Palisan is a shrub or small tree,
growing to a height of 5 meters. Bark is ashy gray, mottled, and
smooth. Leaves are alternate, smooth, elliptically oblong, about 15
centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide at the largest, with pointed tip and a blunt or
rounded base. Flowers are yellowish, about 1.5 centimeters long, borne in fairly
small, rounded clusters. Fruit is pendant and orange-red, containing
a single seed and two locules across which it splits upon opening, slightly
obovoid or broadly ellipsoid and about 1.5 centimeters long. Seeds are ovoidly
compressed, about 7.5 millimeters long.
- Found in primary forests at
low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, and Albay Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Mindanao, and Jolo.
- Also occurs in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.
- Classified as "vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
- The species is considered a source of agarwood.
- Agarwood is the resinous hardwood that is formed in Aquilaria and Gyrinop trees when they are invaded by mould.
First-grade agarwood is one of the most expensive natural raw materials in the world. In 2010, the price for superior pure material was as high as $100,000/kg.
- The production of resinous compounds is associated with wounding by insects that probably assist fungal invasion. (3)
- Agarwood considered carminative, heart stimulant, and tonic.
Bark, wood, fruit
• Bark and roots
used for stopping the flow of blood from wounds.
• Bark, wood and fruit used as substitute for quinine.
• In Malaysia, agarwood used to treat jaundice and body pains. Also used as tonic during pregnancy and after childbirth.
• Incense from wood considered aphrodisiac, carminative and sedative. Used in the treatment of cancer.,
• Rituals: Incense and essential oil used in Buddhist, Hindu and Confucian ceremonies. (5) (6)
• Essential oil: Essential oil from heartwood used in oriental perfumery. (5) (6)
• Bark / Wood: Used for making paper, ropes and cloth. Wood used for wood carving and for light indoor construction, veneer, and making boxes. (5) (6)
• Agarwood: In wood 15-20 years old or older, deposits pf dark brown, aromatic resin may devolop in the vascular tissue. Wood patterned with this resin constitute the valuable agar wood. Since antiquity, wood has been burned in religious rituals and as incense sticks to release the fragrance. (9)
Info on Agarwood
• Agarwood / Agar / Oleoresin: Agarwood is a dark resinous heartwood that forms in Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees in the family Thymelaeaceae. There are 17 species of Aquilaria known to produce agarwood. The best known among them are A. agollocha, a. malaccensis, and A. crassna. Agarwood-producing Aquilaria species found in the Philippines are A. apicultina (Mindanao), A. acuminata, A. cumingiana, and A. filarial. A dark aromatic resin is produced in response to induction/infection. The yield of agar, an oleoresin, is dependent on the plant species and the infection/induction involved. Phaeoacremonium parasitica, a dermatiaceous fungus has been identified as one of the known fungi associated with agarwood formation.
• Used of Agarwood: Agarwood is highly valued by luxury perfume, fragrance, and soap manufacturers. Agarwood fragrances are used in soaps and shampoos. It is also used in traditional medicine to relieve pain, asthma, and nausea. In Malaysia, agarwood is mixed with coconut oil as liniment, and used as decoction for rheumatism and other body pains. Pure agarwood is used as incense. (2)
• No studies found.
• Search yielded no reports on Philippine cultivation of Aquilaria species for agarwood.