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Family Cucurbitaceae
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

Han gua

Scientific names Common names 
Anguria citrullus Mill.  Pakuan (Tag.)
Citrullus amarus Schrad.  Timun (Sul.)
Citrullus anguria (Duchesne) H.Hara  Watermelon (Engl.)
Citrullus aquosus Schur.   
Citrullus battich Forssk.   
Citrullus caffer Schrad.   
Citrullus caffrorum Schrad.   
Citrullus chodospermus Falc. & Dunal   
Citrullus citrullus H. Karst.   
Citrullus edulis Spach  
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.  
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai  
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.   
Cucumis citrullus (L.) Schrad.  
Citrullus citrullus (L.) Ser..  
Cucuribita citrullus L.  
Cucuribita gigantea Salisb.  
Cucuribita pinnatifida Schrank  
Momordica lanata Thunb.  
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Waatlemoen, Egusi melon.
ARABIC : Battikh (baṭṭīḫ), Battikh ahmar (red-fleshed), Bateekh, Betteakh (Egypt).
BENGALI : Taramuj, Tormuj.
CATALAN : Sindriera.
CHINESE : Shi yong xi gua, Choei koa, Ts'ing teng koa, Han koa, Hia koa, Xi gua, Han gua.
CROATIAN : Lubenica.
CZECH : Cukrový meloun, Lubenice meloun, Lubenice obecná, Meloun vodní, Vodní meloun.
DANISH : Vandmelon.
DUTCH : Watermeloen.
ESTONIAN : Arbuus, Vesimelon.
FRENCH : Melon d'eau, Pastèque.
GERMAN: Wassemelone, Wassermelone , Gewöhnliche Wassermelone, Wasserzitrulle.
GREEK : Kαρπούζι Karpusi, Karpouzia (Cyprus).
HEBREW : Avatiach, Avatiach pashut.
HINDI : Kharbuza ( kharmuja), Tarabūja, Tarabuuza.
ITALIAN : Anguria, Cocomero (Tuscany), Melone d'acqua, Pastecca.
KOREAN : Su bak (Soo bahk).
LAOTIAN : Môô, Tèèng môô.
NEPALESE : Tarabuujaa (Tarbuja).
PORTUGUESE: Melancia, Melância.
SPANISH : Sandía, Melón de agua.
SWAHILI : Mtango, Mtikiti.
TAMIL : Palam, Vattākku.
THAI : Taeng chin, Taeng moh, Matao.
VIETNAMESE : Dưa hấu, Dưa hấu ruột đỏ.
See Sorting Citrullus names for the complete listing

Citrullus lanatus derives from Greek and Latin words: Citrullus from the Greek word "citrus" and lanatus is Latin, meaning woolly or referring to the short hairs on stems and leaves. (31)

Pakuan is a spreading, hairy, tendril-bearing annual vine reaching a length of several meters. Leaves are long-stalked, oblong-ovate, 8 to 20 centimeters long, deeply 3- to 7-lobed, pinnatifid with usually narrowed segments. Flowers are monoecious, yellow, and about 2 centimeters in diameter, occurring singly in axils of the leaves. Fruit is very large, smooth, ellipsoid to oblong, light green with irregular dark green-mottled stripes, sometimes covered with a white, waxy bloom, about 30 centimeters long. The flesh is white, yellowish, pink or red; crisp, soft and juicy. Seeds are compressed, sometimes red, usually black.

- Widely cultivated in the Philippines.

- Citrullus lanatus produced a fruit that is 93% water, hence, the name watermelon. (31)
- Fruit extract yielded carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols.
- The skin contains a fixed oil, arachidic acid, and traces of copper.
The seeds contain oil, 15 to 45%, made up of glycerides of linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic and stearic acids. The oil contains a small amount of phytosterol.
- A study suggests the active principle in the seed is a glucoside-saponin named cucurbocitrin.
- Flesh of fruit contains saccharose, dextrose, levulose, invert sugar, citrullin, lycopin, carotin, etc.
- All parts of the watermelon - rind, flesh, and seeds - contain citrulline, a non-essential amino acid, which converts to L-arginine when eaten.
- Seeds are a rich source of enzyme urease.
- Unsaturated fatty acid content of an ether extract in water melon seeds was reported at 76.1%, mainly linoleic acid.
- A 1967 study isolated a new amino acid from the pressed juice of Citrullus vulgaris and named p-(pyrazolyl-N)-alanine on the basis of its nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and other properties. (
- Study of vine yielded ten compounds: pentadecanoic acid, monopentadecanoin, 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate, lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester, lancerebroside 5, salicylic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroquinone, succinic acid and vanillic acid. (15)
- Alcoholic and aqueous extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, glycosides and steroids. (See study below) (18)
- Physiochemical composition yielded moisture 19.21%, ash content 2.85%, acid soluble 2.105%, acid insoluble 1.00%, fibre content 13.67%, oil content 35.2%, iodine value 179.0, acid value 148.0, invert sugar 39.95%. (19)
- Analysis of fatty acid profile of seed oil confirmed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic acids, with linoleic acid being the most abundant of the five. Physiochemical characteristics of seed oil showed a saponification value of 132.33 mgKOH/g, acid value 06.48KOH/g, peroxide value 21 meq/kg, iodine value 123 gI2/100g, specific gravity 0.915, refractive index 1.46. (
- Macronutrient profile (per 1 cup diced watermelon [approx. 152 g]): 45 calories, 1 g protein, 11.5 g carbohydrate, 0.2 g fat. Watermelon is an excellent source of vitamin C 12.3 mg (20.5% DV), vitamin A
865 IU (17.3% DV); a very good source of potassium 170 mg (4.9%DV). Other minerals and vitamins are magnesium 15 mg (3.8% DV), vitamin B6 0.07 mg (3.5% DV), vitamin V1 0.05 mg (3.3% DV), vitamin E 0.08 mg (3% DV), manganese 0.06 mg (3% DV), dietary fiber 0.6 g (2.4% DV), iron 0.4 mg (2.2% DV), phosphorus 17 mg (1.7% DV), folate 5 mcg (1.3% DV), and calcium 11 mg (1.1% DV). (DV is daily value based on a 2,000 calorie diet, as established by USFDA) (26)
- Dried egusi seed with shell per 100 g yield water 5.1g, energy 2340 kJ (557 kcal), protein 38.3 g, fat 47.4 g, carbohydrate 15.3 g, calcium 54 mg, phosphorus 755 mg, iron 7.3 mg, thiamin 0.19 mg, riboflavin 0.15 mg, niacin 3.55 mg, and folate 58 µg. (Schippers, 2002) (31)
- Phytochemical screening of seed extracts yielded steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins in ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. The ethanol extract also yielded anthraquinones, tannins, and reducing sugars. (see study below) (41)

- Seeds considered cooling, demulcent, diuretic, vermifuge, nutritive, pectoral and pectic.
- The crude extract of seeds believed to have a lowering blood pressure effect.

- Studies have shown antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, mosquitocidal, repellent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, anti-ulcer, laxative properties.

Parts utilized
Seeds, fruit, roots.

Edibility / Nutrition
- Widely eaten in the Philippines.
Not high in nutritive value; only a fair source of calcium and iron.
- Seeds are oily; sometimes used as substitute for peanuts.
- African cuisine used the entire fruit: Seeds are eaten as snacks, added to dishes, ground in flour; rind can be stir-fried, stewed, candied, pickled, or grilled; flesh eaten or juiced or fermented into alcohol.     (26)
- The juice of the roots used for hemorrhage after abortion.
- Juice of fruit use as antiseptic in typhus fever.
- With cumin and sugar, juice is used as a cooling drink in strangury and affections of the urinary organs, such as gonorrhea; also used for hepatic congestion and intestinal catarrh.
- In China, rind of the fruit is powdered after drying and incineration and used for aphthous mouth sores.
- Pulp is used as a drastic purgative.
- In Tonkin, pericarp used for diarrhea.

- Seeds used to alleviate symptoms of acute cystitis.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used to relieve scanty urination, excessive thirst, for treating icteric hepatitis and urinary tract infections.
- Used in Chinese herbal medicine for erectile dysfunction, acne, diabetes, nephritic edema.
- Water source / Alternative Food Source: In the semi-arid central Tanzania, water melons are available in appreciable quantities to be used as livestock as water source during the dry season. One hectare can produce sufficient water melons to supply water to a growing bull for 3-5 months. In years of famine, the rind is dried and made into porridge. Farmers also extract oil from the melon seeds to use for cooking.

Hypothyroidism: Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism: Results showed thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidase roles. (1)
Mosquitocidal / Repellent: Mosquitocidal and repellent activity of the leaf extract of Citrullus vulgaris (cucurbitaceae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi liston (diptera culicidae): The C vulgaris plant showed insect growth regulatory activity against Anopheles stephensi. (4)
Thyroid Stimulation / Regulation of Lipid Peroxidation: Study of the fruit peel extracts of M indica, C melo and Citrullus vulgaris showed stimulatory thyroid activity in PTU-induced hypothyroid animals and lipid peroxidation inhibition. but only when treated individually. A parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed when used in combination.
Citrulline / Rind: Watermelon is a natural and rich source of the non-essential amino acid citrulline. It is used in the nitric oxide system, with potential antioxidant and vasodilatory effects. Red flesh watermelons had slightly less citruline than yellow or orange flesh watermelons. Rind contains more citrulline than flesh. The watermelon rind, an underutilized agricultural waste, presents as a rich source of natural citrulline. (5)
Supplementation / Improved Aortic Blood Pressure: Study showed watermelon supplementation improves aortic hemodynamics through a decrease in the amplitude of the reflected wave in individuals with prehypertension. Supplementation was well tolerated by all subjects, with no adverse effects reported. (9)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study showed the leaves extract of C. colocynthis, C. lanatus and C. vulgaris were very effective against bacteria and some fungal strains than other species. All three showed maximum inhibition against E. coli and Candida albicans. (14) Study evaluated methanol extracts and fractions of leaves of C. lanatus for antimicrobial activity against various clinical isolates. All fractions showed significant activity against test microbes including Strep. pyogenes, Strep. faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium ulcerans, E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. fluorescens, S. typhi, Candida albicans and C. krusei. Ethylacetate fraction showed highest activity. (32)
Anti-Diabetic Effect: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of various extracts of watermelon in vivo in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels, increased insulin levels, and protection from pancreatic cell death. Results showed beneficial antidiabetic effects. (16)
Corrosion Inhibitor / Peels: Study showed Citrillus vulgaris peels can serve as effective inhibitor on zinc in natural sea water environment. Results suggest the adsorption of inhibitor on zinc metal surface is exothermic and followed by spontaneous process. (17)
Anti-Obesity / Anti-Arthritic / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti=obesity and anti-arthritic activities of seed extracts of C. vulgaris in rat models. The extracts exhibited significant anti-obesity activity with reduction of glucose, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, with increase in HDL in induced obesity models in rats, with Sibutramine as standard reference. Extracts also showed significant anti-arthritic activity in FA induced arthritis in rat models. (18)
Effect on Spermatogenesis / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of Citrillus vulgaris on spermatogenesis in Wistar rats. Results showed a significant increase in sperm population, motility and viability. (20)
Prostatic Hyperplasia / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of a methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seed on experimentally induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult male Wistar rats. Treatment with the extract caused a significant decrease in prostate enlargement, seminal vesicle and testes size, together with a decrease in prostate weight. (24)
Increased Testosterone / Seeds: Study in adult Wistar albino rats showed a significant increase in serum testosterone at 30 mg/kg of extract (P <0.05).
Radioprotective Effect / Lymphocyte Membrane: Study investigated the mechanisms of radioprotection on lymphocyte membrane in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed Citrullus vulgaris has radioprotection properties and lymphocytes were destroyed by formation of pores on their membrane. Radioprotection could be due to the presence of antioxidants, particularly vitamin A, C, and lycopene. (28)
Analgesic / Peels: Study of aqueous extract of C. lanatus peels for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method showed good analgesic potential with a potential as alternative to conventional NSAIDS.   (29)
• Ameliorative Effect on Cytoarchitecture of Testes: Distorted cytoarchitecture and reduction in interstitial cells has been linked with infertility following administration of unripe papaya sees. Study showed Citrillus lanatus has an ameliorative effect on the cytoarchitecture of testes in Wistar rats following prolonged exposure to methanolic extract of Carica papaya. (33)
• Globulins / Antihyperglycemic Activity / Seeds: Study evaluated the hypoglycemiic of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae on male Wistar rats. Among extracted proteins, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins. Citrillus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata yielded the highest levels of globulin, 275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively. Study showed selected Cucurbitaceae seeds contain globulins with significant anti-hyperglycemic activity. (34)
• Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant activities of n-hexane, chloroform, and ethanol extracts of Citrullus lanatus seeds using DPPH radical scavenging activity, Ferric reducing power activity, H2O2 scavenging activity and NO scavenging activity. All extracts showed antioxidant activities in order of n-hexane>ethanol>chloroform extracts. (35)
• Anti-Ulcer / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of crude methanol extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds in two ulcer models in albino Wistar rats. Results showed significant effect in pyloric ligation and in water immersion stress induced ulcer models. The ulcer protective effect may be due to anti-secretory and cytoprotective mechanisms. (36)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. The methanolic extract showed highest antioxidant activity using DPPH and H2O2 methods. The MECL showed dose-dependent significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and analgesic activity by tail flick and tail immersion methods. (37)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidative / Juice: Study evaluated the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon in a in vivo assay on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia, and increases in GPH, GPx, catalase, and SOD% inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatment. (38)
• Anti-Nutrient Components: Study evaluated pulp, seeds, and rind of C. lanatus for anti-nutrient components. Results showed anti-nutritional components such as saponin, alkaloid, hydrocyanic acid, phenols, oxalate, tannins, and phytates were detected in all samples but in varying tolerable concentrations. Flavonoid was significantly high in the pulp and seed. Phytate and oxalate were higher in seeds compared to pulp and rind. Anti-nutrient compounds were below FAO/WHO recommended safe levels. (39)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Effects / Rind: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of a methanolic extract of C. lanatus rind in alloxan induced diabetic male albino wistar rats. Results showed significant decrease in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and VLDL with increases in HDL. Study suggests C. lanatus rind can possibly normalize some biochemical and hematological abnormalities associated with the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus in a dose dependent manner. (40)
• Antidiabetic / Seeds: A methanol seed extract showed significant reduction of plasma glucose at weeks 2 and 4 in a study on female Wistar rats. Possibly, the hypoglycemia was induced by triggering of insulin release from the pancreatic ß-cells or by hepatic glucose reduction. (21) Study evaluated the effects of petroleum ether and ethanol extract of seeds on blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant (p<0.05) lower of blood glucose levels in a dose dependent manner. (see constituents above) (41) Study of watermelon seed extract on STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects. (44)
• Laxative / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the possible laxative effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Citrullus lanatus in albino Wistar rats. Results showed a significant laxative effect and reduced loperamide effect in a dose dependent manner. Effect was similar to reference drug sodium picosulfate. (42)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Fruit Rind: Study reports on a one-step green synthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized using silver nitrate and aqueous extract of C. lanatus fruit rind as reductant and capping agent. (43)
• Immunomodulatory / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of C. lanatus seed extract in in-vitro models. Results showed good antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. C. lanatus stimulated phagocytic activity of leucocytes in a dose dependent manner by NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium dye) assay. (45)
• Nutritive Value and Antioxidant Activity / Fruit: Study evaluated the nutritive contents, free radical scavenging activities and phytochemical components of C. lanatus fruit. Results showed very high moisture content with its crude protein, crude fat, crude fiver and ash in traceable amounts. Sugar content was high compared to other nutritive contents. Lycopene and ß-carotene were estimated to be 4537.83 and 308.71 µg/100g, respectively. Fruit extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) DPPH (IC50 of 0.10 mg/mg) and hydrogen perioxide radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.62 mg/mg). (46)
• Effect in Male Potency / Flesh Extract: Study evaluated the effects of flesh extract on male sexual behavior using animal models. Extract at dose of 1000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or signs of toxicity. There was significant decrease in mounting latency and intromission latency (p<0.05). Aphrodisiac effects in animal models suggest a potential use for men with erectile dysfunction. (47)
• Protein Hydrolysates / Potential in Management of Hypertension: Study evaluated the in vitro antihypertensive, antiradical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging properties of protein hydrolysates from C. lanatus seed obtained through enzymatic digestion. Hydrolysates were investigated for inhibitory activity against angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Results showed protein hydrolysates possess bioactivities with potential for use in the management of hypertension. (48)
• Lycopene Extraction: Study focused on the extraction of lycopene from C. lanatus fruits. Phytochemical analysis yielded bioactive compounds such as phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, and flavonoids. Lycopene by column chromatography was 68.0285 mg/k fresh weight. Study suggests watermelon as a good source of antioxidant with potential as raw material in drug formulation. (49)

In the news
Citrulline / Natural Viagra®
The fruit is rich in the amino acid citrulline, which is converted to the amino acid arginine (L-arginine is the precursor for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis), which is known to relax and dilate blood vessels, an effect similar to Viagra and other drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction.
A 4-ounce serving of watermelon (about 10 watermelon balls) provides about 150 milligrams of citrulline. A 2007 study of volunteers who drank three 8-ounce glasses of watermelon juice daily for three weeks boosted their arginine levels by 11%. However, like many herbs and fruits touted as herbal viagra, the citrulline-viagra connect is short on science. Men with erectile dysfunction are not deficient in arginine. Still, alternative practitioners recommend citrulline for the treatment of impotence. The normal supplemental dose is 16 to 18 g of citrulline malate. (6)

Caution !
Watermelon-induced citrullinemia and urea cycle disorders: Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon): A Case of a 19-month old with developmental delay who developed watermelon-induced citrullinemia. Its laboratory hallmarks are elevation of plasma citrulline and moderate elevation of plasma arginine.
• While high levels of citrulline might not affect most people, it can be harmful to those with citrullinemia, a genetic disorder affecting the urea cycle.
• Current dietary management of citrullinemia and other urea cycle disorders include restriction of protein, sodium benzoate, and certain dietary supplements or essential amino acids with intermediates such as arginine. One fruit that should be avoided is watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris).

- Cultivated.
- Citrulline supplements.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated August 2017 / Jamiary 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Artwork / Watermelon slice © Godofredo Stuart / Mixed Media / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism
/ Chemico-Biological Interactions Vol 177, Issue 3, 12 February 2009, Pages 254-258
Free Amino Acids in Citrullus vulgaris (Watermelon) / PEDIATRICS Vol. 73 No. 6 June 1984, pp. 879
Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon)
Mosquitocidal and repellent activity of the leaf extract of Citrullus vulgaris (cucurbitaceae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi liston (diptera culicidae) / K Mullai et al / Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2008; 12 (1) : 1-7

Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind / Agnes M. Rimando, Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie / Journal of Chromatography A, Volume 1078, Issues 1–2, 17 June 2005, Pages 196–200
Is Watermelon A Natural Viagra? / Karthleen Doheny, July 2007 / Web MD
Want Citrulline? Try Watermelon / Aug 2007 / Science Daily
/ Suzanne Robin / LiveSTRONG
Effects of Watermelon Supplementation on Aortic Blood Pressure and Wave Reflection in Individuals With Prehypertension: A Pilot Study / Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope M. Perkins-Veazie and Bahram H. Arjmandi / 2010 American Journal of Hypertension
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Ctrullus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
Studies on urease from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris: action of chemical agents and ionizing radiations
/ Hargreaves AB, Marcondes N, Elias CA. / An Acad Bras Cienc. 1976;48(3):567-76.
Water melons (Citrullus vulgaris) as the main source of water for cattle in central Tanzania / C.M. SHAYO, B. OGLE and P. UDÉN / Tropical Grasslands (1996) Volume 30, 308–313 308
Screening of Anti-microbial Effect in Watermelon (Citrullus sp.) / P. Thirunavukkarasu, T. Ramanathan, N. Ravichandran and L. Ramkumar / Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 682-685.

Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)
/ Gong XM, Wang S, Zhou XL, Zhou DD, Dai H, Deng JG. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2013 Oct;36(10):1614-6.
Anti-diabetic effect of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad) on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice /
Jiyun Ahn, Wonhee Choi, Suna Kim, Taeyoul Ha / Food Science and Biotechnology, February 2011, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 251-254
Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Natural Sea Water using Citrullus Vulgaris peel as an Inhibitor
/ Petchiammal A., Deepa Rani P., Selvaraj S. and Kalirajan K. / Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 2(4), 24-34, April (2012)
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF INDIGENOUS DIURETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS: Citrullus vulgaris Schrad, Cucumis melo Linn, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Moringa oleifera Lam, Raphanus sativus Linn and Zea mays Linn. / MARYAM MIRZA*, MAHBOOB ALI KALHORO, ZAHRA YAQEEN, TAHIRA B. SARFARAZ AND R.B. QADRI / Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology Vol.20, No.1, January 2003, pp.9-16
Effects of Watermelon Seed Extract (Citrullus Vulgaris) on Spermatogenesis in Rat / Arash Khaki, Fatemeh Fathiazas, Mohammad Nouri / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH AND REPRODUCTION SCIENCES, Vol 1, No 3, Autumn 2013
Effects of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Seed on Blood Glucose and Electrolyte Parameters in Diabetic Wistar Rats / *OMIGIE IO; AGOREYO FO / Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June 2014
Analysis of physiochemical properties and fatty acid profile of Citrullus vulgaris seed oil / Rahul Shivaji Adnaik and Shrinivas Krishna Mohite / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):230-233
Properties of Proximate Composition and Elemental Analysis of Citrullus Vulgaris (Guna) Seed / B.L. Penuel, E.M. Khan and M.O. Maitera / Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, Volume 2 [2] January 2013: 39- 46
Effects of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seed on Experimentally Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia / Adesanya A. Olamide*, Olaseinde O. Olayemi, Oguntayo O. Demetrius, Otulana J. Olatoye and Adefule A. Kehinde / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 1(4): 171-179, 2011
Food as Medicine: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae) / HerbalEGram: Volume 12, Issue 7, July 2015
Effect of Citrullus lanatus Seeds Extracts on Serum Total Testosterone in Rat / Arash Khaki*, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Afshin Khaki / Crescent Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2014, 25-27
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CITRULLUS VULGARIS ON IRRADIATED LYMPHOCYTE MEMBRANE ULTRASTRUCTURE / Khairul Osman, Norashikin, M.S, Hing Hiang Lian, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim, Seetha Khartini Abdul Wahab, Jamaludin Mohamed, Proom Promwichit / JOURNAL Of NUCLEAR And Related TECHNOLOGIES, Volume 1, No.2, December 2004
Analgesic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Citrullus Lanatus Peels
/ Amrita Kumari, Juhi Rao, Jyoti Kumari, Neha Sharma , Pankaj Jain, Vivek Dave, Swapnil Sharma* / Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy 1(3): 135-138, 2013 / DOI: 10.13189/app.2013.010303
Citrullus lanatus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Medicinal Values on Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon): Pharmacological Review / EO. Erhirhie and NE. Ekene / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 4, No 4, Oct-Dec 2013
Efficacy of crude extract and fractions of Citrullus lanatus against some selected micro-organisms / Yusuf A. J.*, Alebiosu C. O., Odumosu B. T., Mailafiya M. M., Yahaya M. and Ibrahim Z. Y. Y. / Sky Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 3(5), pp. 067 - 072, October, 2015
Action of Citrullus lanatus on the Cytoarchitecture of Testes in Wistar Rats Following Prolong Exposure to Methanolic Seeds Extract of Carica papaya / Nathaniel Ohiemi Amedu* and Ukanu Paul Idoko / Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 6(2): 1-7, 2016
Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa / Clautilde Mofor Teugwa, Thaddée BoudjekoBruno Tugnoua Tchinda, Pascaline  Chouadeu Mejiato and Denis Zofou / BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 2013, 13:63 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-63
Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract in rodent model / N Gill, R Bansal, M Garg, S Sood, A Muthuraman, M Bali / The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness, Vol 9, No 2
Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats / OA Oseni, OE Odesanmi, FC Oladele / Nigerian Medical Journal (2015) Vol 9, No 2
Evaluation of anti-nutrient contents of watermelon Citrullus lanatus / Johnson J.T., Iwang E.U., Hemen J.T., Odey M.O., Efiong E.E. and Eteng, O.E. / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (11): 5145-5150
Anti-diabetic effects of the methanolic extract of the rind of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) in alloxan induced diabetes in male albino wistar rats / Kolawole TA, Ojeka SO and Dapper DV / Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences Vol. 7(2) pp. 023-029, April 2016 / DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/jmms.2016.019
Phytochemical screening and antidiabetic effect of extracts of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus in alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice / Umar Muhd Sani / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 5 (03), pp. 051-054, March, 2015 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50309
First report on laxative activity of Citrullus lanatus / Swapnil Sharma, Sarvesh paliwal, Jaya Dwivedi & Amita Tilak / Pharmacologyonline 2: 790-797 (2011)
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract
/ Michael Ndikau, Naumih M Noah, Dickson M Andala, and Eric Masika / International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol 2017 (2017) / https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8108504
The Effects of Citrullus lanatus Seed Extracts on Malondialdehyde and Serum Glucose in Streptozocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Muhammad, Y., Abubakar, N., Musa, M.S., Wali, U., Yeldu, M.H., Ahmed, A.Y., Ngaski, A.A., Ahmad, M.B., Saidu, A.Y, Gulumbe, N.S. / International Journal of Healthcare Sciences,
Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: 356-360, April 2015 - September 2015
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF CITRULLUS LANATUS SEED / Saroj Yadav*, M. Bhargav, R. Ramya, Laureen, Nowfal Habeeb / International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research TechnologY, 5(12): Dec 2015
Nutritive Values and Antioxidant Activity of Citrullus lanatus Fruit Extract / Adewale Adetutu*, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Olusoji Abiodun Owoade / Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2015, 6, 1056-1064 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.611109
Effect of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Flesh Extract on Sexual Behavior of Male Rats / Phukphon Munglue*, Sajeera Kupittayanant and Pakanit Kupittayanant / CMUJ NS Special Issue on Food and Applied Bioscience (2014) Vol.13(1) / Doi: 10.12982/cmujns.2014.0054
Protein Hydrolysates from Citrullus lanatus Seed: Antiradical and Hydrogen Peroxide-scavenging properties and kinetics of Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibition / R. O. Arise*, A. A. Yekeen, O. E. Ekun, and O. J. Olatomiwa / Ceylon Journal of Science 45(2) 2016: 39-52 / DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v45i2.7387
Evaluation of phytochemical screening & extraction of lycopene from Citrullus lanatus by using column chromatography / Lalitha Govindaraj, Suseela Vivek / International Journal of Phytopharmacy, Vol 5, No 4 (2015)
Watermelon Seeds as Food: Nutrient Composition, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity / Betty Tabiri, Jacob K. Agbenorhevi*, Faustina D. Wireko-Manu, Elsa I. Ompouma / International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 139-144

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