stuart Mirasol / Helianthus annuus L. / SUN FLOWER: Philippine Medicinal Herbs / Philippine Alternative Medicine
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Family Asteraceae
Helianthus annuus
Zhang ju

Scientific names  Common names 
Helianthus annuus L. Mirasol (Tag., Span.) 
Helianthus aridus Rydb. Common sunflower (Engl.) 
Helianthus indicus L. Wild sunflower (Engl.) 
Helianthus jaegeri Heiser  
Helianthus lenticularis Douglas  
Helianthus macrocarpus DC.  
Helianthus macrocarpus DC. & A.DC.  
Helianthus multiflorus Hook.  
Helianthus ovatus Lehm.  
Helianthus platycephalus Cass.  
Helianthus tubaeformis Nutt.  
Helianthus annuus L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Abbad esh shams.
CHINESE: Zhang ju, Xiang ri kui.
DANISH: Solsikke.
DUTCH: Zonnebloem.
ESTONIAN: Harilik päevalill, Päevalill.
FINNISH: Auringonkukka, Auringon ruusu, Isoauringonkukka.
FRENCH: Soleil, Tournesol.
GERMAN: Echte Sonnenblume, Sonnenblume.
HINDI: Suryamuki.
HUNGARIAN: Napraforgó.
ITALIAN: Corona del sole, Girasole.
JAPANESE: Himawari, Koujitsuki.
KANNADA: Adityabhaki.
KOREAN : Hae ba ra gi.
MALAYALAM: Suryakanti, Suryappu.
NORWEGIAN: Solsikke, Solvendel.
POLISH: Slonecznik roczny, Slonecznik zwyczajny.
RUSSIAN: Podsolnechnik. Podsolnechnik maslichnyi.
SANSKRIT: Adityabhaki, Suryamuki.
SLOVENIAN: Navadna sonènica.
SPANISH: Mirasol, Girasol.
SWEDISH: Solros.
TAMIL: Suryakanti.
TURKISH: Gune bakan.


Gen info
- Name derives from the Greek work helios, meaning sun; and anthos, for flower.
- Although the sunflower seed is popularly used as a snack, salad garnish or bakery goods ingredient, it is cultivated for its seeds and harvested for oil production, ranking 4th globally (8% of 186 Mt oil in 2012) after palm (29%), soybean (22%) and oilseed rape (13%). (23)
- A 1975 study ranked it as one of the world's leading oilseed crops, second only to soybean oil in world vegetable oil production. It's high ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids and good stability make sunflower oil highly attractive for use as cooking oil, in salad oils and margarine. (33)
- Study presents data that demonstrates sunflower (H. annuus) entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 BC, that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico, extending as far south to El Salvador. It was well known to the Aztecs, and is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. (34)

Mirasol is a coarse, stout and erect annual plant, up to 1 to 3 meters high. Stems are straight, rarely branched. Leaves are opposite at the lower part of the stem, alternate above, ovate, rough, hairy, with toothed margins, long-stalked, 10 to 25 centimeters long. Lower leaves are somewhat heart-shaped. Flower heads are solitary or in clusters, up to 40 centimeters across, made up of 1,000 to 2000 individual flowers connected at a common receptacle. Disk flowers are yellow to brown, with tubular, 5-limbed corolla. Ray flowers are yellow and spreading. Involucral bracts are ovate or oblong.

- Introduced to the Philippines during the Spanish times.
- Cultivated for ornamental purposes and for its seeds.
- Profuse seasonal growth in certain places, like the Mountain Province.
- Planted in all warm countries.

- Plant contains an oleic acid and triacyl glycerol, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, fixed oils, phenolics.
- Oil contains 44-72% linoleic acid.
- Leaves contain a glucoside, C11H19N204.
- Flowers contain quercimeritrin, C21H20O12, a monoglucoside of quercetin; anthocyanin; and abundant amount of cholin and betain.
- Seeds contain 45 to 48 percent fixed oil.

- Aqueous and ethanol extracts yielded tannin+++, saponin+++, alkaloid+++, terpenoid++, flavonoid+++, glycoside+++, and phenolic compounds++ in varying concentrations. Quantitatively, study showed alkaloid 1.23%, glycosides 0.04%, saponin 1.46%, flavonoids 0.02%, terpenoids 0.64%, and phenolic compound 0.34%. (see study below) (20)
- Sunflower seed contains 35-42% oil, rich in linoleic acid (55-70%), and poor in oleic acid (20-25%). It is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 31.0%), compared to safflower 28.2%, sesame 25.5%, flax 22.3%, cottonseed 18.1%, peanut 13.1%, and soy 3.5%. (23)
- Sunflower seeds and sprouts have yielded flavonoids (heliannone, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), phenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylquinic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, coumaric, ferulic acid and sinapic acid). (23)
- On phytochemical analysis of leaves, the hexane fraction yielded glycosides and flavonoids, the chloroform fraction yielded saponins, tannins, and glycosides, while the methanol fraction yielded saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, and alkaloids. (see study below) (

- Seed considered diuretic and expectorant.
- Seeds and flowers considered febrifuge and stomachic.
- Also considered as aphrodisiac, emollient, anti-malarial and anti-cancer.
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, antiasthma, anti-diabetic, antidiarrheal, antihistamine, antioxidant, analgesic, phytoremediative properties.

Parts used
Seeds, flowers, roots, bark.

- Flower, seed, stem.
- Seeds, raw or cooked; difficult to use because of small size.
- Roasted seed used as coffee or chocolate substitute.
- The oil is low in cholesterol, considered olive-oil quality and used for salads and cooking.
- Disk of the flower-head can be eaten like an artichoke.

- Boiled flower heads once used by Amerindians for pulmonary affections.
- Tea from flowers, dried or fresh leaves is used for facilitating expectoration, relieving coughs, colds.
- For whooping cough, an infusion of the brown seeds, drink the tea 4 to 5 times daily.
- For asthma, an infusion of the leaves.
- Decoction of seeds used as diuretic and expectorant; used for bronchial and pulmonary affections, coughs and colds.
- An infusion of oven-browned seeds used for whooping cough.
- For diabetes, tea from decocted roots (10 gms to half a glass of water).
- When flowers and leaves are mixed with oil, let stand for 5-10 days before using.
- Seeds are diuretic, used to increase the flow of urine.
- The bark (boiled) and flowers (steeped) used for fevers, 3- 4 tbsp 3-4 times daily.
- Poultice of leaves used for sores, insect bites and snake bites.
- Elsewhere, flower decoction used for malaria and lung problems.
- Tincture of flowers and leaves mixed with balsamics used for bronchiectasis.
- In China, seeds used for dysentery.
- Tincture prepared from seeds, rectified with wine, used for fevers and ague, in lieu of quinine.
- In Brazil, leaves used as substitute for Datura stramonium for treatment of asthma.
- Infusion of roots used for diabetes.
- In Bangladesh, crushed seeds and flowers used for snake bites, scorpion bites, vaginal burning and worms in the ears. (
- Tincture of bark and flowers employed for intermittent fevers resistant to quinine.

- Tincture prepared from seed with rectified spirit of wine used for treatment of ague and fevers. (23)
- Tincture used in treatment of malarial fever: Leaves are spread on a bed and covered with cloth, moistened with warm milk, and the patient wrapped in it--perspiration ensues and the procedure repeated until the fever abates. Tincture of flowers and leaves used in combination with balsamic for treatment of bronchiectasis. (24)
- Juice of freshly crushed sunflower stems used for cuts and wounds. The juice is mottled abundantly over wounds and bandaged. (24)
- Sunflower oil applied to face and neck to treat and prevent acne breakouts. (24)
- In
Pakistan, flowers, root, seeds, and leaves used for the treatment of bronchial asthma. (29)
- Dye: A purple dye is obtained from some varieties.
- Fiber: Outer part of the stem has a little fiber, when freed from the pith can be made into paper. Also used for making blotting paper.
- Kindling: Dried stems and empty seed receptacles make excellent kindling.
- Food source: Seeds are used for bird food. Hulled seed press cake used as high protein feed for livestock.
- Oil: Oil mixed with a drying oil (as linseed) to make soap, candles, varnishes, paint, etc.

Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against some Gram positive, Gram negative and fungi: Study showed the methanol extracts of HA showed low activity against B subtilis and pronounced activity against Proteus vulgaris. (1)
Antiasthma / Seed: Study of the aqueous extract of Helianthus annuus seed on an in vivo anti-asthmatic model showed a decrease of CD4 cells, IL-4/IL-13 expression and IgE secretion levels in the lung. Results suggest the HAS extract has considerable potential in reducing asthma-like symptoms in a mouse model and suggests further purification of the extract to determine the factors responsible for antiasthmatic activity. (2)
Allergenic Potential / Occupational Allergy: Study showed that sunflower pollen has high allergenic potential, especially with close contact, as in workplace exposure which can result in impairment of lung function. (4)
Antioxidant / Seed: Study showed high antioxidant capacity in the aqueous extract of the sunflower seed and suggests a potential for preventing in vivo oxidative reactions involved in diseases, such as cancer. (5)
Antiglycative / Antioxidant / Cynarin / Diabetes Benefits: In a study of four edible sprouts in Chinese markets, the sunflower sprout H. annuus exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects against the formation of glycation end products. The antioxidant capacity of H. annuus was much stronger than the other samples. Study yielded cynarin (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), an active ingredient with a novel function of intervening against glycooxidation. Results suggest sunflower sprouts of H. annuus may have benefits as food supplement in diabetic patients. (8)
Antimicrobial / Mediated Gold Nanoparticles: Gold nanoparticles have become an important tool in the development of novel biological and chemical processes. Study showed H. annuus mediated gold nanoparticles could be an effective antimicrobial agent and present a potential alternative for the development of new antimicrobials for resistance problems. (9)
Effect of Caffeine on Growth: Study evaluated the effect of nine different concentrations of caffeine (0.05% to 2.00%) on the seeds of Helianthus annuus L variety Modern. Results showed caffeine in its lower doses has a stimulatory effect on growth and yield while higher doses have inhibitory effect and reduce the growth. (10)
Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study of an ethanolic extract of seeds in STZ-induced T2 diabetic rats showed the potential antidiabetic property. Chlorogenic acid in seeds is reported to have an antidiabetic effect. (11)
Phytochelatins / Roots and Leaves: Study showed cadmium exposure induces the formation of phytochelatins in root tissues and leaves. Phytochelatins may play an important role in removing heavy metals from polluted environments and bioremediation. (12)
Antidiarrheal / Antihistamine / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extract of leaves of H. annuus for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal transit model and antihistamine activity using histamine induced bronchoconstriction on guinea pigs and microshock model on rabbits. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid. Results showed decrease in the severity of diarrhea and antihistaminic potential to treat allergic disorders. (14)
Sunflower Oil / Potential as Biodiesel: Sunflower oil is an important oil seed crop, a triglyceride derived from the seeds of sun flower. Study evaluated the physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil biodiesel blends 10% (B1O) and 20% (B2O). Blend B20 is found to be within the ASTM standard and could be used as alternative energy source as biodiesel. (15)
• Antioxidant from Sunflower Seeds: Study reports on the production of antioxidant from ground, dehulled, and partially defatted sunflower seeds. Results suggest dephenolization of sunflower seeds could be economically convenient, not only as a useful antioxidant, but also as raw material for other uses. (16)
• Phytoremediation Potential: Study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of H. annuus in sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils. Results suggest H. annuus fulfills the necessary condition for efficiently increasing species bioaccumulation after soil treatment with humic acid in Cr-polluted sewage-irrigated soils through soil-plant rhizospheric processes. (17)
• Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of striped sunflower seed cotyledon extracts in three differed in-vitro methods: FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC assays. In the three methods, the aqueous extract at 30 µg/ml showed higher antioxidant capacity value than the ethanolic extract. Results suggest intake of the seed may prevent in-vivo oxidative reactions responsible for the development of several diseases, such as cancer. (18)
• Phytoremediation Potential / Lead: Study reports on the potential of H. annuus for treating industrial waters contaminated with lead. The absorption and accumulation of lead without any major effect on normal growth of sunflower at 15 ppm concentration. Easy availability and high mass production presents a potential as phytoremediation agent for lead removal. (19)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated B. alba and H. annuus for phytochemicals and antibacterial activity. Results showed antibacterial activity against the test organisms, with the ethanol extract showing strong activity than the water extracts. (see constituents above) (20)
• Analgesic / Seeds: Study evaluated a methanol extract of seeds of Helianthus annuus for analgesic activity in mice model using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate methods. Results showed central and peripheral effects with significant (p<0.05) analgesic potential in acetic acid-induced writhing test and an increase (p<0.05) of latency period in the hot plate method. (21)
• Safety Assessment of Sunflower-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Use: Review of scientific literature and unpublished data for assessing safety of 12 H. annuus-derived ingredients use in cosmetics concluded that nine H. annuus (sunflower) seed- and flower-derived ingredients are safe as used in present cosmetics use and in concentrations described in the safety assessment. (22)
• Value of Sunflower Pollen Against Bee Pathogens: Global decline in pollinators, including bees, can have major consequences for ecosystem services. Sunflower pollen can dramatically and consistently reduce a protozoan pathogen (Crithidia bombi) infection in bumble bees (Bombus impatients) and also reduce a microsporidian pathogen (Nosema ceranae) of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) indicating a potential for broad anti-parasitic effects. (25) Study tested whether cultivars from nine H. annuus cultivars, four wild H. annuus populations can reduced Crithidia in B. impatiens compared to mixed wildflower pollen and buckwheat pollen as controls. All Helianthus and Solidago pollen reduced Crithidia by 20-40-fold compared to buckwheat pollen, and all three taxa reduced Crithidia compared to wildflower pollen. Results suggest an important role of pollen diet for bee health and potential broad options within Asteraceae for pollinator plantings to manage bee disease. (
• Safety Assessment of Sunflower-Derived Ingredients Used in Cosmetics / Review: Clinical reports have suggested exposure to sunflower seeds can cause allergic reactions in sunflower seed-sensitized individuals. Seeds have been reported to cause anaphylactic reactions after ingestion and rhinitis and asthmatic reactions after occupational exposure to sunflower seed dust in susceptible people. Sunflower seeds contain 2S albumins that in other seeds and nuts have been shown to be allergenic. This is a review of scientific literature and unpublished data relevant for assessing the safety of 12 Helianthus annuus-derived ingredients as used in cosmetic. (26)
• Antileishmanial / Leaves: Study evaluated five medicinal plants belonging to the Asteraceae family for activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Helianthus annuus leaves and Pulicaria crispa aerial parts petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed significant antileishmanial activity at 50 µg/mL in the general screening test, while the other three plants i.e., Geigeria alata aerial parts, Acanthospermum hispidum aerial parts and Sonchus oleraceus leaves showed activity in only one solvent system. (27)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated H. annuus methanol extract of leaves in rats for anti-inflammatory activity using formalin and egg albumin-induced paw edema and analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick models. Results showed significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (28)
• Profile of Sensitization to Sunflower Seeds: Sunflower seeds are used extensively in snacks and condiment. Few studies of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Three proteins i.e., Hel a1, Hel a2, and Hel a3 have been reported as potential allergens. Study evaluated the relevance of sunflower allergens in sensitized subjects. Specific IgE to roasted sunflower extract was detected in 70% of patients. Major pan-allergens like LTPs, profilin and others may contribute to the allergenic components of sunflower extract. (
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. annuus leaves on some bacterial pathogens (E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and S. aureus). While all test organisms were susceptible to the extract, S. aureus showed highest susceptibility and Shigella spp. showed least susceptibility. On DPPH assay, the extract showed concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity with the chloroform extract showing greater antioxidant activity. (
• Phenolics and Flavonoid Content / Leaves: Among representatives of genus Helianthus, leaves of H. annuus yielded highest content of flavonoids (2.46 mg QE mg DW) and total phenolics (0.928 mg g DW) with antioxidant activity of 78.12±0.31%. (
• Genes Involved in Biosyntehsis of Caffeoylquinic Acid in Sunflower Sprouts: Sunflower sprouts accumulate high amounts of CQAs including chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) and 1,5-diCQA. These are compounds found in many plants, including tomato, glove artichoke, and chicory, with health benefits including antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, and antiglycative properties. Gene involved in CQA biosynthesis were Ha1HQT1, HaHQT2, HaHQT3, HaHCT1 and HaHCT2. This study reports on and increases the understanding of CQA biosynthesis in sunflower sprouts and its potential for plant breeders to enhance accumulation of the plant's health-promoting CQAs. (
• Comparative Hypoglycemic Activity: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of four plants i.e., Anacardium occidentale stem bark (CS), Moringa oleifera (ML), Vernonia amygdalina (BL) and Helianthus annuus seeds (SF) on alloxan induced diabetic rats. All extracts yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, steroids, phenol and resins. Significant reduction (p<0.05) in glucose level of diabetic rats compared favorably with reference drug metformin. At 150 mg/kbw, aqueous extracts significantly reduced levels of LDL, RF, and cholesterol except for BL. Hypoglycemic potential was in the order of BL > ML > SF > CS. (
• In Vivo Anti-Obesity Activity / Seeds: Study investigated the constituents and anti-obesity activity of methanolic extract of seeds in a mice model. There was significant increase in locomotor activity (rearing, grooming, ambulation), significant decrease in food consumption, body weight, BMI, LIO, TC, triglyceride, LDL and glucose. Results showed significant anti-obesity activity. (
• Comparative Antimicrobial Effect / Leaves: Study compared the antimicrobial effects of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indice, Helianthus annuus, and Momordica charantia on the growth of E. coli under laboratory conditions. While the effect of A. indica was insignificant, the effects produced by H. annuus and M. charantia were considered significant when compared to antibiotic standard Nalidixic acid. Authors recommend a higher concentration of extracts (75%), and methanolic extracts instead of aqueous extracts. (
• Antifungal / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the essential oil of aerial parts of two cultivars of Helianthus annuus, Chianti and Mammoth, and-wild-growing H. strumosus. Essential oils were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular α-pinene (50.65%, 48.91%, and 58.65%, respectively), sabinene (6.81%, 17.01%, and 1.91%, respectively), ß-pinene (5.79%, 3.27%, and 4.52%, respectively), and limonene (7.2^, 7.1%, and 3.8%, respectively). On screening against three opportunistic pathogenic fungal species, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans, C. neoformans showed highest sensitivity with MIC values of 78, 156, and 78 µg/mL, respectively. (

Cultivated for ornamental use.

Updated Dec 2019 / Nov 2017 / May 2016

Image Source: Digitally modified public domain image (Sunflower/Helianthus annuus /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against some Gram positive, Gram negative and fungi / Sanaa O Yagoub, Shami El Hai Al Safi et al /
Aqueous extract of the Helianthus annuus seed alleviates asthmatic symptoms in vivo / Jin-Chul Heo et al / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE 21: 57-61, 2008
Helianthus annuus / Sunflower / Plants For A Future
Sensitization to sunflower pollen and lung functions in sunflower processing workers / Atis S et al / DOI: 10.1046/j.0105-4538.2001.00001.x
Antioxidant capacity of the striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed extracts evaluated by three in vitro methods / Maria D L R Giada and Jorge Mancini-Filho / Summary International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition • 2009, Vol. 60, No. 5, Pages 395-401 / DOI 10.1080/09637480701755262
Helianthus annuus L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Helianthus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Cynarin-rich sunflower (Helianthus annuus) sprouts possess both antiglycative and antioxidant activities. / Sun Z, Chen J, Ma J, Jiang Y, Wang M, Ren G, Chen F. / J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Mar 28;60(12):3260-5. Epub 2012 Mar 19.
Studies on the effect of caffeine on growth and yield parameters in Helianthus annuus L. variety Modern / T Khursheed, MYK Ansari, D Shahab / Biology and Medicine, 2009; 1(2): pp 56-60
Synthesis of phytochelatins in Helianthus annuus is enhanced by cadmium nitrate / FUSUN YUREKLI*, ZEHRA KUCUKBAY / Acta Bot. Croat. 62 (1), 21–25, 2003
Helianthus annuus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Evaluation of Helianthus annuus L. Leaves Extract for Antidiarrheal and Antihistaminic Activity / Dwivedi A. Sharma GN, Kaushik AY / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 6(1), Jan-Feb 2015
STUDIES ON SUN FLOWER OIL [HELIANTHUS ANNUUS LINN] FOR ITS POTENTIAL USE AS BIODIESEL / Ariharan V N, Meena Devi Vn, Nagendra Prasad P, Parameswaran N K / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 9, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016
A first pilot study to produce a food antioxidant from sunflower seed shells (Helianthus annuus) / Antonio De Leonardis, Vincenzo Macciola, Nicoletta Di Dominico / European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology / DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.200401021
PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L IN SEWAGE-IRRIGATED INDO-GANGETIC ALLUVIAL SOILS / Dinesh Mani, Bechan Sharma, Chitranjan Kumar, Niraj Pathak, & Shiv Balak / International Journal of Phytoremediation, Vol 14, Issue 3 (2012) /
Antioxidant capacity of the striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed extracts evaluated by three in vitro methods / Maria D. L. R. Giada & Jorge Mancini-Filho / International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol 60, Issue 5 (2009)
PHYTOEXTRACTION OF LEAD FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS BY SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS.L) / R. Usha*, A. Vasavi, K. Thishya, S. Jhansi Rani and P. Supraja / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol 4, No 1 (2011) pp 8-12
Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts of Basella alba and Helianthus annuus on Selected Food Pathogens / Ibrahim TA, Ajongbolo JF, and Aladekoyi G / Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
In vivo Analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Helianthus annuus seeds / Rubab Tarannum Islam, Ahmed Tanjimul Islam, Mir Monir Hossain and Kishor Mazumder / International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, March 2016; 5(4): pp 38-40
Safety Assessment of Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics / © Cosmetic Ingredient Review / Draft Final Report for Panel Review / 1620 L Street, NW, Suite 1200 " Washington, DC 20036-4702 " ph 202.331.0651 " fax 202.331.0088 " / Distributed for Comment Only -- Do Not Cite or Quote

A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common sunflower seed and sprouts (Helianthus annuus L.) / Shuangshuang Guo, Yan Ge, Kriskaml Na Jom / BMC Chemistry: Chem Cent J, 2017; 11(95) /   doi: 10.1186/s13065-017-0328-7 / PMCID: PMC5622016 / PMID: 29086881
Chemistry, Pharmacology and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Helianthus annuus (Sunflower): A Review / Tasneem Bashir, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Kulsoom Zahara et al / Pure Applied Biol., June 2015; 4(2): pp 226-235
Medicinal value of sunflower pollen against bee pathogens / Jonathan J Giacomini, Jessica Leslie, David R Tarpy, Evan C Palmer-Young, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler / Scientific Reports, 2018; 8, Art no 14394
Safety Assessment of Helianthus annuus (Sunflower)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics / Cosmetic Ingredient Review / Sept 2016
In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Helianthus annuus and Pulicaria crispa (Asteraceae) / Mohamed M, Ahmed MM, Elwaleed EH, Walaa SE and Mahgoub SE / Natural Products Chemistry Research, 2017; 5(4) / DOI: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000268
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf / Samuel O. Onoja, Glory C. Onyebuchi, Ifeoma I. Ijeh and Maxwell I. Ezeja / Sciendo: The EuroBiotech Journal, April 2019; 3(2): pp 112-116
Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence / Alangeer, Wagas Younis, Hira Asif et al / Chinese Medicine, Dec 2018; 13:48
Profile of Sensitization to Sunflower Seedin a Large Population Highly Exposed / Maria Luisa Macias Ramirez et al / J Allergy Clin Immunol, 131(2) / Abs 315
In Vitro Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Phytochemical Analysis of Helianthus annuus Leaves Extract on Some Bacteria Causing Infection / Eze VC, Onoja SO, Ezeja MI and Eze UA / IJPPR: International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Research, Aug 2015; 4(1)
Comparative analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds composition from 26 medicinal plants / Oksana Sytar, Irene Hemmerich, Marek Zivcak, Cornelia Rauh, Marian Brestic / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 2016 /
Use of sunflower seed in food products / James A. Robertson  & E. E. Burns  / CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1975, 6(2): pp 201-240 /
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico /
David L. LentzMary DeLand PohlJosé Luis AlvaradoSomayeh Tarighat, and Robert Bye / PNAS April 29, 2008; 105(17): pp 6232-6237 /
Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Caffeoylquinic Acids in Sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) / Ketthida Cheevarungnapakul, Gholamreza Khaksar, Pawinee Panpetch, Patwira Boonjing and supaart Sirikantaramas / Front. Plant Sci., July 2019; 31 /
Hypoglycaemic Properties of Aqueous Extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia amygdalina and Helianthus annuus: A Comparative Study on Some Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats / Luka CD, Tijjani H, Joel EB, Ezejiofor UL, Onwukike P / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, July 2013; 2(7): pp 16-22
Pollen from multiple sunflower cultivars and species reduces a common bumblebee gut pathogen / George M LoCascio, Luis Aguirre, Rebecca E Irwin, and Lynn S Adler / Royal Society Open Science, 1 April 2019; 6(4) /
The comparison of antimicrobial effect of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Helianthus annuusand Momordica charantia on the growth of Escherichia coli under laboratory conditions. / Gogikar Vedprakash RaginiKoppolu Sowmitra PallavRapolu Sandeepa KrishnaRayakoti Bala Varsha,Ron Ely  G. MalateSunkavalli Mohana Rama  Harsha TejaVitaliano V. Fernandez / Thesis/Dissertations: BS Biology, Oct 2014 / Cebu Doctors' Hospital
Essential Oil Compositions and Antifungal Activity of Sunflower (Helianthus) Species Growing in North Alabama / Sims K Lawson, Layla G Sharp, Chelsea N Powers et al / Appl. Sci.,  2019; 9(15) /

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