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Family Asteraceae
Pakopatoti-alog
Grangea maderaspatana (Linn.) Poir.
MADRAS CARPET

Tian ji huang

Scientific names Common names
Artemisia maderaspatana Linn. Pakopatoti-alog (Ilk.)
Cotula anthemoides L. Madras carpet (Engl.)
Cotula maderaspatana (L.) Willd.  
Cotula sphaeranthus Link  
Grangea adansonii Cass.  
Grangea aegyptica (Juss. ex Jacq) DC.  
Grangea glandulosa Fayed  
Grangea hispida Huumbert  
Grangea maderaspatana (Linn.) Poir.  
Grangea sphaeranthus (Link) K. Koch  
Grangea strigosa Gand.  
Tanacetum aegypticum Juss. ex Jacquem.  
Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Afsantin.
BENGALI: Namuti.
CHINESE: Tian ji huang.
GUJARATI: Jhinkimundi, Nahanigora, Khamundi.
HINDI: Mustaru, Mukhatari.
MALAY: Nelam-pata, Nelampala.
MALAYALAM: Nilampala
MANIPURI: Leibungou
MARATHI: Mashipatri
PERSIAN: Baranjasiif kowhi.
TAMIL: Mashipatri.
TELUGU: Machi-patri.
VIETNAMESE: Rau cóc; Chân cua bồ cóc; nụ áo; cải đồng

Botany
Pakopatoti-alog is a hairy, branched herb, spreading from the roots and growing up to 70 centimeters high. Buds are white and wooly. Leaves are 3 to 6 centimeters long, alternate, stalkless, sinuately pinnatifid, and divided into toothed lobes. Flowering heads are borne opposite the leaves, and are short-peduncled, rounded, and 8 to 10 millimeters in diameter. Flowers are small, very numerous, and yellow. Involucral bracts are ovate, thick, rigid, and hairy. Achenes are cylindric, glandular, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus-hairs are connate, ending in a short, fimbriate tube.

Distribution
- An occasional weed in open, waste places in and about towns.
- In La Union, Pampanga, Bulacan and Rizal Provinces in Luzon.
- Introduced.
- Also occurring in tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa.

Constituents
- Study isolated a diterpenoid from the acetone extract - 8-hydroxy-13E-labdane-15yl-acetate.
- Study of methanol extract yielded a total phenolic content of 121.45 ± 2.56 µg Gallic acid equivalent of phenol. (see study below) (2)
- Study of the whole plant isolated two new 5-deoxyflavones, 6-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone and 6-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone, together with a known flavone, 7,2′,4′-trimethoxyflavone.
- Study of whole plant isolated two new bioactive flavones: 5-deoxyflavones, 6-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (1), 6-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and a known flavone, 7,2′,4′-trimethoxyflavone (3). (7)
- Major components of essential oil from fresh aerial parts were α-humulene (46.3%), β-caryophyllene (9.3%), α-copaene (8.2%), β-myrcene (4.3%), Z(E)-α-farnesene (3.7%), and calarene (3.5%). The diverse volatile organic constituents showed significant acetylcholinesteraze inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 31.33 ± 1.03 µg/mL. (see study below) (11)
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts (PE/petroleum ether, C/chloroform, EA/ethyl acetate, M/methanol, W/water) yielded carbohydrates (M, W), phenolics and tannins (M, W), saponins (M, W), steroids (PE, C, EA), flavonoids (M, W), terpenes (PE, C, EA, M, W). (see study below) (14)
- Study of extracts of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 21 compounds constituting 91.5% of the oil, which was characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenoids (sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons 36.1% and oxygenated sesquiterpenoids 28.4%). Most abundant compounds were y-gurjunene (26.5%), terponyl acetate (20.8%), and hinesol (11.7%). (see study below) (17)

Properties
- Considered analgesic, stomachic, antiseptic, antispasmodic.
- Studies have suggested analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, diuretic antioxidant, estrogenic, anti-implantation properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots.

Uses

Edibility
- Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Reported to have narcotic effects. (9)
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, leaf infusion used as stomachic and antispasmodic.
- In India leaves are a valuable stomachic with deobstruent and antispasmodic properties. Also, prescribed as an infusion and electuary for obstructed menses and hysteria.
- Leaves sometimes used in antiseptic and anodyne preparations.
- In Odisha, India, roots of G. maderaspatana (agni-kumari) are chewed after meals for 15 days for dyspepsia. (12)
- Tamool doctors used the leaves for stomachic , deobstruent, and antispasmodic properties. Infusion or electuary of leaves used for obstructed menses and hysteria. (13)
- In India, a popular medicinal plant used for knee joint rheumatism and muscle pains. (15)
- Leaf sap used externally for earaches. (16)
- In Odisha, India, natives chew roots after a meal to counter dyspepsia. (18)
- In China, tea from whole plant used for heat-clearing and detoxifying. (21)


Studies
Analgesic:
Study of methanol extract of the whole plant of Grangea maderaspatana showed a dose-dependent analgesic activity. At doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, there was significant (p<0.001) inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing in mice by 50% and 80%, respectively. (1)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated methanol extract for antioxidant activity. The ME exhibited significant (p<0.05) reducing power ability, DPPH radical scavenging activity, NO radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, and inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching. The antioxidant activity was concentration dependent, increasing with the amount of extract. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
(2)
Estrogenic / Anti-implantation Efficacy: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from G. maderaspatana showed estrogenicity and anti-implantational activities in a mouse study. (4)
Diterpenoid: Study of acetone extract yielded a new diterpenoids: 8-hydroxy- 13E-labdane-15yl-acetate.
• Toxicity Study: Using OECD guidelines, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of G. maderaspatana did not produced any mortality up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg p.o. (10) Extract containing 2000 mg/kg of different phytoconstituents administered by OECD guidelines per orem to six mice showed no behavioral effects or mortality. (14)
• Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the volatile components of A. maderaspatana and its acetylcholinesteraze potential. Yield of essential oil from fresh aerial parts was 0.06% v/w. (see constituents above) (11)
• Anti-Anxiety: Study evaluated chloroform and methanol extracts of G. maderaspatana for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze testing. The chloroform extract showed significant anti-anxiety activity at 400 m/kg dose in mice. The activity was attributed to the presence of terpenoids, steroids, and saponins. (14)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Rheumatic: Study evaluated the anti-nociceptive and antirheumatic and anti-inflammatory activity of G. maderaspatana in experimental models. Results showed antinociceptive activity using tail flick test, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic activities using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis models. (15)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: Study of extracts of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 21 compounds constituting 91.5% of the oil. The oil showed antioxidant potential with significant reducing power (ASE/ml 2.01), chelating activity (IC50 1.80 ± 0.15), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 2.90 ± 0.96). Antimicrobial testing against one gram positive, four gram negative, and two fungi showed ZOI of the oil in range of 2.67 ± 0.58 to 11.00 mm and MIC range of 5 to 30 µg/mL. Activity was pronounced against C. albicans. (see constituents above) (17)
• Diterpenes / Gramaderins / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of ethanol extract isolated gramaderins A-D, along with 13 known compounds. The isolates were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activities. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone inhibited superoxide anion generation, while 8-Acetoxy-pentadeca-1,9Z,14-trien-4,6-diyne-3-ol demonstrated potent inhibition on elastase release. (19)
• Frullanolide / Anti-Breast Cancer by Apoptosis Induction: Study evaluated the anti-breast cancer potential of frullanolid, a compound isolated and purified from G. maderaspatana plant, against selected breast cancer cell lines. Frullanolide exhibited strong anti-breast cancer activity against MDA-MD-468 (IC50 8.04 ± 2.69 µg/ml) and weak cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The anticancer mechanism was elucidated via cellular apoptosis and present frullanolide as a possible novel approach to breast cancer therapy. (20)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Updated April 2019 / April 2017 / July 2014

© Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: /File:Grangea maderaspatana (Madras Carpet) W IMG 9902.jpg / J M Garg / 05.07.08 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
A preliminary study on the analgesic activity of Grangea maderaspatana / Ahmed M, Islam MM, Hossain CF, Khan OF / Fitoterapia, 2001 Jun; 72(5): pp 553-554 /
PMID: 11429253
(2)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Grangea maderaspatana Poir. / Veena Patel, Sangita Shukla, Sandip Patel / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009; Vol 5, No 20: pp 381-387
DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.58156
(3)
A diterpene from Cipadessa fruticosa and Grangea maderaspatana / S R Rohatkar et al /
Phytochemistry
Volume 37, Issue 4, 7 November 1994, Pages 1213-1214 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89562-X
(4)
Oestrogenic and pregnancy interceptory efficacy of a flavonoid mixture from Grangea maderaspatana poir (Artemisia maderaspatana) in the mouse / Sunita Jain, Vineeta Sareen, Anita Narula / Phytotherapy Research, Sept-Oct 1993; Vol 7, Issue 5: pp 381–383 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650070512
(5)
Two new bio-active flavones from Grangea maderaspatana (Artemisia maderaspatana) / V Rao, G Damu et al / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2009; Vol 21 No 2: pp 1552-1558
(6)
Madras Carpet / Common names / Flowers of India
(7)
Two new bio-active flavones from Grangea maderaspatana (Artemisia maderaspatana)
/ Rao, V. M.; Damu, G. L. V.; Sudhakar, D.; Rao, C. V. / Asian Journal of Chemistry 2009 Vol. 21 No. 2 pp. 1552-1558
(8)
Grangea maderaspatana / Synonyms / The Plant List
(9)
Grangea maderaspatana / Useful Tropical Plants
(10)
GRANGEA MADERASPATANA (L.) POIR. – A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW / VARSHA J. GALANI*, RAXIT P. RACHCHH / Innoriginal International Journal Of Sciences, Vol 2 Issue 3, May-June 2015

(11)
Chemical composition and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Artemisia maderaspatana essential oil / Jyotshna, Nidhi Srivastava, Bhuwanendra Singh, Debabrata Chanda & Karuna Shanker / Journal
Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 53, 2015, Issue 11

(12)
Traditional uses of medicinal plants by native people in Nawarangpur district, Odisha, India / N. K. Dhal, S. S. Panda* and S. D. Muduli / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2015, 5(2): 27-33
(13)
Grangea maderaspatana / George Watt / A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Volume 4
(14)
Evaluation of Anti-anxiety Activity of Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. Extracts in Experimental Animals
/ Tanvi Dodiya and Vineet Jain / Int J Ayu Pharm Chem, 2017; Vol. 6, Issue 1
(15)
Evaluation of antinociceptive and antirheumatic activity of Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poir. using experimental models. / Rachchh RP, Galani VJ. / AYU, Oct-Dec 2015; 36(4): pp 425-431 / doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.190695 / PMID: 27833373
(16)
Grangea maderaspatana / Useful Tropical Plants
(17)
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GRANGEA MADERASPATANA (L.) POIR. EXTRACT / Darshan Singh Kamboj, Chandra Shekhar Mathela, Veena Pande, Amit Panwar / Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics, 2013; 1(7): pp 46-52
(18)
Traditional uses of medicinal plants by native people in Nawarangpur district, Odisha, India / N. K. Dhal, S. S. Panda and S. D. Muduli / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2015; 5(2): pp 27-33
(19)
Diterpenes from Grangea maderaspatana. / Chang FR, Huang ST, Liaw CC, Yen MH, Hwang TL, Chen CY, Hou CY, Yuan SS, Cheng YB, Wu YC / Phytochemistry, 23 Aug 2016; 131: pp 124-129 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.08.009
(20)
Anti‑breast cancer potential of frullanolide from Grangea maderaspatana plant by inducing apoptosis /
SIRIPHORN CHIMPLEE, POTCHANAPOND GRAIDIST, THEERA SRISAWAT, SUCHADA SUKRONG, RASSANEE BISSANUM and KANYANATT KANOKWIROON / ONCOLOGY LETTERS / DOI: 10.3892/ol.2019.10209
(21)
Ethnobotanical survey of plant species for herbal tea in a Yao autonomous county (Jianghua, China): results of a 2-year study of traditional medicinal markets on the Dragon Boat Festival / Bing Jin, Yujing Liu, Jiaxi Xie, Binsheng Luo, and Chunlin Long / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2018; 14:58 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0257-0

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