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Family Polygonaceae
Oriental pepper
Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach

Shui hong hua zi

Scientific names Common names
Amblygonum orientale (L.) Nakai Oriental pepper (Engl.)
Amblygonum pilosum (Roxb. ex Meisn.) Nakai Prince's feather (Engl.)
Goniaticum solitarium Stokes Prince's plume (Engl.)
Heptarina orientalis (L.) Raf. Tall persicaria (Engl.)
Lagunea cochinchinensis Lour. Kiss me over the garden gate (Engl.)
Lagunea orientalis Lour.  
Persicaria cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kitag.  
Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach.  
Persicaria pilosa (Roxb.) Kitag.  
Polygonum amoenum Blume  
Polygonum cochinchinense Meisn.  
Polygonum cordobense Lindau  
Polygonum orientale (L.) Spach  
Polygonum pilosum Roxb. ex Meisn.  
Polygonum torquatum Bruyn.  
Polygonum orientale (L.) is a synonym of Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach. The Plant List
Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Hati shunr, Hatisur.
CHINESE: Shui hong hua zi, Hong liao.
FRENCH: Baton de St. Jean, Monte-au-ciel, Persicaire dy Levant, Renouée orientale.
HINDI: Vasaka.
INDIA: Hati shunr.
JAPANESE: O-ke-tade.
SPANISH: Disciplinas de monja, Gitanas, Golilas de corte.

Polygonum orientale is a branching annual, 30 to 100 centimeters in height. Leaves are long petioled, ovate or ovate-cordate, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 5 to 12 centimeters wide, and covered with soft, silky, grey hairs. Racemes are cylindric, laxly panicled, 8 to 13 centimeters long. Flowers are white. Nut is rounded, black and shining, about 3 millimeters in diameter.

A variety of the plant has rose-pink flowers.

- In open, wet places along streams at low and medium altitudes in Pampanga and Rizal Provinces in Luzon.
- Also occurs in India to Japan and
southward to Australia.

- Rootstock yields oxymethyl-anthraquinone, 0.05%.
- Study yielded six compounds: myricitrin, luteolin, gallic acid, catechin, protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxycinnamic acid. (3)
- Study of aerial parts isolated three lignans: arctiin, lappaol B, orientalin. (5)
- Study of fruits yielded
28-O-ß,7ß-dihydroxt-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (a new triterpenoid saponin), 5,7-dihydroxychromone, and naringenin.
- Study for chemical constituents yielded seven compounds identified as ombuine-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), ombuine-3-O-rutinoside (2), tryptophan (3), quercetin-3-O-methyl ether (4), kaempferol-3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl) -beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (7). (12)
- Study for chemical constituents from flowers yielded nine compounds viz. alphitonin (1), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2), apocynin (3), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (5), 3,3′-dimethoxyellagic-acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (8), kaempferol (9). (14)
- Ethanolic extract of aerial parts yielded a new anthraquinone glucoside 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-anthraquinone (1), along with 1, 6-dihydroxy- 8-methoxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone (2), quercitrin (3), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnoside (4), arborinol (5), β-sitosterol (6) and β-sitosterol-D-glucoside (7). (15)

Parts used


- Nuts prescribed for flatulence and for tuberculous swellings.
- In India, whole plant is used for whooping cough and menorrhagia. Fruit and leaves are burned and prescribed for fever. Decoction of leaves used for liver and splenic diseases. (6)

- Decoction of ripe fruits used for treatment of hepatitis.
- In Bangladesh, roots or root juice use for urinary retention, taken to increase frequency of urination.   (20)
- Infusion used as tonic; also used in ulcerative colitis and as remedy of fever. (22)
- Herbal tonifying liquid: A constituent of an herbal spleen tonifying and liver protection liquid, together with P. orientalis, Prunella vulgaris, Radix bupleuri, R. rubescens, among others. (21)

Taxifolin / Antioxidant:
Study showed the taxifolin from Polygonum orientale showed very potent antioxidant activity. (1)
Free Radical Scavenging: Study investigated the free radical scavenging potentials of P orientale extracts. Results showed the free radical-scavenging activities to be: methanol>ethanol>water>ethyl acetate>chloroform. (2)
Cardioprotective / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the protective effect of flowers, leaves, and main stem of Polygonum orientale on H9c2 myocardial cells oxidative injury induced by H2O2. Results showed a protective effect on H9c2 myocardial cells oxidative injury. The activity showed a positive correlation with antioxidant activities. (4)
Antihyperglycemic / Flowers: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of an aqueous extract of flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and increase in liver glycogen. (6)
Cardioprotective Flavonoids: A FEE (flavonoid-enriched extract) was reported to show cardioprotective effect. Study isolated twenty-three active phenolics including ten flavonoid C-glycosides and six flavonoids O-glycosides. (7)
Bone Healing / Osteoblastic Effects: Study showed root tubers of P. orientale could increase ALP activity and DNA synthesis by stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro, respectively. Results partly explain the pharmacologic ways the herb promotes the healing of bone fractures and rheumatism. (8)
New Triterpenoid Saponin / Fruits: Study of fruits yielded 28-O-ß,7ß-dihydroxt-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (a new triterpenoid saponin), 5,7-dihydroxychromone, and naringenin. (9)
Effects on Osteoblastic Cell Growth / Benefits for Bone Healing and Rheumatism: Study showed root tubers could increase both ALP activity and DNA synthesis by stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro, with the potential to promote healing of bone fractures and rheumatism. . (10)
Absorption of Basic Dyes on P. orientale Activated Carbon: Low cost activated carbon from Polygonum orientale was evaluated for its ability to remove basic dyes (malachite green and rhodamine B). Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. (11)

Phytoremediation of Phenol from Waste Water: Removing phenol from wastewater is a major challenge of international concern. Study evaluated the ability of P. orientale to phytoremediate phenol. Results provide a theoretical basis for the understanding of mechanisms involved in removal of phenol by P. orientale. (13)
• Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study investigated methanolic extract of Persicaria orientalis leaves for antinociceptive activity in a rodent model using hot plate and tail immersion methods for acute effect and carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin-induced edema methods for chronic inflammatory effect. Results showed antinociceptive effect and protecting effect against inflammatory stimuli which may be due to phenolic and flavonoid compounds. (18)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Diarrheal / Thrombolytic / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated of methanolic extract of leaves showed significant anti-inflammatory (inhibition of hypotonicity-induced human red blood cell hemolysis and albumin denaturation) and anti-diarrheal (castor oil-induced diarrhea) effects and moderate thrombolytic (33.13% clot lysis) and lower cytotoxic (LC50 58.91 µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality) activities. (19)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated June 2019 / October 2017 / March 2017 / July 2015

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Polygonum orientale L. / Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Source: www.biolib.de/ AlterVISTA
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain /Polygonum orientale L. / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An M\illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 670 / AlterVISTA
IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Polygonum orientale L / Kiss me over the garden gate / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Databaset / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Determination of taxifolin in Polygonum orientale and study on its antioxidant activity / Yan Wei, Xiaoqing Chen et al /
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2009, Pages 154-157 /
doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.08.006 |
Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts / Xinyu Jiang, Xiaoqing Chen and Yan Wei / Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 61 (1), 79-83, 2009 / DOI:10.2298/ABS0901079J
Studies on chemical constituents in herb of Polygonum orientale / Li Y J et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Mar;30(6):444-6
Study on fingerprint-pharmacology correlation of protective effect of Polygonum orientale on myocardial cell oxidative injury induced by H202 / Zheng L, Li J, Chen H, Wang YL, Wang AM, Huang Y. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012 Sep;37(17):2585-8.
Studies on the Lignans of Polygonum orientale / ZHENG Shang-Zhen, WANG Ding-Yong, MENG Jun-Cai and SEN XU Wei / Acta Botanica Sinica Volume 40 Issue 5, Pages
Antihyperglycaemic activity on flower of Polygonum orientale Linn. using steptozotocin induced diabetic mice model / Vijay Nigam et al / Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 4, Issue 5: May: 2013, 2626-2631
UPLC–PDA–ESI–MS/MS Analysis of Compounds Extracted by Cardiac h9c2 Cell from Polygonum orientale / Shang-Gao Liao, Yue-Ting Li et al / Phytochemical Analysis, Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 25–35, January/February 2013 / DOI: 10.1002/pca.2374
In vitro evaluation of the effects of Polygonum orientale L. on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell / Mei-xian Xiang, Li Xu1, Yun Liu, Yun-jun Yan* Jin-yue Hu and Han-wen Su / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(2), pp. 231-236, 18 January, 2011
A new triterpenoid saponin from the fruits of Polygonum orientale / Yang zhi-yun, Qian shi-hui, Qin Min-jian / Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 2008, 43(4):388-391.
In vitro evaluation of the effects of Polygonum orientale L. on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell / Mei-xian Xiang, Li Xu, Yun Liu, Yun-jun Yan* Jin-yue Hu and Han-wen Su / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(2), pp. 231-236, 18 January, 2011
Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies / Liancheng Wang, Jun Zhang, R. Zhao, Chong Li, Yan Li, Chuanqin Zhang / Desalination, 2010 | Volume: 254, Issue 1-3
Studies on the chemical constituents in ethyl acetate extraction from the fruit of Polygonum orientale / Zhou-tao Xie, Jin Hu / Zhong Yao Cai 2009 Sep;32(9):1397-9
Phytoremediation of phenol using Polygonum orientale , including optimized conditions / Kai Wang, Jin Cai, Jia Feng, Shulian Xie / Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, December 2014, Volume 186, Issue 12, pp 8667-8681
Chemical constituents of flowers from Polygonum orientale / LI Yongjun, HE Xun, LIU Zhibao, HUANG Yong, LAN Yanyu, WANG Aimin, WANG Yonglin / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Anthraquinone glucosides from aerial parts of Polygonum macrophyllum D. Don. / Sushma Semwal *, Rajni Kant Sharma, Amita Bamola, Girish Pundeer, Usha Rawat / AsianJTM
Persicaria orientalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Persicaria orientalis / Common names / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Investigation of Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Persicaria Orientalis Leaves in Rodents / P Ansari et al. / J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 25.
Anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of an ornamental medicinal plant: Persicaria orientalis / Josim Uddin, Prawej Ansari, Md Masudur Rahman, A S M Ali Reza /  Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 1 Jan 2017; 28(1): pp 51-58 / DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0023
FOLK MEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS IN TANGAIL DISTRICT, BANGLADESH / Zahid Kamal, Mohammed Rahmatullah et al / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; Vol 3, Issue 11: pp 52-63
Spleen tonifying and liver protection liquid medicine: CN 103463240 / Patents: CN 201310366316
Study on medicinal uses of Persicaria and Rumex species of polygonaceae family / Tamanna Sharmin, Sonia Sultaha, Sharmin Tonny / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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