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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Paayap
Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp.

COWPEA

Scientific names   Common names  
Dolichos biflorus L. Paayap (Tag.)
Dolichos catjang Burm.f. Positaw (Tag.)
Dolichos catjang L. Sitaw-turo (Tag.)
Dolichos hastifolius Schnizl. Cowpea (Engl.)
Dolichos lubia Forssk. Blackeyed pea (Engl.)
Dolichos melanophthalmus DC. Field pea (Engl.)
Dolichos monachalis Brot.  
Dolichos obliquifolius Schnizl.  
Dolichos sinensis L.  
Dolichos sphaerospermus (L.) DC.  
Dolichos tranquebaricus Jacq.  
Dolichos unguiculata (L.)  
Dolichos unguiculatus (L.)  
Liebrechtsia scabra De Wild.  
Phaseolus unguiculatus (L.) Piper  
Vigna brachycalyx Baker f.  
Vigna catjang (Burm.f.) Walp.  
Vigna catjang Savi  
Vigna scabra (De Wild.) T.Durand & H.Durand  
Vigna scabrida Burtt Davy  
Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex Hausskn.  
Vigna sinensis subsp. Sinensis  
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.  
Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata  
Vigna unguiculata var. unguiculata  
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
GERMAN: Augenbohne, Kuhbohne.
INDIA: Ulavalu.
MALAGASY: Lozy, Mahalaindolo, Voahimba, Voanemba, Voatsirokonangatra.
PORTUGUESE: Feijão de Corda (Brazil).
RUSSIAN: Vigna konoplevidnaia.
SINHALESE: Li me, Me karal, Mil me, Wanduru me.
SPANISH: Caupí, Cumandá, Chiclayo (Peru), Frijol, Frijol camba, Frijol castilla (Peru), Frijol de costa, Frijol de vaca, Frijol de vara, Tumbe (Ecuador).


Botany
Paayap is an leguminous herbaceous annual with twining stems. Upright stems are hollow and hairless, about 1 centimeter wide. Leaves are trifoliate, 2.5 to 12.5 centimeters long. Two lateral leaves are asymmetrical. Central leaflet is hastate, symmetrical, smooth, with the lateral surfaces irregular. Flowers are in axillary racemes on stalks 15 to 30 centimeters long. Pods are pendulous, smooth, 10 to 22 centimeters long with a thick decurved beak and 10- to 15-seeded. Seeds are 4 to 8 millimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters wide, variable in size and color.

Distribution
- Cultivated.
- Native to East Asia.

Constituents
• Study on chemical constituents isolated one new saponin, vignalin, the aglycone part of which belongs to the oleanane series of triterpenoids identified as soyasapogenol B. Besides saponin, cycloartenol, stigmasterol and oleanolic acid acetate and sitosterol ß-D-glycoside were isolated for the first time.
• Study of dried edible seeds of V. unguiculata were: moisture, 6.20-8.92%; protein, 20.5-31.7%; fat 1.14-3.03%; fiver 1.70-4.5%; carbohydrate 56-65.7%, with varying amounts of cyanide, tannin, total oxalate and phytate.

• Nutrient composition of leaves on a dry weight basis ranged from 9.4 to 13.0% moisture, 303.8 to 468.9 mg/100 g phosphorus, 33.5 to 148.o mg/100 g ascorbic acid, and 27.1 to 34.7% protein. (20)
• Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponin glycosides, and sterols. (see study below) (23)
• Raw mature seeds yield (per 100 g): 11.4% moisture, 338 calories, 22.5 g protein, 1.4 g fat, 61.0 g total carbohydrate, 5.4 g fiber, 3.7 g ash, 104 g Ca, 416 g P, 0.08 mg thiamine, 0.09 g riboflavin, 4.0 g niacin and 2 mg ascorbic acid. (27)
• Seeds yield amino acids (mg/g N): isoleucine 239, leucine 440, lysine 427, methionine 73, cystine 68, phenylalanine 323, tyrosine 163, threonine 225, tryptophan 68, valine 283, arginine 400, histidine 204, alanine 257, aspartic acid 689, glutamic acid 1027, glycine 237, proline 244, and serine 268. (27)
• Immature pods contain per 100g: 85.3% moisture, 47 calories, 3.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 10.0 g total carbohydrate, 1.8 g fiber, 0.8 g ash, 45 mg Ca, 52 mg P, 1.2 mg Fe, 170 µg vitamin A, 0.13 mg thiamine, 0.10 mg niacin, and 22 mg ascorbic acid. (27)
- Study of ethanolic leaf extract yielded 15 chemical constituents. Major constituents were oct-2-ene (24.68%), nona-3,5-diene (18.86%), non-4-ene (14.02%), octadecanoic acid (12.93%) and hexadecanoic acid (11.45%) as the major chemical constituents. (32)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of seeds yielded flavonoids, alkaloids, and proteins. (see study below) (34)

Properties
• Study suggest antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-sickling, cardioprotective, thrombolytic, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, diuretic, anti-atherosclerotic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, membrane stabilizing properties.

Parts utilized
Roots, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary / Nutrition
- Young leaves, pods and pea are edible.
Consumed as vegetable
- Gabi-Paayap Instant Baby Food: A nutritious baby food from a blend of gabi powder, roasted paayap grits processed by extrusion cooking, with a 100-gram pack providing 394 kcal and 19.4 g protein. source
- Kamote-Paayap Weaning / Baby Food: A rootcrop-legume combo of dried kamote cubes and paayap girts containing 376 kcal and 12.5 g of protein per 100 g.
- Rice-Paayap Sesame Powder: A blend of 3/4 cup of roasted rice flour and two tablespoons each of roasted paayap flour and roasted sesame flour, provides 424 Kcal and 14 grams protein per 100 grams. source
- In Nigeria, roots are eaten and scorched seeds are occasionally used as coffee substitute. Nigeria is reputed to be the highest producer of cowpea in the world. (11)
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Africa, the seeds of V. unguiculata are cook with T. sericea as a soup against schistosomiasis.
In other folkloric medicinal systems, various parts of the cowpea plants (roots, leaves, and seeds) are used for a variety of medical ailments including dysmenorrhea, epilepsy, headaches, constipation, chest pains and bilharzia.
- In Nigerian folk medicine used to inhibit sickling and management of sickle cell disease and other manifestations.
- In India, seed decoction taken orally for kidney stones. (
22)
- The Hausa and Edo tribes used ground seeds mixed with soil or oil to treat stubborn boils. (27)
- In Nigeria, seeds from the plant used with other plant materials, such as akata, to form a paste used in the preparation of meals for the insane. (30)
Others
- Forage: Can be used as forage, hay, and silage. As silage, mixed with sorghum, maize, or molasses.

- Ritual: Cowpeas are sacred to Hausa and Yoruba tribes; prescribed to counter evil and pacify the spirits of sickly children. (27)

Studies
Report on Flatulence and Abdominal Discomfort on Ingestion: 1989 report on abdominal discomfort associated with ingestion of cowpea and the decreased incidence of side effects with pressure cooking and dehulling.
Antifungal / Antiviral: Study presents evidence of multiple proteins with antifungal and antiviral potency in cowpea seeds. The two proteins, designated alpha-antifungal and beta-antifungal, were capable of inhibiting HIV reverse transcriptase and one glycohydrolases associated with HIV infection. The proteins also retarded the mycelial growth of a variety of fungi, with the alpha-protein more potent in most cases.
Protein Source/ Anti-Nutrient Factors : Study suggests cowpea as a valuable protein source with the predicted protein deficit in Southern Africa. Unlike other legumes, VU contain anti-nutritional factors (ANF) as trypsin inhibitors, tannins and phytates.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study on the anti – inflammatory activity of Vigna unguiculata seed extract..
Anti-Bleeding: Rats on boiled white rice diet developed symptoms of severe vitamin K deficiency and the addition of autoclaved beans of V. unguiculata in the diet prevented the bleeding syndrome.
Antifungal / Antibacterial: Results have indicated antifungal and some antibacterial activity by cowpea leaf extracts.
Lipids / Constituents: Dried edible seeds of V unguiculata and P vulgaris grown in Northern Nigeria were studied for its chemical constituents. Iodine values were higher in vigna. Overall, potassium was the most abundant element in the seeds.16 amino acids were identified. Study highlights the safety and high nutritive values of the studied varieties.
Seed Oil Constituents: Study of seed oil constituents from 4 cultivars showed the oil content range from 2.71-2.96% with triglycerides the highest amount. Among sterols, stigmasterol was highest, followed by ß-sitosterol and campesterol. Among tocopherols, α-tocopherol was highest, and ß-tocopherol the lowest.(12)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Callus culture of V. unguiculata showed to be a potential source of flavonoids and phenolics, and an antimicrobial agent. (13)
Antisickling Potential / Seeds and Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-sickling potential of ethanol seed extracts of Vigna unguiculata and V. subterranean. Results showed both extracts showed antisickling effect suggesting potential benefit in the management of sickle cell disease. (14) Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of V. unguiculata for antisickling activity . The ethanolic extract was found to be more active than the aqueous extract. The activity was attributed to anthocyanins in the extract. (3
1)
Cardioprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. Results showed a cardioprotective nature in preventing cardioprotective diseases. The effect was attributed to the presence of antioxidants and antihyperlipidemic properties of the flavonoid fraction of leaves. (15)
Antidiabetic / Lipid Benefits / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of Vigna unguiculata seed oil in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed decrease in blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, LDL, ALT, AST and increase in HDL. (1
7)
Antibacterial / Seeds: Study evaluated ethanol and aqueous extracts of seeds for antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria (B. subtilis) and gram negative bacteria (E. coli). While both extracts showed concentration dependent activity against the microorganisms tested, the aqueous extract exhibited greater antibacterial activity. (1
8)
Thrombolytic / Seeds: In vitro study of methanolic extract of Vigna unguiculata seeds showed significant thrombolytic activity compared with standard streptokinase. The clot lysis activity may be due to the tannin and alkaloid content. (1
9)
Peptides / Influence on Insulin Resistance: Study showed cowpea peptides can induce Akt phosphorylation in cell culture. Administering cowpea peptides can probably mimic the action of insulin by activation of the insulin signaling cascade. (
21)
Anthelmintic / Seeds: Study evaluated powdered extracts of seeds of Vigna unguiculata for anthelmintic activity against Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Results showed paralysis and death of worms in a concentration dependent manner. The alcoholic extract showed more significant activity than the aqueous extract. (see constituents above) (
23)
Decreased Cardiac Oxidative Stress: Study showed Vigna unguiculata has potential as alternative therapy in decreasing cardiac oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, high doses can increase aorta estrogen receptor-ß expression in ovariectomized rats. (
24)
Endothelial Cell Benefits / Antiatherosclerosis: Study in ovariectomized rats showed Vigna unguiculata has alternative potential for increasing endothelial cell number, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and can also act as an anti-atherosclerotic agent by normalizing serum lipid profiles. (
25)
• Fatty Acid Composition / Cultivars Seed Oil: Study of seed oil from 4 cowpea cultivars grown in Pakistan showed an oil content range from 2.71-2.96%. Despite variations, unsaturated fatty acids were present in high concentrations in all cultivars. Among sterols, stigmasterol was present in highest amount followed by ß-sitosterol and campesterol. (28)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study investigated various cultivars (BW and Kpod) for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. With the exception of Fusarium equisetii, all cultivars inhibited growth of fungal pathogens. BW acetone extracts inhibited the growth of of S. aureus, E. faecalis, B. cereus, B. subtilis and E. cloacae. (29)
• Membrane Stabilizing Potential / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated different concentrations of methanolic extracts of seeds for membrane stabilizing activity via inhibition of hemolysis of erythrocyte membrane in hypotonic solution and heat-induced conditions. All the methanol extracts can significantly and dose-dependently inhibit HRBC hemolysis. (33)
• Acute Toxicity Study / Seeds: Acute oral toxicity study was done on a seed extract based on OECD guideline 423 with a test dose limit of 2000 mg/kbw in female wistar rats. Results suggest the aqueous extract is not acutely toxic to rats. The LD50 was found to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. (see constituents above) (34)
• Decreased Aortic Intima-Media Thickness / Promotion of Angiogenesis: Study evaluated the ability of V. unguiculata in affecting aortic intima media thickness, aortic diameters and aortic VEGF expression among ovariectomized rats. Results showed V. unguiculata extract elevated the decreased angiogenesis and aortic diameter. It also decreased aortic-intima-media thickness. Results suggest a potential alternative natural therapy for vascular pathology. (35)
• Effect on Atherosclerosis and Lipid Profile: Study evaluated the effect of V. unguiculata on its ability to increase endothelial cell number, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and to inhibit atherosclerosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Results suggest V. unguiculata is a good alternative to increase endothelial cell number and eNOS expression. Its antiatherosclerotic activity was evidenced by normalization of serum lipid profiles. (36)
• Diuretic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the diuretic effects of dried leaf powder extracts of V. unguiculata in normal wistar rats. An ethanolic extract produced significant diuretic effect as evidenced by increase in total urine volume and levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride in the urine when compared to standard drug furosemide. (37)
• Synergistic Effect Against Candida albicans Biofilm: Biofilms are structures that protect C. albicans from antifungal treatments. Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection common in immunodeficiency states, leukopenia, radiation therapy, and organ transplantation. Study evaluated the combination of Cinnamomum burmannii, Vigna unguiculata, and papain extracts from Carica papaya for inhibitory effects against C. albicans biofilms. Results showed the combination showed optimum synergic inhibition for C. albicans biofilms. (38)

Availability
- Wild-crafted. 
- Cultivated.


Updated April 2017 / August 2016


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE:: Seed / Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex Hassk. - VISI5 / Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) / Thesis / Mushtaq Noorwala
(2)
Flatulence and other discomforts associated with consumption of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)./ Ndubuaku V O; Uwaegbute A C; Nnanyelugo D O / Appetite 1989;13(3):171-81.
(3)
Structurally dissimilar proteins with antiviral and antifungal potency from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds./ Ye XY, Wang HX, Ng TB. / Life Sci. 2000 Nov 17;67(26):3199-207 /
(4)
A new monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata / Noorwala, M : Mohammad, F V : Ahmad, V U / J-Nat-Prod. 1995 Jul; 58(7): 1070-4
(5)
African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs: poisons and drugs : chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology / By Hans Dieter Neuwinger
(6)
Lipids and other constituents of Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris grown in northern Nigeria / V A Onwuliri and J A Obu / Food Chemistry Volume 78, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 1-7 / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00293-4
(7)
Effects of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) feeding on the pancreatic exocrine secretion of pigs / Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition / Volume 82 Issue 2-3, Pages 57 - 65
(8)
Anti – inflammatory activity of Vigna unguiculata seed extract / CN Ezekwesili, KA Obiora et al / Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences 9:141 – 145
(9)
Medicinal plants of the world: chemical constituents, traditional and modern / Ivan A. Ross
(10)
Antimicrobial activity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaf extracts./ Kritzinger, Q., Lall, N. and Aveling, T.A.S. / South African Journal of Botany 71(1): 45-48.
(11)
Comparative Germination Studies of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Linn. Walp) and Soy bean (Glycine max Linn. Merr) on Whole and Water Saturated Fractions of Hydrocarbon (Hexane) / *Ogbemudia, F. O., Denise, E. M., Ogie-Odia E.A. and Omonhinmin, A. C. / Annals of Biological Research, 2010, 1 (4) : 34-40
(12)
STUDIES OF OIL FROM COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN / M. ZIA-UL-HAQ, S. AHMAD*, E. CHIAVARO, MEHJABEEN AND SAGHEER AHMED / Pak. J. Bot., 42(2): 1333-1341, 2010.
(13)
Evaluation of Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of in vitro culture of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. / Sharad Vats, Radhika Tiwari, Afroz Alam, Kambaska K. Behera, and Ruchi Pareek /
Researcher 2012; 4(11)
(14)
Antisickling potential of the ethanol seed extracts of Vigna unguiculata and Vigna subterranean / Egba I. Simeone, Emmanuel N. Tufon*, Ogugua N. Victor and Ndohnui N. Noel / International Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology ISSN: 2169-3048 Vol. 1 (9), pp. 226-229, December, 2012.
(15)
Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model / P. A. Janeesh and Annie Abraham* / Food & Function Issue 4, 2013
(16)
Sorting Vigna names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(17)
VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN. WALP. SEED OIL EXHIBITING ANTIDIABETIC EFFECTS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / MD. ASHRADUZZAMAN, MD. ASHRAFUL ALAM, SHAHANAZ KHATUN, SHABNAM BANU AND NURUL ABSAR / Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 9, No. 1, 13–23 (2011)
(18)
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED EXTRACTS OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA / DOPPALAPUDI SANDEEP / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 1, 2014
(19)
In vitro thrombolytic potentials of methanolic extract of Vigna unguiculata Linn (seed) / Md. Saddam Hussain, Mohammad Salim Hossain, Mohammad Tohidul Amin and Md. Shalahuddin Millat / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2016; 5(3): 129-131
(20)
Selected nutritional components and sensory attributes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) leaves.
/ Ahenkora K, Adu Dapaah HK, Agyemang A. / Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998;52(3):221-9.
(21)
Influence of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Peptides on Insulin Resistance / Barnes MJ, Uruakpa FO* and Udenigwe CC / J Nutrition Health Food Sci 3(2): 1-3. / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/jnhfs.2015.00144
(22)
Bioscience Discovery, 4(2):250-253, July 2013 ISSN: 2229-3469 (Print) Herbal formulations used in treatment of kidney stone by native folklore of Nizamabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India / Vijigiri Dinesh, Shivraj Kashinath Bembrekar and P P Sharma / Bioscience Discovery, 4(2):250-253, July 2013
(23)
Phytochemical Properties and Anthelmintic Activity of Vigna unguiculata Linn.
/ Maisale AB, Patil MB, Jalalpure SS, Patil AM, and Attimarad SL / Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation, 1(2): Mar-Apr 2012, pp 51-52
(24)
The effects of Vigna unguiculata on cardiac oxidative stress and aorta estrogen receptor-β expression of ovariectomized rats / Etik Khusniyati, Alfie Ardiana Sari, Yuyun Yueniwati, Noorhamdani Noorhamdani, Tatit Nurseta, Kusnarman Keman / Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Vol 3, Issue 4, Dec 2014, Pp 263-267
(25)
The effects of Vigna unguiculata on aortic endothelial cells, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rats / Imroatul Azizah, Tria Wahyuningrum, Kusnarman Keman, Sanarto Santoso, Dwi Yuni Nur Hidayati / J Exp Integr Med. 2014; 4(3): 207-211 / doi: 10.5455/jeim.060514.or.103
(26)
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(27)
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata / James A. Duke, 1983, Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished / hort.purdue.edu
(28)
STUDIES OF OIL FROM COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.) CULTIVARS COMMONLY GROWN IN PAKISTAN / M. ZIA-UL-HAQ, S. AHMAD, E. CHIAVARO, MEHJABEEN AND SAGHEER AHMED / Pak. J. Bot., 42(2): 1333-1341, 2010.
(29)
Antimicrobial activity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaf extracts / O. Kritzinger, N. Lall, T. A. S. Aveling / South African Journal of Botany, Vol 71, Issue 1, March 2005, pp 45-48
(30)
Healing Insanity: A Study of Igbo Medicine in Contemporary Nigeria—Vigna unguiculata / Patrick E. Oroegbu /Xlibris Corporation8 Jun 2010 
(31)
In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins Extracts of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. / P.T. MPIANA* , V. MUDOGO, K.N. NGBOLUA, D.S.T. TSHIBANGU / RPMP Vol. 25 - Chemistry and Medicinal Value
(32)
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC–MASS SPECTROMETRIC (GC-MS) ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL LEAF-EXTRACT OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA (COWPEA) / AjaP. M., UgwuOkechukwu P.C., Okoro C. O., Nweke O. L., Ali Ikechukwu A. and Ogbu Patience N. / l.IJRRPAS,(2016) Vol.6 Issue.1 Pg:1284-1289
(33)
Elucidation of membrane stabilizing potentials of methanolic extract of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) linn (seed) / Md. Saddam Hussain, Mohammad Salim Hossain,* Niloy Sen, Md. Abdur Rahman, Md. Abdul Halim / Discovery Phytomedicine 2017, Volume 4, Number 1: 8-12
(34)
Acute Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Seed Extract of Vigna unguiculata in Albino Rats
/ Narasimha Kumar GV, Chitikela P Pullaiah, Dhanunjaya S, Dayanand Reddy G / Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences, Vol 5, Issue 2, March-April 2017
(35)
Vigna unguiculata reduces aortic intima-media thickness and increases aortic diameter and angiogenesis in ovariectomized rats / Dwi Yulinda, Tatit Nurseta / Journal of Experimental and Integrative Mediciine, 2014; 4(2): pp 85-88 / DOI: 10.5455/jeim.140414.br.022
(36)
The effects of Vigna unguiculata on aortic endothelial cells, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, lipid profile, and atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rats / Azizah, Imroatul; Wahyuningrum, Tria; Keman, Kusnarman; Santoso, Sanarto; Hidayati, Dwi Yuni Nur / Journal of Experimental & Integrative Medicine . Jul-Sep2014, Vol. 4 Issue 3, p207-211. 5p
(37)
Evaluation of diuretic activity on the leaves of Vigna unguiculata / Suruthi Chnadrasekaran, Vijaya Bharathi Rajkishore, Radha Ramalingam / International Journal of Advanced Research and Development,
Vol 1, Issue 4, April 2016, Pp 98-100
(38)
Synergistic Effect of the Combination of Cinnamomum burmannii, Vigna unguiculata and Papain extracts derived from Carica papaya Latex Against C. Albicans Biofilms Degradation / Muhammad Luthfi, Indah Listiana Kriswandini, Fitriah Hasan Zaba / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v49.i2.p71-75

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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