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Family Meliaceae
Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Ku lian

Scientific names Common names
Antelaea azadirachta (L.) Adelb. [Invalid] Nim (Tag., Engl.)
Antelaea canescens Cels ex Heynh. Bead tree (Engl.)
Antelaea javanica Gaertn. Divine tree (Engl.)
Melia azadirachta L. Holy tree (Engl.)
Melia fraxinifolia Salisb. Indian Lilac (Engl.)
Melia indica (A.Juss.) Brandis Margosa tree (Engl.)
Melia pinnata Stokes        Unresolved Neem tree (Engl.)
  Pride of China (Engl.)
Azadirachta indica A.Juss. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Bim, Nim, Nimgach.
BURMESE: Tamaka.
CHINESE: Lian shu, Lian zao zi, Yin du lian shu, Ku lian.
FRENCH: Huile de neem, Lilas de perse, Lilas des Indes, Lilas du Japon, Margosier, Nim des Indes
GERMAN: Niembaum, Nimbaum.
HAUSA: Dogon yaro.
HINDI: Balnimb, Neem, Nim, Nind.
IGBO: Ogwu akuma.
KANNADA: Benvinmar.
LATIN: Cortex margosae.
MALAY: Mambu, Sadu
NIGERIAN: Dongo yaro.
PERSIAN: Azad Dirakht.
SANSKRIT: Nimba, Nimbac, Nimbak.
SWAHILI: Mkilifi, Mwarubaini kamili
TAMIL: Vepa.
THAILAND: Cha-Tang, Khwinin, Sadao, Sadao India.
YORUBA: Afoforo Oyimbo.

Botanical snippet
- A tree belonging to the mahogany family known as the "free tree" because of its ability to "free the soil." - Popular in the Philippines, more for its insecticidal properties (pang-lamok) than for its medicinal applications.
- In India, it is considered the most useful traditional medicinal plant, and commercially beneficial as each part of the tree has some medicinal property.

- The United Nations has declared Neem (Azadirachta indica) as the "Tree of the 21st Century." (73)

- Latinized name Azadirachta indica is derived from the Persian. Azad means "free" and dirakht means "tree," and i-Hind means "Indian origin"--together meaning "the free tree of India." (73)

Neem is a medium-sized tree growing to 15 meters high, with wide spreading branches forming an oval crown. Leaves are pinnately compound. The drooping leaflets are 1 centimeter long, paired, lanceolate, acuminate with serrated margins. The blade is shiny dark green on the upper surface and pale green on the underside. Flowers are numerous, small, white and fragrant.

- Not widespread in the Philippines.
- A good shade tree.
- Propagated by seeds
- Spread by bats.
- Probably a native of Burma.
- Cultivated from India to Indonesia.

• Over 300 compounds have been isolated from various parts of neem. There are two types of metabolites viz., primary including protein, fatty substances, carbohydrate or sugar derivatives, and secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, among others. (74)
• Seed yields a bitter fixed oil, nimbidin, known as "Oil of Margosa" or neem oil.
• Seeds yield a fix oil of glycerides and bitter compounds including nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidol.
• Bark and leaves contain tannin and oil.
• Seed, leaves, bark and root yield varying amounts of alkaloid (L>B>S>R), flavonoid (LBSR), saponin (LSBR), phenols (BRSL), Mg (SBLR), phytate (SLBR) and tannin (LBSR).
• Various extracts of seeds yielded alkaloid, amino acid, carbohydrate, glycoside, inulin, mucilage, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, flavonoid.
• Study evaluated the essential oil of leaves by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of leaves oil with major compounds of
β-elemene (33.39%), γ- elemene (9.89%), germacrene D (9.72%), caryophyllene (6.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.23%). Oxygenated compounds were (5.04%), mainly sesquiterpene oxide. (see study below) (49)
• Study evaluated the essential oil of flowers by GC/MS. Hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% with major compounds of pentacosane (18.58%), tetracosane (10.65%), β-germacrene (9.73%), β- caryophyllene (5.84%) and dodecene (4.54%). Oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%), verdiflorol (5.32%), farnesol (1.63%) and α– terpineol (1.51%). (see study below) (49)
- Proximate analysis of leaves yielded 84.50 ± 0.1 moisture, 2.52 ± 0.02 ash, 4.61 ± o.o1 protein, 0.062 ± 0.02 fat, s.64 ± 0.01 fiber, 89.53 ± 0.02 carbohydrate. Bark yielded 49.50 ± 0.1 moisture, 7.10 ± 0.1 ash, 3.30 ± 0.01 protein, 0.81 ± 0.01 fat, 6.65 ± 0.02 fiber, and 81.9 ± o.01 carbohydrate. (52)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract of leaves yielded strong presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, reducing compounds and polyphenol while the aqueous and ethanol extracts of bark showed appreciable amounts of alkaloids. reducing compounds, and polyphenols. (52)
- Study of fresh, undried, ripe fruits of A. indica isolated a new liminoid, nimbocinol, along with known components, azadirone, epoxyazadiradione, azadiradione, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and cholesterol. (69)
- Study showed both fresh and dried leaves contain reducing sugars, flavonoids (quercetin, 3-rutinoside, 3-rhamnoside), saponins, anthraquinone, tannins, steroidal aglycone, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, terpenoids, and sugars (fructose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose). (see study below) (78)

• Considered antibacterial, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, antifertility, spermicidal, anti-malarial, antitumor, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, spermicidal, antifungal, insecticidal.

Parts used
Whole plant.

- Leaves and flowers are edible.
- Leaves used for making tea.
- Poultice of leaves for swollen glands, bruises and sprains.
- Decoction of leaves used for arthritis.
- Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria.
- Bark used for malaria.
- Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism.
- Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, wounds, diabetes, and leprosy.
- Flower used for controlling phlegm and treatment of intestinal worms.
- Used for scabies and many other skin diseases.
- Applied directly for treatment of head lice, wounds, skin ulcers.
- When soaked in water, used for bathing and as postcoital contraceptive.
- Spermicide made from plant sold in India.
Ayurvedic medicine
• Leaf- leprosy, intestinal parasites, eye problems, skin ulcers
• Bark - pain and fever.
• Flower - bile suppression, intestinal worms and phlegm.
• Fruit - piles, intestinal worms, urinary disorder, nose bleeding , phlegm, eye problem, diabetes, wounds and leprosy.
• Twig - cough, asthma, piles, intestinal worms, spermatorrhoea, urinary disorders, diabetes.
• Gum - ringworm, scabies, wounds and ulcers.
• Seed pulp and oil- leprosy and intestinal worms.
• Neem oil may be useful for gingivitis.
• Oil used intravaginally for spermicidal and contraceptive properties.
- Toothbrush: Young tender branches are chewed for toothbrushing use.
- Oral / Dental: Twigs used as oral deodorant, to relieve toothache, and for cleaning the teeth. (80)
- Toothpaste: Extracts used in the manufacture of toothpaste for its antibacterial property.
- Insecticide: Leaves and seeds are sources of powerful insecticide Azadirachtin. Leaf's oil is used as a local antiseptic and insecticide.(•)
- Repellent: In the rural areas, burning of leaves and seeds used as mosquito repellent. Fresh seed oil has a strong garlic odor and used as ingredient for insect sprays.
- Dog ticks: Bathing dogs with plant decoction found effective for treating and preventing ticks.
- Timber: Wood used as mahogany substitute.

Lipid Effects / Antiviral: Effect of Supplemental Garlic and Neem Leaves in Broiler Feeds on Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Antibody Titer: Study showed neem had greater potential than garlic in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and increasing the antibody titers against viruses.
Antibacterial / Anticariogenic: Study showed Neem bark constituents have the ability to suppress growth of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus sobrinus).
Anti-ulcer Effect: Neem leaf extract showed dose-dependent inhibition of gastric lesions induced by restraint-cold stress, indomethacin and ethanol. The antiulcer activity was probably achieved by blocking acid secretion through inhibition of H+K+ATPase and preventing oxidative damage and apoptosis.
Anti-ulcer Effect / Cimetidine Synergism: Study of A indica in albino rats showed significant inhibition of basal and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion. Cimetidine seemed to augment AI inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
Anti-ulcer Effect / Control of Gastric Hypersecretion: Study of neem bark extract showed therapeutic potential in controlling gastric hypersecretion and gastroesophageal and gastroduodenal ulcers. (11)
Anti-ulcer Effect / Regenerative Potential: Study showed neem extract to have a regenerative potential in ethanol-induced mucosal damage in the stomach and ileum and may be adopted in the management of gastrointestinal ulcer disorders.
Anti-candidal: Study of hexane and alcoholic extracts of Azadirachta indica suggested anticandidal potential. (6) Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neem leaf extract, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) against Candida albicans. Results showed efficacy of neem extract is comparable to 3% NaOCl against C. albicans and significantly better than 2% CHX. (68)
Antiplaque Activity: A study was done on the effectiveness of neem leaf extract against plaque formation. Results showed the dental gel containing neem extract significantly reduced the plaque index and bacterial count of S mutans and Lactobacillus species compared with commercial chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash as control. (7)
Antidermatophytic Activity: A study showed the neem seed extract has high antidermatophytic properties and supports the alternative use of neem oil in the treatment of various skin infections. (8)
Biosorbent Activity: A study showed the effectiveness of the Neem leaf powder as a biosorbent for removing dyes like Congo Red from water. (9)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic Activity: In a study of 30 known or less known hypoglycemic medicinal plants in folk medicine, Azadirachta indica was one of 24 samples (18th or 24) that was observed to have significant blood glucose lowering activities. (10)
Antidiabetic Activity
: Study on the aqueous extracts of C roseus, Azadirachta indica and A sativum indicated significant antidiabetic activity, supporting its traditional use in Ayurveda for therapy of diabetes. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: A study showed A indica leaf extract showed hepatoprotective effects against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage probably through its antioxidant activity. (13) Leaf extract inhibited paracetamol induced damage. Results show A. indica offer protection to hepatocytes against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. (25)
Anti-Fertility Activity / Rodent Control: A study showed Neem seed extract can be used as an anti-fertility agent on baits to control harmful agricultural rodents.
Hypoglycemic: Study of leaf extract and seed oil showed a hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Pretreatment with A. indica leaf extract or seed oil partially prevented the blood glucose rise. (20)
Chemopreventive: In a study evaluating the anticarcinogenic potential of A. indica against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Results showed A. indica may have anticancer potential against NDEA-induced hepatic cancer. There was significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and increase in survival. (21)
Apoptosis Induction: Induction of apoptosis if one of the active strategies to arrest cancer cell proliferation. Study of an ethanolic leaf extract showed chemopreventive effects probably mediated by induction of apoptosis. (22)
Larvicidal / Antimalarial: Study showed neem oil has good larvicidal properties for Anopheles gambiae and suppresses adult emergence. It presents as a readily available and inexpensive alternative to conventional larvicides. (23)
Antifungal / Postharvest Fruit Disease: Study showed neem seed kernel extract on post harvest diseases showed significant reduction of four pathogens. (24)
Natural Insecticide / Leaves / Azadirachtin: Azadirachtin, a liminoid from the Neem tree, has long been known for its strong antifeedant, insect growth regulatory and reproductive effects. Antifeedancy varies and mosquitoes are particularly sensitive. Study provides a detailed overview on azadirachtin. A prepared neem insecticide recorded mosquito bites after an hour, an efficiency of 100%. The efficiency decreased to 84.5% to 85% after one and a half to two hours.
Hypolipidemic Effects: Study in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed A. indica leaf extract significant reduced the total cholesterol, LDL, and VLDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged. (26)
Quinone Reductase Inhibitor / Nimbolide: Nimbolide, a limonoid, and chlorophylls isolated from a chloroform extract showed the strongest QR inducing capacity among 4 extracts of neem flowers. Results suggest nimbolide and chlorophylls may be chemopreventive potential. (27)
Chemoprevention / Favorable Hematologic Parameters: Study in benzo(a)pyrene-induced murine forestomach tumorigenesis bioassay protocol showed favorable effects on hematological parameters with significant effect on overall well being, tumorigenesis and chemoprevention.
Antifungal Against Plant Disease: Study evaluated the growth of plant pathogenic fungi under the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and seeds of A. indica. Results showed the ethanolic seed extract to be the more effective in retarding the growth of pathologic fungi than the seed water and leaf ethanolic extracts. (28)
Antimicrobial Against Dental Pathogens / Anti-Dental Caries: Study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of various extracts of A. indica leaves against certain bacterial strains causing dental caries. All the leaf extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition, with the chloroform extract showing better activity. (29) Extracts from Neem sticks or bark have been shown to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans and significantly reduce bacterial adhesion in vitro, suggesting an ability to reduce the ability of some streptococci to colonize tooth surfaces. Neem extracts also inhibited other Streptococcus species involved in the development of dental caries such as S. salivarius, S. mitis and S. sanguis. (74)
Antimicrobial / Endodontic Irrigants: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of five irrigants formulated from different parts of the tree of A. indica compared with Na hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate. Results showed two neem irrigants—the leaf extract and mixture of the seed-bark powder —displayed antimicrobial activity against against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. (30) Study of A. indica, O. sanctum, M. elengi, T. cardifolia and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) showed considerable antimicrobial activity on common endodontic pathogens such as Strep. mutans, E. faecalis, and S. aureus. (67)
Antibacterial / Leaves / Resistant Staphylococcus: Study evaluated the antibacterial properties of leaf extract of A. indica against Methicillin-sensitive and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed an ethanol extract of leaves exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with greater zones of inhibition at 100% concentration. (31)
Chemopreventive / Potentiation of Cisplatin: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic extract of leaves alone or in combination with cisplatin on human breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The leaf extract of neem exhibited chemopreventive ability alone or in combination with chemotherapy to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating efficacy at lower dose. (32)
Antibacterial / Bark and Leaves / Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark extracts of Azadirachta indica on human urinary tract bacteria isolates. Results showed antibacterial potential against gram positive and negative bacteria. (33)
Inhibition of Folliculogenesis / Anti-Conceptional Agent: Study showed the administration of polar and non polar fractions of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts significantly reduced the number of normal follicles in female albino rats, consistent with its use in folk medicine as an anti-conceptional agent. Results suggest a potential for ecologically safe and biologically active botanical for rodent population control. (34)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Leaves / Seed Oil: Study investigated the effect of A. indica leaves powder against CCl4-nduced liver damage. Results showed significant recovery of all markers to normal levels with histological regeneration of liver parenchyma. Silymarin was used as standard. (35) Study of ethanol and aqueous extract of leaves showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in mice using silymarin as control. (53) Study of seed oil in CCl4-induced toxiciity on Wistar rats showed dose dependent hepatoprotective effects. (76)
Proteolytic Activity of Neem Gum: Study established for the first time the presence of proteolytic activity in neem exudate gum. (36)
Antioxidant and Apoptotic Effect in Cervical Cancer: Study evaluated the antioxidant property of A. indica in inducing apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. Results showed neem-treated monocytes from cervical cancer patients showed high activity of caspase 3, 8, and 9; a decrease in TNF-α, and increased apoptosis in cyto- and histomorphology of treated cervical cancer cells. (37)
Melatonin and AI on Pancreatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats: Study evaluated the histological effects of melatonin and AI leaves ethanolic extract on pancreatic tissue of STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats. Results showed the administration of AI ethanolic leaf extracts and melatonin separately or combined showed pancreatic-protective effects as evidenced by pancreatic tissue regeneration and significant increase in islet cell mass. (40)
Anti-Malarial / Artemisinin: Study evaluated the potential roles of Neem tree extract in the prevention of malaria in Africa and Asia. It discusses the successful transformation of artemisinin from traditional Chinese medicine to mainstream anti-malaria therapy. (41)
Hepatoprotective / DMBA-induced Injury: Study showed hepatoprotective potential of aqueous leaf extract of A. indica against DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene)-induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. (42)
Sterility and Abortive Effects: Study evaluated the abortive and infertility effects of A. indica. Results showed infertility and abortive effects which could be due to an effect on the immune system. A direct effect of the extract on the uterus by blocking the receptor for progesterone was also speculated. Results suggest a potential use for neem extract as infertility agent to control harmful agricultural rodents without the use of harmful pesticides. (43)
Effect on Tumor Suppressor Genes: Study showed an ethanolic neem leaf extract enhanced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as caspase-8 and caspase-3, and suppressed expression of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 in 7,12-DMBA-induced cancer cells. (46)
Drug Interactions: Neem may increase blood lithium levels by decreasing the body's ability to get rid of lithium. Neem may decrease blood sugar, interacting with diabetic medications to lower blood sugar further. Neem may also increase the immune system, and, thus, may decrease the effectiveness of medications designed to decrease the immune system such as azathioprine (imuran), cyclosporine (Neoral), prednisone, corticosteroids, among others. (47)
Fractionated Neem Leaf Extract / Anti-HIV / Anti-Malarial: A fractionated neem-leaf extract (IRAB) marketed as IRACAP® in Nigeria has been reported to have activities against malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer. In-vivo studies have substantiated earlier in-vitro reports of pharmacological properties. Drug is reportedly safe, and further studies are suggested to further investigated the findings. (48)
Essential Oil / Antioxidant / Leaves and Flowers: Study evaluated the composition of essential oil of leaves and flowers. The essential oil of flowers showed higher free radical scavenging activity (79.89±0.22%) compared to leaves essential oil (31.23 ± 0.41%) at 35 µg/ml. Flower essential oil was more active as radical scavenger against DPPH (IC50 of 19.4 µg/ml vs the weak activity of leaves (IC50 54.2µg/ml). Antioxidant capacity correlated with total phenolic and/or oxygenated compounds. (see constituents above) (49)
Essential Oil / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves and Flowers: Essential oil of flowers showed broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities. In general, flower essential oil showed more superior antimicrobial activity compared to leaves. The higher activity of flowers EO may be attributed to higher oxygenated compound compared to leaves. (see constituents above) (49)
Anti-Inflammatory / Neem Oil: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of A. indica in rats. The neem oil showed significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute (carrageenan induced paw edema inhibition method) and chronic (cotton pellet granulation method) inflammation. It also showed low ulcerogenic potential compared to indomethacin. (50) Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil on albino rats using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with increasing inhibition of paw edema with progressive increase in dose. (65)
Antidiabetic / Anti-Dyslipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extract of A. indica for its role in diabetes and effect on lipid profile in a normoglycemic and STZ-hyperglycemic rat model. Results showed hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities together with a beneficial effect on hyperlipidemia induced by STZ. (51)
Antibacterial / Anticandidal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Neem leaf aqueous and alcohol extracts against Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous neem extract to all organisms was 7.5%; the alcoholic extract showed MICs of 1.88% (E. faecalis), 7.5% (S. mutans) and 3-75% (C. albicans). (54)
Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A prospective, non-randomized open-label interventional study evaluated the usefulness of A. indica in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Results suggest Azadirachta indica has a role in early and recovery phase of acne when inflammatory changes are least. (55)
Antibacterial / Alternative Anti-Typhoid Treatment: Study evaluated the in-vitro antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Azadirachta indica. The methanolic extracts of both plants showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The anti-typhoid activity of the plants presents potential as natural plant source for the treatment of typhoid fever. (56)
Antibacterial Potential in Oral/Periodontal Diseases / Anti-Plaque Activity: Review reports on the antibacterial therapeutic effects of Neem in oral diseases. Neem extract has shown significant reduction in plaque index and bacterial count of S. mutans and lactobacilli species. A study showed excellent efficacy of neem in inhibiting most resistant species of E. faecalis and candida in root canal infection and reducing cariogenic disease. Study suggests a potential for the incorporation of the extract of neem twig in oral care products. (57)
Analgesic / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the analgesic properties of leaf and bark extracts of A. indica in mice using the hot plate method. The extract was administered intraperitoneally. Results showed dose dependent analgesic activity with the leaf extract showing more activity than the bark extract. The extract worked through opioid receptors. (58)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Results showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in EPG (eggs per gram). (60)
Antiulcer Activity / LD50 / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extract of A. indica leaves for antiulcer activity in gastric ulcerations induced by pyloric ligation, aspirin, and cold restraint stress in a Wistar rat model. Results showed significant anti-ulcer activity with dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) decrease in ulcer index (UI) and increase in pH, with a dose dependent decrease in gastric content volume, free acidity, and total acidity. Acute toxicity study of leaves showed an LD50 of 4,800 mg/kg. (61)
Wound Healing Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing effect of aqueous extract of leaves on adult male wistar rats. Results showed significant wound contraction. Azadirachta indica significantly increased (p<0.05) the day of complete wound closure. Wound healing activity was probably through increased inflammatory response and neovascularization. (62)
CNS Depressant Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the an acetone extract of A. indica for central nervous system depressant activity in mice using analgesic activity and sedative-hypnotic activity testing. Results showed significant (p<0.001) potentiation of reaction time to thermal stimulus and significant (p<0.01) potentiation of phenobarbitone induced sleeping time. (63)
Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Against Bovine Mastitis: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica against bovine mastitis. Results showed antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of the herb which could be due to presence of bioactive principles. Study suggests benefit in intramammary infection (IMI) and a potential alternative therapy against bovine mastitis. (64)
• Effect on Growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aflatoxin Production / Leaves: Aflatoxin are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of some Aspergillus species on food. Study evaluated the effects of leaf extract on fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus. There was no obvious effect on fungal growth. Inhibition of aflatoxin was found to be time- and dose-dependent. (66)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of ethanol extract, n-hexane extract and chloroform extracts of Azadirachta indica yielded secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and tannins. The extracts showed potential antimicrobial activities against 13 different strains of microorganisms. On in vitro cytotoxicity testing by brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extracts showed significant (p<0.05) cytotoxicity against Artemia salina. The ethanol extract showed analgesic properties on hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods on Swiss albino mice. On carrageenan induced paw edema testing, results showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. (
• Deterioration of Oocyte Quality by ROS-Mediated Apoptosis: Based on animal studies, neem leaf extract induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and limits reproductive outcome in mammals. (71)
• Neem Oil Limonoids / Bioactive Seed Oil Components / Cosmetic Potential: Review reports on the use of neem seed oil in the medical and cosmetic industry. Neem is a source of several bioactive triterpenoids such as azadirachtins, salanin and nimbin. Nimbidin has been used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, scabies, arsenical dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. A Nigerian variety of Neem seed oil was reported utilizable for soap making with properties suitable for commercial production. Neem oil was also reported for use as biodegradable detergent. A shampoo based on neem was shown highly effected against head lice in vitro. (75)
• Green Corrosion Inhibitor / Leaves: Study reports on Neem leaves extract as a green inhibitor of zinc corrosion in H2SO4 using the gravimetric method. Inhibition efficiency of the extract varied with concentration and temperature. (77)
• Effect of Drying on Phytochemical Composition / Leaves: Study showed both fresh and dried leaves contains reducing sugars, flavonoids (quercetin, 3-rutinoside, 3-rhamnoside), saponins, anthraquinone, tannins, steroidal aglycone, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, terpenoids, and sugars (fructose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose). Vitamin C in fresh leaves decoction was not detected in dry leaves extracts. Study suggests drying and other processing methods affect phytochemical contents and suggests the used of fresh leaves in the preparation of herbal medicine. (78)
• Insignificant Effect on Acne / Leaves and Bark: Study explored the potential of leaves and bark of A. indica in the treatment of acne. The extracts were tested against acne-causing bacteria viz., S. aureus, S. epidermis and Proprionibacterium acnes. The dichormethane and methanolic extracts showed very little activity against S. aureus and S. epidermis and no activity against P. acnes. (79) (see study: 55)
• Use in Dentistry: Review reports on the various uses of Neem in dentistry. From mimbidin, a major active principle isolated from seed kernels, other active constituents with various biologic activities are isolated viz., nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidinin, nimboide and nimbidic acid. Neem is a natural antibacterial agent with reported activity against periodontal pathogens such as S. mutans, S. salivarius, S. mitis and S. sanguis. Studies have shown anti-candidal, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque activity and efficacy against acidogenic oral bacterial in fixed orthodontic appliance patients. Neem has been used as root canal irrigant and has been shown to be effective in preventing dental cavities and gum disease. (80)

Toxicity Studies
Acute Toxicity Study of Neem Oil: Study of neem oil by oral route in rats and rabbits showed dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms along with biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity, with the changes in the lungs and CNS as target organs of toxicity. (14)
90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Neem Oil: Subchronic toxicity study on Neem oil evaluated the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of exposure and target organs to establish safety criteria for human exposure. Mice were given doses of 0 (control), 177, 533, 1600 mgKgD for 90 days. At 90 days, histopath exam showed the 1600 dose of neem oil showed varying degrees of organ damage to the testicle, liver, and kidneys. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice. (14)

Available in cybermarkets as supplements, oil, cakes, extracts, and organic manure.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Last Updated July 2018 / November 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / File:Azadirachta indica flowers.jpg / Tau'olunga / ʻEpeleli 2007 / GNU Free Documentation License / Or click on photo to go to source image / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) / Kausik Biswas, Ishita Chattopadhyay, Ranajit K. Banerjee* and Uday Bandyopadhyay / Department of Physiology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India
Medicinal properties of Neem: New Findings / D.P. Agrawal
Effect of essential oils from two Nigerian medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida) on growth and aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain by a toxigenic Aspergillus flavus / Wiley.InterScience
Effect of Supplemental Garlic and Neem Leaves in Broiler Feeds on Blood Cholesterol, Triglycerids and Antibody Titer

Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis / Ishita Chattopadhyay, Bithi Nandi, Ratna Chatterjee, Kaushik Biswas, Uday Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit K Banerjee / InflammoPharmacology, May 2004, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 153-176
Anticandidal activity of Azadirachta indica

Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel—a 6-week clinical study / M Raveendra Pai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 99-103
/ doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.035
EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM) ON THE GROWTH PATTERN OF DERMATOPHYTES / V Natarajan et al / Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, (2003) 21 (2):98-101/

Azadirachta indica leaf powder as an effective biosorbent for dyes: a case study with aqueous Congo Red solutions / Krishna G Bhattacharyya and Arunima Sharma / Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 71, Issue 3, July 2004, Pages 217-22 / doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.03.002
Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 84, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 105-108 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00144-7 /
Effects of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration and acid secretion in rats / Yinusa Raji et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 167-170/ doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.020
/ M Mostofa et al / Bangl. J. Vet. Med. (2007). 5 (1 & 2): 99–102
Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats: Part III / R R Chattopadhyay and M Bandyopadhyay /Indian J Pharmacol | June 2005 | Vol 37 | Issue 3 | 184-185/
Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil) / Gandhi M et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 May-Jun;23(1):39-51
Clinical studies on the effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract on gastric secretion and gastroduodenal ulcer / Uday Bandyopadhyay et al / Life Sciences • Volume 75, Issue 24, 29 October 2004, Pages 2867-2878/ doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2004.04.050
Antibacterial Effects of Crude A indicaq Neem Bark Extract on Streptococcus sobrinus / Mohashine Bhuiyan MD et al / Dept of Pedia Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
Sterility effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on male rat
/Masoumeh Mahmoudi Meymand et al / Journal of Reproduction and Infertility • Volume 3, Issue 2, Year 2002, Number 10/
Regenerative potential of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica on the stomach and ileum following ethanol-induced mucosa lesion in adult Wistar rats / D.A. Ofusori B.Sc, M.Sc et al / The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008 Volume 5 Number 2 /
Azadirachta indica / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
A study of hypoglycaemic effects of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. / Khosla P, Bhanwra S, Singh J, Seth S, Srivastava RK./ Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;44(1):69-74.
Azadirachta indica exhibits chemopreventive action against hepatic cancer: Studies on associated histopathological and ultrastructural changes. / Bharati S, Rishi P, Koul A. / Microsc Res Tech. 2012 May;75(5):586-95. doi: 10.1002/jemt.21095. Epub 2011 Oct 14.
Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis in the Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis Model by Modulation of Bcl-2, Bim, Caspase 8 and Caspase 3
/ R Subapriya, V Bhuvaneswari, S Nagini / Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 6, 2005
Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae
Fredros O Okumu, Bart GJ Knols and Ulrike Fillinger / Malaria Journal 2007, 6:63 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-6-63
Antifungal activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on postharvest diseases in fruits
/ Jingfa Wang, Jian Li, Jiankang Cao and Weibo Jiang / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4 (11) pp. 1100-1104, 4 June, 2010
Some Protective Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Azadirachta indica on Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats / Ajibade Adeshina John, Fakunle Ponle Bamidele and Oloyede Adegoke OluwaSeun / American Journal of TROPICAL MEDICINE & Public Health 1(3): 97-106, 2011
Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / R.R. Chattopadhyay* and M. Bandyopadhyay / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol 8 (2005); 101-104
Quinone Reductase Inducers in Azadirachta indica A. Juss Flowers, and their Mechanisms of Action / Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai, Thanit Kusamran, Worapun Kuakulkiat, Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara, Ankana Hiransalee, Anong Tepsuwan,Wannee R Kusamran / Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 6, 2005
Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and seeds extract on the growth of six of the plant disease causing fungi / Al-Hazmi, R. H. M. / Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 2(5) pp. 089-098, May, 2013
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND SCREENING OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA FOR ITS ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST DENTAL PATHOGENS / Imran Khan, Surya Rao Srikakolupu, Surekha Darsipudi, Srujana Divya Gotteti and Hemasundara Amaranadh.Ch / Scholars Research Library
Antimicrobial efficacy of endodontic irrigants from Azadirachta indica: An in vitro study / Arindam Dutta & Mala Kundabala / Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, November 2013, Vol. 71, No. 6 , Pages 1594-1598 / (doi:10.3109/00016357.2013.780290)
Wendy C. Sarmiento, MD*, Cecilia C. Maramba, MD*, Ma. Liza M. Gonzales, MD* / PIDSP Journal 2011 Vol 12 No.1
Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin / Chhavi Sharma, Andrea J. Vas, Payal Goala, Taher M. Gheewala, Tahir A. Rizvi, and Arif Hussain / Journal of Oncology, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/321754
Antibacterial effect of Azadirachta indica (CN: Neem or Dongo Yaro) parts on some urinary tract bacterial isolates / *Orhue P. O., Momoh A. R. M., Igumbor E. O. and Esumeh F. I. / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2014, 4(2):64-67
Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats / J.K. Roop, P.K. Dhaliwal and S.S. Guraya / Braz J Med Biol Res, vol.38 no.6, June 2005 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2005000600017
. / Pingale Shirish S / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, July – August 2010; Article 007 ISSN 0976 – 044X
Studies on plant gums. Proteases in neem (Azadirachta indica) gum / B. RAMAKRISHNA NAYAK, N. MALLIKARJUNA RAO and T. N. PATTABIRAMAN / J. Biosci., Vol. 1, Number 4, December 1979, pp. 393–400.
A study on antioxidant and apoptotic effect of Azadirachta Indica (neem) in cases of cervical cancer
/ Shaista M. Vasenwala, Reema Seth, Nazima Haider, Najmul Islam, Tamkin Khan, Veena Maheshwari, Suhail ur Rehman / Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Nov 2012, Vol 286, Issue 5, pp 1255-1259
Comparative Study of the Phytochemical Properties of Jatropha curcas and Azadirachta indica Plant Extracts / Harry-Asobara, Joy Linda* and Samson, Eno-Obong Okon / Journal of Poisonous and Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 2(2), pp. 020-024, June, 2014
Pharmacognostical and physico-chemical standardization of Syzygium cumini and Azadirachta indica seed /
P Bigoniya*, CS Singh, B Srivastava / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S290-S295
Histological Effects of Melatonin and Azadirachta Indica Administration on the Pancreatic tissue in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats / E. T. Godam, M.O.A. Samaila, A.O. Ibegbu, W.O. Hamman and S.A. Musa / Annals of Biological Sciences 2014, 2 (2):27-35
Neem tree extract Azadirachta indica and malaria control in Africa and Asia: prospects and challenges / Niyi Awofeso / Spatula DD. 2011; 1(3): 167-174doi: 10.5455/spatula.2011082303170
Azadirachta indica mitigates DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity: A biochemical and radiometric study / Ashwani Koul,Vandana Mohan and Sanjay Bharati / Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, Vol 51, Feb 2014, pp 37-45
Sterility and Abortive Effects of the Commercial Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Extract NeemAzal- T/S® on Female Rat (Rattus norvegicus) / Mohsen MOROVATI,*, Masoumeh MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud GHAZI-KHANSARI, Alireza KHALIL ARIA, Lida JABBARI / Turk J Zool 32 (2008) 155-162
A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice / C Wang, M Cao, DX Shi, ZQ Yin, RY Jia, KY Wang, Y Geng, Y Wang, XP Yao, ZR Yang, J Zhao / Human & Experimental Toxicology
Azarichdata indica / Synonyms / The Plant List
Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment / Mohammad A. Alzohairy * / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016 / doi: 10.1155/2016/7382506
Neem: Drug interactions / WebMD
Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. / El-Hawary SS, El-Tantawy ME, Rabeh MA*, Badr WK / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 6 (4), pp. 33-42.
Anti Inflammatory Effect of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) In Albino Rats-An Experimental Study / Dr. Jagadeesh. K, Dr. Srinivas. K, *Dr. Shreenivas. P. Revankar. / IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy, Volume 4, Issue 1 (January 2014), Pp 34-38
Anti-Hyperglycemic And Antidyslipidemic Potential Of Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract In STZ- Induced Diabetes Mellitus / Shradha Bisht, S.S.Sisodia / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.2 (10), 2010,622-627
Studies on Hepatoprotective Properties of Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) / T. Kalaivani, E. Meignanam, N. Premkumar, R. Siva, V. Vijayakumar, C. Rajasekaran, S. Ramya and R. Jayakumararaj / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 165-70. 2009
Evaluation of Antibacteral and Anticandidal Efficacy of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica): An In Vitro Study / Nayak Aarati et al / IJRAP 2011, 2(1): 230-235
Azadirachta indica in treatment of acne vulgaris-an open-label observational study / Anjali Miglani, Raj K Manchanda / Indian Journa of Research in Homeopathy (2014) Vol 8, Issue 4, Pp 218-223
Glycyrrhiza glabra and Azadirachta indica against Salmonella Typhi: Herbal Treatment as an Alternative Therapy for Typhoid Fever / Somia Gul*, Asma Eraj and Zehra Ashraf / Archives of Medicine
Neem in Oral Diseases - An Update / Akhilanand Chaurasia / Journal of Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology,2016:2(1):1-3
Anticancer biology of Azadirachta indica L (neem) A mini review / Rajkumar Paul,* Murari Prasad and Nand K. Sah / Cancer Biology & Therapy 12:6, 467-476; September 15, 2011
Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis
Nirmala Jamra, Giridhari Das, Priyanka Singh, Manjurul Haque / Journal of Parasitic Diseases, December 2015, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 786–788
Evaluation of the Antiulcer Activity of the Leaves of Azadirachta indica: An Experimental Study / Bhajoni P.S., Meshram G.G., Lahkar M. / Integr Med Int 2016;3:10-16 / DOI:10.1159/000442750
The Wound Healing Effects of Aqueous Leave Extracts of Azadirachta Indica on Wistar Rats. / Osunwoke Emeka A, Olutu Emamoke J, Allison Theodore A, Onyekwere Julius C / Journal of Natural Sciences Research, Vol.3, No.6, 2013
Central Nervous System Depressant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Azadirachta indica Linn in Mice / P. Thamarai Selvi*, M. Senthil Kumar, T. Yaswanth, E. Adiyaman, P.T. Anusha / Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 3, Pg 97-99
The inhibitory response of Azadirachta indica extract on nitric oxide production by milk leukocytes during clinical mastitis / Ujjwal Kumar De*, and Reena Mukherjee / VETERINARSKI ARHIV 79 (1), 41-50, 2009
Study of anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on infected albino rats / Manas Ranjan Naik, Ayon Bhattacharya, Rasmirekha Behera, Divya Agrawal, Suhasini Dehury, Sanjay Kumar / Journal of Health Research & Reviews (2014) 1(3): pp 65-69
Study on the effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaf extract on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and production of aflatoxin by it at different incubation times. / Ghorbanian M, Razzaghi-Abyaneh M, Allameh A, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Qorbani M. / Mycoses 2008 Jan;51(1):35-9. / DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2007.01440.x
The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indicaMimusops elengiTinospora cardifoliaOcimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study / Kunjal S. Mistry,  Zarna Sanghvi,  Girish Parmar,  and  Samir Shah / Eur J Dent. 2014 Apr-Jun; 8(2): 172–177.  / doi:  10.4103/1305-7456.130591
Antifungal efficacy of Azadirachta indica (neem) - An in vitro study / Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra and Ketaki Dattatray Balsaraf / Braz. J. Oral Sci. vol.13 no.3 Piracicaba July/Sept. 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1677-3225v13n3a15 
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), Part VII [1]
/ Salimuzzaman Siddiqui*, Shaheen Faizi, and Bina Shaheen Siddiqui /
Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Azadirachta Indica: A Therapeutic Study / Talha Bin Emran, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Atiar Rahman, Zia Uddin and Mohaiminul Islam / Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine, S12:007. / doi:10.4172/1948-593X.S12-007
Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals / Shail K Chaube, Tulsidas G ShrivastavMeenakshi TiwariShilpa PrasadAnima Tripathand  Ajai  K  Pandey / SpringerPlus 2014, 3:464 / https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-464
Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in dentistry / Atul Kaushik,  Renu Tanwar,   Monika Kaushik / Dental Hypotheses (2012) Vol 3, Issue 3; Pp 112-114 / DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.103933
Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind / Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar, and Visweswaran Navaratnam / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, July 2013; 3(7): pp 505-514 /
doi:  10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60105-7
Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in dentistry / Atul Kaushik, Renu Tanwar, Monika Kaushik / Dental Hypothesis, 2012; Vol 3, Issue 3: pp 112-114 / DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.103933
Medicinal and Cosmetic Potential of Neem (Azadiracta Indica) Seed Oil: A Review
/ Warra A A / Journal of Medicinal & Organic Chemistry
Protective effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats / MacDonald Idu, Oghale Ovuakporie-Uvo, Suzan O. Okojie / Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, 2017; Vol 1, No 1 / https://doi.org/10.4102/jomped.v1i1.6
Corrosion inhibition of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for Zinc in H2SO4 / Sanjay Kumar Sharma , Ackmez Mudhoo , Gargi Jain & Essam Khamis / Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, 2(1): pp 47-51 / DOI: 10.1080/17518250903002335
The Effect of Drying on the Phytochemical Composition of Azadirachta Indica Leaf Extract / Uche Winifred Arinze, Edwin O. Alumanah /I nternational Journal of Advanced and Innovative Research, 2018, Volume 7 Issue 2
Insignificant anti-acne activity of Azadirachta indica leaves and bark / Pratibha Nand, Sushma Drabu, Rajinder K Gupta / Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 2012; Vol 3, Issue 1: pp 29-33 / DOI: 10.4103/0976-9234.99650
Azadirachta indica : A herbal panacea in dentistry - An update / T Lakshmi, Vidya Krishnan, R Rajendran, N Madhusudhanan / Pharmacognosy Review, 2015; Vol 9, Issue 17: pp 41-44 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.156337

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