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Family Dipterocarpaceae
Anisoptera thurifera (Blanco) Blume

Scientific names Common names
Anisoptera brunnea Foxw. Apis-apis (N. Ecija)
Anisoptera calophylla G. Perkins Dagang )Tag., Bik., P. Bis.)
Anisoptera lanceolata (Turcz.) Walp. Duyong (Ilk.)
Anisoptera tomentosa Brandis Guyong (Ilk.)
Anisoptera vidaliana Brandis Laian-puti (Tag.)
Anisoptera thurifera (Blanco) Blume Lauan-nga-busag )Samar)
Dipterocarpus thurifera Blanco Mayapis (Tag., Bik.)
Mocanera thurifera Blanco               Unresolved Pakpakan (Neg. Occ.)
  Palosapis (Tag.)
Anisoptera thurifera (Blanco) Blume is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
INDONESIAN: Baoti, Bolam, Aren marei.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Barida, Garawa, Karalaka.

Gen info
- Anisoptera is a genus of plant in the family Dipterocarpaceae. Anisoptera derives from Greek anisos meaning "unequal" and pteron meaning "wing", referring to the unequal fruit calyx lobes.
- It contains ten species, eight of which are currently listed on the IUCN red list, four as critically endangered and four as endangered. (7)
- A 1990 study identifed three Philippine anisoptera species: Anisoptera costata, A. aurea (previously A. mindanensis), and A. thurifera. (8)

Anisoptera thurifera is a large-sized tree reaching a height of 40-45 m and a diameter of 140-180 cm. Bole is straight, regular, unbuttressed, three-fifths to two-thirds of the tree height. Bark is 15-25 mm thick, light gray with yellowish tinge and irregular flakes from the bottom. Canopy is dense during the rainy season and open in the dry, at which time it changes leaves. Leaves are elliptic and alternate with pointed apex and rounded base, light green beneath, 7.5-16 cm long and 3-7 cm wide. Fruit is rounded, 4 to 15 mm in diameter, with two wings that are 5-9 cm long and sometimes more than a cm broad. (2)

- Widely distributed in the Philippines; dominant in primary forests.
- A major timber species in Papua New Guinea.
- Also found in Sulawesi and the Moluccas.
- IUCN listed as "Vulnerable."

- Bioassay-directed isolation from leaves of Anisoptera thurifera and A. polyandra isolated three known resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (1), vatalbinoside A (2), and vaticanol B (3). (see study below) (3)

- Study suggested anti-bacterial virulence properties.

Parts used


- Seeds are edible; eaten raw or roasted. (2)
- In some parts of Papua New Guinea, the gum is used as chewing gum. (5)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Wood: Used for a variety of construction: shipbuilding, crates, flooring, oars, joinery, turnery, and manufacture of spools, barrels and baseball bats. (2)

- Resin: Tree yields a resin, collected by chopping into the tree to create a cavity for collection of the oil. The tree is reportedly tapped for a number of years. However, tapping of the tree results in entry of decay organisms and the ultimate death of the tree. Hence, tapped trees are often cut and used for timber before decay. (4)
- Palosapis oil: The resinous oil is called "Palosapis oil." It is used as illuminant, for varnishing and for caulking boats. (4)

Inhibition of Bacterial Virulence Type II Secretion System (T2SS) / Leaves:
Study sought to identify compounds that inhibit the bacterial virulence type III secretion system (T3SS). Several fractions were identified from two Papua New Guinean Anisoptera species, showing activity against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis outer proteins E and H. Bioassay-directed isolation from leaves of Anisoptera thurifera and A. polyandra isolated three known resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (1), vatalbinoside A (2), and vaticanol B (3). Compounds 1-3 displayed IC50 values of 8.8, 12.5 and 0.9 µM in the reporter-gene assay and IC50s of 2.9, 4.5 and 3.3 µM in the YopH assay, respectively, which suggested potential activity against T3SS in Yersinia. (3)
(-)-Hopeaphenol / Leaves: A tetramer of resveratrol, (-)-hopeaphenol, was obtained from Anisoptera thurifera and Anisoptera polyandra leaves and shown to inhibit the secretion and expression of T3SS effector proteins in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also affects their translocation into HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner without affecting growth. (6)


February 2021

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Dipterocarpaceae: : Anisoptera thurifera: fruiting twig / © John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2014 / (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL86652 / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Anisoptera thurifera / plate from book / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) : Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anisoptera thurifera / Synonyms / The Plant List
Food and fruit-bearing forest speciesL Examples from Southeastern Asia / Food amd Agriculture Organization of the United Nations /
ISSN: 92-5-102153-8
Solving the Supply of Resveratrol Tetramers from Papua New Guinea Rainforest Anisoptera Species (Dipterocarpaceae) that Inhibit Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems / Rohan A Davis, Karren D Beattie, Mi Xu, Xinzhou Yang, Sheng Yin, Ronald J Quinn et al / Creative Antibiotics Sweden AB. Tvostevägen 48, SE-90719, Sweden

Anisoptera thurifera / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Anisoptera thurifera / PROSEA
Natural Products with Quorum Quenching-Independent Antivirulence Properties / Naybi Muñoz, Cazares Rodolfo Garcia, Contreras Marcos Soto et al / Studies in Natural Products Chemistry,, 2018
Anisoptera thurifera / Wikipedia
The taxonomy and wood anatomy of three Philippine Anisoptera (Palosapis group) species (Dipterocarpaceae) / A B Ella, R P Escobin, M M Maeuzzo / FPRDI Journal, 1990; 19(1/4): pp 22-41

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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