi Sayyah, Alireza / Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 2010; 34(2): pp 362-365 / DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.12.015

A comprehensive study on antidiabetic and antibacterial activities of ZnO nanoparticles biosynthesized using Silybum marianum L. seed extract
/ Farid Mohammadi Arvanag, Shima Rahim Pouran et al / Materials Science and Engineering C, April 2019; Vol 97: pp 397-405 / DOI: 10.1916/j.msec.2018.12.058

Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum marianum extracts prevent liver damage
/ E Shaker, S Mnaa et al / Food and Chemical Technology, 2010; 48(3): pp 803-805 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.011
Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Extracts of Silybum marianum Collected from Duhok (Iraq) / Falah Saleh Mohammed, Mustafa Pehlivan, Mustafah Sevindik / International Journal of Secondary Metabolites / DOI: 10.21449/ijsm.581500

Tyrosinase inhibitory study of flavonolignans from the seeds of Silybum marianum (Milk thistle)
/ Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2019; 27(12): pp 2499-2507 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.03.013
Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) on the Pharmacokinetics of Irinotecan
/ Nielka P H van Erp, Sharyn D Baker, Hans Geiderblom et al / Clinical Cancer Research, 2006; 11(21): pp 7800-7806 /
DOI: 10.1159/1078-0432.CCR-05-1288
Silybum marianum / Plants of the World Online
In silico studies reveal potential antiviral activity of phytochemicals from medicinal plants for the treatment of OVID-19 infection / Mansi Pandit, N Latha / Research Square / DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-22687/v1
In vitro and in silico studies of the membrane permeability of natural flavonoids from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. and their derivatives / Antonia Diukendjieva, Liza Pajeva et al / Phytomedicine, 2019; Volume 53: pp 79-85 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.001
The Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Seed Extract on Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetic Patients Candidate for Insulin Therapy Visiting Endocrinology Clinic in Baqiyatallah Hospital in the Years of 2005 / M Ramizani, M Azarabadinet al / Plants, 2008; 7(26): pp 79-84 /
Silybin, a Major Bioactive Compound of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.)—Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism / Michal Bijak / Molecules, 2017; 22(11) / DOI:10.3390/molecules22111942

Silybum marianum ethanolic extract: in vitro effects on protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus G1 strain with emphasis on other Iranian medicinal plants
/ Ali Taghipour, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Zohreh Sharifi et al / Tropical Medicine and Health, 2021; 49, Art No 71 / DOI: 10.1186/s41182-021-00363-7

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) as a Supportive Phytotherapeutic Agent in Oncology
/ Frassoca Z Ruda-Kucerovaj / Klinicka Onkologie, 2017; 30(6): pp 426-432 / DOI: 10.14735/amko2017426 / PMID:29271213

The efficacy of herbal medicine Khar Maryam (Silybum marianum L. Baertn.) on liver cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients
/ H Fallah Huseini,,, S M Alavian et al / Plants, 2005; 4(S1): pp 1-6 /
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.): An overview about its pharmacology and medicinal uses with an emphasis on oral diseases / Aliaa Abdelmoniem Bedeir Eita / Journal of Oral Biosciences, 2022; 64(1): pp 71-76 / DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2021.12.005
The effect of herbal medicine Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. seed extract on galactos-induced cataract formation in rat / H Fallah Husseini, R Heshmat et al / Plants, 2004; 3(12): pp58-62

Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) on neurons in culture
/ Smita Kittur, Skuntala Wilasrusmee, Dilip S Kittur et al / Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2002; 18: pp 265-269 / DOI: 10.1385/JMN:18:3:265

Silymarin content in Silybum marianum extracts as biomarkers for the quality of commercial tinctures
/ Barbara A Pendry, Eva Galante et al / Journal of Herbal Me.07.001dicine, 2017; Vol 10: pp 11-16 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.hermed.2017

Can we consider silymarin as a treatment option for vitiligo? A double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial of phytotherapy plus oral Silybum marianum product versus phototherapy alone
/ Farideh Jowkar, Hamid Godarzi, Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi / Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 2020, 31(3) /
DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2019.1595506

Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy
/ Mahmood Rasool, Saijad Karim et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2014, Art ID 641597 /DOI:10.1155/2014/641597

Influence of silybum marianum on morphine addicted rats, biochemical parameters and molecular simulation studies on u-opiois receptor /
Rahime Eshaghi Malkshah, Ali Khaleghian / Drug Research, 2019; 69(11) / DOI:10.1055/a-0975-9124
Evaluation of nitric oxide or opioid receptors involcement in antinociceptive properties of silymarin
/ Mohsen Imenshahidi et al / AJP, 2(1): pp 39-45 /

Detailed studies on some lipids of Silybum marianum (L.) seed oil
/ M Hassan El-Mallah, Safinaz M El-Shami, Minar M Hassanein / Grasas u Aceites, 2003; 54(5) / DOI: 10.3989/gya.2003.v54i4

Dermal Delivery of Selected Polyphenols from Silybum marianum Theoretical and Experimental Study
/ Pavel Kosina et al / Molecules, 24(1) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules24010061
Silymarin retards collagen accumulation in early and advanced biliary cirrhosis secondary to complete bile duct obliteration in rats
/ H Boigk, L Stroedter, D Schuppan et al / Hepatology, 26(3): pp 643-640 /
DOI: 1using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method0.1002/hep.510260316

Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstoc for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method
/ Mohammed Takase, Xiangyang Wu / Fuel Processing Technology, 2014; Vol 123: pp 19-26 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.032
The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a soure of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants / Viftach Vaknin, Rivka Hadas, Dan Schafferman, Leonid Murkhovsky, Neta Bashan / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2008; 59(4) / / DOI: 10.1080/09637480701554095
Milk thistle: Silybum marianum / Edible Wild Food
Milk thistle / Health Encyclopedia

Interactions Between Antiretrovirals and Natural Health Products: 15.3.3 Milk Thistle
/ Christine Hughes, Sunita Vohra / Health of HIV infected people

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) as a Novel Multipurpose Crop for Agriculture in Marginal Environments
/ Roberto Marceddu, Lucia Dinolfo, Alessandra Carruba, Mauro Sarno, Giuseppe Di Miceli / Agronomy, 2022 / DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12030729

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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