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Family Marattiaceae
Pakong kalabaw
Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
Lian zuo jue

Scientific names Common names
Angiopteris acrocarpa de Vriese Andawigay (Binukid)
Angiopteris alata Nadeaud Pakong kalabaw (Tagalog)
Angiopteris aurata de Vriese Salagisog (Binukid)
Angiopteris beecheyana de Vriese Elephant fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris brongniartiana de Vriese Giant fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris canaliculata Holttum King fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris commutata C.Presl Large giant king fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris cupreata de Vriese Madagascar tree fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris elongata Hieron. Mule's foot fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris erecta Desv. Oriental vessel fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris evanidostriata Hieron. Turnip fern (Engl.)
Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.  
Angiopteris evecta var. rurutensis E.D.Br.  
Angiopteris hellwigii Hieron.  
Angiopteris intricata C.Presl  
Angiopteris lasegueana de Vriese  
Angiopteris lauterbachii Hieron.  
Angiopteris longifolia Grev, & Hook.  
Angiopteris lorentzii Rosenst.  
Angiopteris naumannii Hieron.  
Angiopteris novocaledonica Hieron.  
Angiopteris palauensis Hieron.  
Angiopteris palmiformis (Cav.) C.Chr.  
Clementea palmiformis Cav.  
Danaea evecta (G.Forst.) Spreng.  
Polypodium evectum G.Forst.  
Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINA: Lian zuo jue.
CUBA: Helecho elefante.
INDIA: Yanai vanagi.
INDONESIA: Paku gajah, Sibakkat-laggai, Pakis munding.
NIUE: Polato.
PALAU: Bersarm, Demarm, Dermarm.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Faflako, Sagonefos.
SAMOA: Nase, Oli oli.
THAILAND: Wan kip raet, Wan kip ma, Kip ma lom.
TONGA: Hulufe tano, Hulufe vai, Ponga.

Gen info
- The Philippines has about 1,100 species of lycophytes and ferns, which represents approximately 9% of worldwide fern flora. A survey of pteridophytes of Adams, Ilocos Norte, one of the remaining floristic sites in Luzon, Philippines, recorded and vouchered 47 species, 34 genera, and 21 families of pteridophytes. Angiopteris evecta was one of six listed as "threatened".
- Angiopteris evecta is a very large rainforest fern in the family Marattiaceae, native to most parts of Southeast Asia and Oceania. The species history dates back to very primitive, about 300 million years,
suggested by fossilized fronds with distinct similarity to the plant that was found in Paleozoic rocks from every continent. It is believed to have the longest fronds of any fern in the world. It is the type species of the genus Angiopteris. (3)
- Etymology: The genus name Angiopteris derives from Ancient Greek aggeion, a vessel, and pteris, a fern , referring to the sporangia. The species epithet evecta derives from Latin evectus meaning to carry out, bring forth, raise, or elevate. (3)

Angiopteris evecta is a fleshy, robust, terrestrial fern, developing a stout stem and tall bipinnate leaves (up to 6 m long). Rhizome short, fleshy, massive, erect, forming a clump up to 1 m tall and 0.5(-1) m in diameter, partly concealed by persistent fleshy stipules of previous and present leaves. Leaves clustered at rhizome apex; petiole about 1/3 of the leaf length, 1-1.5 m × 5 cm or more, base swollen, with a pair of fleshy, rounded stipules 5 cm long and 7 cm wide, dark green with scattered whitish streaks, glabrous but when young more or less covered with appressed, soft, brown, linear scales and hairs that are soon deciduous; blade arching, up to 6 m × 2 m, usually bipinnate, upper side dark green, slightly paler at underside; rachis green, sparsely and deciduously scaly like the petiole, especially on the underside; smaller rachides narrowly alate distally; stipes of pinnae and pinnules swollen at the base; pinnae oblong-oblanceolate in outline, 1 m long or longer, midrib with 3 grooves above, terete below; pinnules usually 30-36 on a side, 2-3 cm apart, linear-oblong, up to 20 cm × 2.5 cm, inequilateral at the base, margin serrate with a small, blunt tooth at each vein, apex acuminate-attenuate and serrulate; veins simple or forked, raised and translucent; recurrent veins slender, usually conspicuous between and parallel with main lateral veins. Sori short, submarginal in an irregular line 0.5-1.5 mm from the edge, on lateral veins, composed of a double row of 3-7 sporangia that dehisce by vertical slits to release several thousands of spores per sporangium; receptacular hairs branched, usually conspicuous. Spores trilete, globose, the surface low tuberculate to rugate. (1)

- Native to most parts of Southeast Asia and Oceania.
- In wet tropical and subtropical primary and secondary forests, from sea level to 1200 m altitude.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Listed as a threatened' Philippine plants (DENR Administrative Order No. 2017-11). (3)

- Phytochemical screening of roots for secondary metabolites yielded flavonoids, saponin, polyphenol, tannin, quinones, monoterpene and sesquiterpene, with absence of alkaloids and steroids. (6)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of roots for secondary metabolites yielded flavonoids, saponin, polyphenol, tannin, quinones, monoterpene and sesquiterpene, with absence of alkaloids and steroids. (6)
-   LC-MS study revealed rhizome of A. evecta yields 9.9% angiopteroside, an extremely high yield for a plant extractive. (11)
- Study of leaves isolated 4,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-1H-pyran-1-one (2), angiopteroside (3) and well known stigmast-5-en-3-β-ol (1). (see study below) (12)

- Studies have suggest antihyperglycemic, analgesic, hair-growth promoting, antituberculosis, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial properties.

Parts used
Leaves, rhizomes, stems.


- In Papua New Guinea, starchy stipules are eaten in times of starvation.
- In the Philippines, croziers (curled top of young fern) used as ingredient of stews. (1)


- In the Philippines, pulverized young leaves used as poultice for swellings.
- Decoction of rhizome used to arrest discharge of blood after a miscarriage.
- Boiled rhizomes with green beans used to treat beriberi.
- In Indonesia, decoction of leaves of A. evecta and Diplazium esculentum given to pregnant women to treat backache. For severe backache, a concoction of roots of A. evecta, inflorescence of Etlingera punicea and Hedychium coronarium, and leaves of Kaempferia galanga.
- Rhizome chewed together with ginger and betel to treat spitting of blood.
- Pounded stems used as ingredient in cough medicine, and stipules as poultice for abdominal pain.
- In Papua New Guinea, leaves are bound to fractured limbs to aid healing. Mucilage from leaves applied to the body to reduce fevers. Fresh leaves used as poultice for stomach aches. (1)
- In Indonesia, used to treat baldness in children caused by high fever.
- In Vietnam, used for treatment of diabetes.
- Local people in the Kolli hills of Tamil, Nadu, use the plant for treatment of skin diseases and dysentery. Leaf decoction with lemon juice taken orally to treat intestinal ulcer and stomach aches. Tribal people of Meghalaya use the plant for treatment of headaches.
- In central Borneo, used for treatment of malaria.

- Antidotal to sorcerers and love magic: In New Guinea, used as an
tidote to the effects of lime powder that sorcerers use.  Oil from A. evecta leaf midribs used by unmarried young women who have fallen enamored having eaten from the hand of someone performing love magic -- smelling the oil will nullify its effect. (18)

Antihyperglycemic / Analgesic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity using OGTT and analgesic properties of leaves using acetic-induced abdominal writhings model in mice. Results showed dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose by 53.6% at 400 mg/kbw compared to glibenclamide 61.2% at 10 mg/kbw. In antinociceptive testing, there was 55.6 and 59.3% reduction in number of abdominal constrictions with 200 and 400 mg/kbw doses, compared to aspirin at 48.1 and 63.0%. Results suggest the leaves can be used for lowering blood sugar and alleviation of pain. (4)
Hair Growth Activity / Roots: Study evaluated the hair growth activity of ethanol and water extracts of roots of A. evecta topically applied on rabbit type Anggora with hair length parameter. The ethanol extract at concentrations of 40, 20 and 10% and water extract at 40 and 20% showed better results than positive control marketed minoxidil. The 40% ethanol and water extracts showed best results compared to minoxidil. Results suggest further research on bald volunteers. (5)
Anti-Alopecia Activity / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-alopecia activity of A. evecta Rusing ethanol 95% maceration of roots. Results showed the water fraction and n-hexane had hair growth stimulating activity; the water fraction showed best activity. Results were comparable with minoxidil. (6)
Antihyperglycemic / Analgesic / Roots: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and analgesic potential of methanolic extract of A. evecta roots by OGTT and acetic acid-induced pain model. Glibenclamide and aspirin were used as standard. The methanolic extract exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and analgesic potential. (7)
Comparison of Hair Tonic and A. evecta Gel Formulation as Hair Growth Stimulant: Study compared the hair growth promoting activities of formulations of gel and hair tonic preparations on rabbits used a modified Tanaka method. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the two formulas, and the best formula for hair tonic and gel was 10.0% and 12.5% extracts, respectively. Results suggest both may be used for stimulating hair growth. (8)
Antituberculosis / Leaves: Study screened 78 methanol plant extracts from 70 Malaysian plant species for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using a colorimetric microplate-based assay. Thirty-eight plant extracts from 36 species exhibited antituberculosis activity with MICs range of 1600-400 µg/ml. The leaf extract of Angiopteris evecta exhibited highest activity with MIC of 400 µg/ml.  (9)
Antioxidant / Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated ten methanol extracts from various parts of seven medicinal plants commonly used in Thai traditional medicine  for antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities. A. evecta and lotus leaf and pollen showed best activity in DPPH assay. Lotus leaf and A. evecta contained most abundant phenolics. A. evecta rhizome and Lotus leaf extracts (71.2% binding at 2 mg/ml) were most effective chelators. There was high correlation between metal binding capacity and OH scavenging activities. (10)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of leaves isolated 4,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-1H-pyran-1-one (2), angiopteroside (3) and well known stigmast-5-en-3-β-ol (1) Compound 3, angiopteroside, showed potential growth inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis. (12)
Anti-Alopecia Hair Tonic: Study evaluated the anti-alopecia activity of hair tonic formulation from water fractions (7.5, 10.0, and 12.5%) of A. evecta using rabbit based on Tanaka method. Results showed hair growth activity equal or higher than control minoxidil drug. F3 10% water fraction was the best formulation. Hair tonics were safe and did not irritate the skin. (13)
Antiproliferative / HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of A. evecta ethanolic extracts against malignant colon cancer cells (HT-29) and nonmalignant colon cancer cells (L929). Results showed anticancer activity against HT-29 colon cancer cells without harm to L929 cells. The IC50 on HT-29 cancer cells was 15.94 µg/ml at 24 hr. Results showed dose-dependent apoptotic effect against HT-29 cancer cells. HT-29 treated cells showed DNA damage or loss of DNA content in the sub G0/G1, S phase, and G2/M phase. Maximum apoptosis took place in the G0/G1. Results showed potential antiproliferative activity with low cytotoxicity to normal cells. (14)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of leaves of A. evecta. Results showed inhibition zones of 11.22, 10.22, and1030 mm against S. typhi, P. acne and B. cereus, respectively. On antioxidant assays, results showed IC50 of 0.08 mg/mL on DPPH radical scavenging assay, and 3.48 mg/mL on OH radical scavenging assay. (15)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves and Stem Bark: Study successively extracted leaves, stem bark, stem heartwood, root and tubers of A. evecta with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and methanol. All fractions exhibited wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. The dichloromethaneand ethyl acetate fractions of leaves and stem bark were the only fractions that exhibited antifungal activity. All tuber fractions except petrol, exhibited good antibacterial activity. (16)
Hypoglycemic Effect / Roots: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of eight Vietnamese herbs used in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. The extracts reduced blood glucose both orally and intraperitoneally using glucose tolerance tests in mice.  Three extracts exhibited reduction in blood glucose. Angiopteris evecta at 300 mg/kg i.p. and 1500 mg/kg orally strongly reduced blood glucose levels (p<0.001). At 1000 mg/kg orally it suppressed rise in blood glucose in normal mice during oral glucose tolerance test. (17)
Antiplasmodial Effect / Tubers: Ethanolic extract of A. evecta tubers showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity with IC50 of 2.858 µg/mL against Plasmodium falciparum. Fractionation yielded three fractions, FA, FB, and FC which showed IC50s of 37.93, 3.35, and ≥250 µg/mL, respectively. FB showed strongest inn vitro antiplasmodial activity. (20)

Ornamental cultivation.

May 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Angiopteris evecta / Poyt448-- Peter Woodward / CC0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Angiopteris evecta / Margaret R Donald / CC BY SA 4.0 International / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Angiopteris evecta / © Plantmark Wholesale Nurseries / click on image to go to source page / plantmark

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm. (PROSEA) / W P de Winter & P C M Jansen / Pl@ntUse

Angiopteris evecta / KEW: Plants of the World Online
The Pteridophytes of Adams, Northern Luzon, Philippines and their Ecosystem Services
/ Liezel M. Magtoto, Celia M Austria / Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology, 2017; 11(2)
PRELIMINARY ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA LEAVES IN SWISS ALBINO MICE / Samira Sultana, Joyanto Kumar Nandi, Shahnaz Rahman, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 3(10): pp 1-12 / ISSN: 2278-4357

Activity of Angiopteris evecta for baldness treatment / Resmi Mustarichie, Wiwiek Indriyati, Abdul Mukmin and Danni Ramdhani /  Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 8(5): pp 821-830 / ISSN: 0975-7384
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES WITH ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA ROOTS  / Md. Forhad Molla, Shahnaz Rahman, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, Mohammed Rahmatullah /  World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 3(8): pp 105-115 / ISSN: 2277-7105
Comparison study of hair tonic and gel formulation of angiopteris evecta as a hair growth stimulant / Resmi Mustarichie, Dolih Gozali, Imam Adi Wicaksono, Feris Dzaky Ridwan Nafis / International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 2019; 11(4): pp 199-205 / DOI: 10.22159/ijap.2019v11i4.33071
Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants / Suriyati Mohamad, Nabihah Mohd Zin, Habibah A Wahab et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2011; 133(3): pp 1021-1026 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.037
Antioxidative and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Plants Used in Thai Folk Medicine
/ N Hutadilok-Towatana, P Chaiyamutti, K Panthong, W Mahabusarakam, V rukachaisirikul /  Pharmaceutical Biology, 2006; 44(3): pp 221-228 / DOI: 10.1080/13880200600685592
Two-dimensional NMR analysis of Angiopteris evectarhizome and improved extraction method for angiopteroside / Hiroshi Kamitakahara, Tomoki Okayama, Toshiyuki Takano et al / Phytochemical Analysis, 2019; 30(1): pp 95-100 / DOI: 10.1002/pca.2794
Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activities of Leaves of Sumatran King Fern (Angiopteris evecta G. Forst HOFFM.)  / Vivi Anggia, Amri Bakhtiar, and Dayar Arbain / Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia, 2015; 7(4)
Hair Tonic Formulation of Anti-alopecia of Angiopteris evecta Extract / Gozali Dolih, Mustarichie Resmi / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2019; 12(3): pp 1079-1085 / pISSN: 0974-3618 / eISSN: 0974-360X / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00177.X
In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. Extracts against Cultured HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells / S Catharin Sara, R Gnana Deepa Ruby / Ferns, 537-551 / DOI: 10.1007/978-981-16-6170-9_22
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOACTIVITY OF Angiopteris evecta LEAVES FROM EAST KALIMANTAN / Andi Mismawati, Choladda Sri Suwannaket, Withawat Mingvanish, Nakorn Niamnont et al / Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference 2015 (PACCON2015)
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Angiopteris evecta / M R Khan, A D Omoloso /  Fitoterapia, 2008;  79(5): pp 366-369 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.02.007
SCREENING OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF EIGHT VIETNAMESE HERBAL DRUGS / N K Hoa, D V Phan, N D Thuan, C G Östenson / Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009; 31(3): pp 165-169 / CCC: 0379-0355/2009 / DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.3.1362514
An Ethnobotanical Study in Tok Pisin and English / Porer Nombo and James Leach / Reite Plants
Ethnomedicinal Uses of Pteridophytes in Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India / V Karthik, K Raju, M Ayyanar, K Gowrishankar, T Sekar / J Nat Prod Plant Resour., 2011; 1(2): pp 50-55 /
ISSN: 2231-3184
In-vitro Antiplasmodial Activity and the Chromatogram Profile of Active fraction of Central Borneo-Type Angiopteris evecta Tubers / Arnia, Wahyono, Mustofa, R Asmah Susidarti / Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy (SAJP), 2014; 3(4): pp 339-343 / eISSN: 2320-4206 / pISSN: 2347-9531

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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