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Family Pandanaceae
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. ex Lindl.

Qi ye lan

Scientific names Common names
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. ex Lindl. Pandan-mabango (Tag.)
Pandanus haskarlii Merr. Dwarf screw-pine (Engl.)
Pandanus latifolius Hassk. Fragrant pandan (Engl.)
Pandanus latifolius var. minor Hassk. Fragrant screw pine (Engl.)
Pandanus odorus Ridley  
Quisumbing's compilation lists Pandan mabañgo as fragrant screw pine (Pandanus odoratissimus).
Padanus odorus Ridl. is a synonyms of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb..

Padanus amaryllifolius Roxb. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Note: For this genus, there is a confusing sharing of English and Philippine local names.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qi ye lan (Taiwan).
DANISH: Skruepalme.
DUTCH: Pandan, Schroefpalm.
ESTONIAN: Lõhnav Pandan
FINNISH: Kairapalmu
FRENCH: Pandanus.
GERMAN: Schraubenbaum, Schraubenpalme.
HEBREW: Ha-pandanus.
HINDI: Ambemohor Pat, Kenr, Rampe
HUNGARIAN: Csavarpálma Levél, Pandanusz Levél, Panpung Levél
INDONESIAN: Daun Pandan, Pandan Rampeh, Pandan Wangi.
ITALIAN: Pandano.
JAPANESE: Ni-O-I-Ta-Ko-No-Ki, Nioi Tako No Ki, Nioi-Takonoki,
KHMER: Taey.
KOREAN: Pan-Da-Nu-Seu, Pandanusu.
LAO: Tey ban, Tey hom.
LITHUANIAN: Amarilinis Pandanas.
MALAY: Pandan bau, Pandan jelingkeh, Pandan Rampeh, Pandan wangi.
NORWEGIAN: Skrupalme.
SPANISH: Pandan, Pandano.
SWEDISH: Skruvpalm
THAI: Bai toey, Bai toey hom, Panae-wo-nging, Toeihom, Toey, Toey-Hom.

Gen info
- Pandanus is a genus of monocots of about 600 known species, varying in size from small shrubs less than a meter to medium-sized trees of about 20 meters.
- In the Philippines there are 48 species of Pandanus, many of them are endemic, growing in various habitats, from sandy beaches, mangroves and primary forests.
The fruit of some species are edible, eaten by bats, rats, crabs, elephants and lizards. The majority of species are dispersed primarily by water.
- Alas, with these many species, there is a confusing sharing of common names.
- Considered a true cultigen (Latin: cultus, meaning "cultivated". and gens "kind') or cultivated plant, deliberated altered by humans.
-  The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, found in the lower epidermal papillae.
- Etymology: The genus name Pandanus is Latinized from the Malayan name "pandang", which refers to the screw pine. The species epithet amaryllifolius derives from Latin words amaryllis and folius, refers to how the leaves of the plants are similar to other plants in the Amaryllis genus. (35)

• Pandan-mabango is small, leafy herb, less than 1 meter tall. Stems are cylindrical, sending numerous roots at its nodes where it touches the ground. Leaves form a rosette, and are long and narrow, acute, glossy green and with smooth margins.

Shrub (1 - 1.6 m tall) or small tree (2 - 4.5 m tall) depending on culture. Continual harvesting of the leaves from the shrub form will prevent it from developing into the tree form. Trunk: Tree form of this species has an erect trunk with little to no branching (15 cm wide). The trunk produces thick aerial roots.  Foliage: Shrub leaves are linear with an entire leaf margin and acute apex (2 - 5 cm wide, 25 - 75 cm long). Leaves of the tree form are the same shape, but about twice the size (7 - 9 cm wide, 150 - 220 cm long). Leaves have a slightly pleated surface; a cross-section of the leaf is shaped like the letter "W" turned upside down. Leaves are spirally arranged. Flowers: The female inflorescence has not been observed, while the male inflorescence is very rare and only found on the tree form of this species. The male inflorescence is a spike of flowers with a white spathe. Fruit: This species has not been observed to produce fruits due to the lack of female inflorescences. (34)

- Introduced in the Philippines.
- Common along sandy beaches.
- Now, cultivated as an ornamental and for its aroma properties.
- Also introduced to
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Native to Maluku. (12)

- Contains an essential oil, bitter and aromatic.
- Perfumed oil, called Kevda oil, is extracted from floral bracts.
- Phytochemical study yielded phenols, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids and flavanoids.
- Study of essential oil showed the major components to be: 2-phenyl ethyl methyl ether (37.7%), terpinen-4-ol (18.6%), α-terpineol (8.3%) and 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol (7.5%). (11)
- Study of air-dried alcoholic extract of dried leaves yielded alkaloids: Pandamarilactone- 1 (2), Pandamarilactam-3x, -3y (5-6), Pandamarilactonine-A, -B, -C (7-9), and 6Z-Pandanamine (13). (9)
Study of crude base of P. amaryllifolius leaves yielded alkaloids, pandamarilactone-1 (1), pandamarilactone-32 (2), pandamarilactonine-A (3) and pandamarilactonine-B (4). (see study below)   (23)
- GC-MS study of leaf essential oil yielded 128 peaks and identified 98 compounds. Main components were phytol (42.16%), squalene (16.81%), pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) among others. (28)
GC-MS analysis of leaf EO revealed 54 compounds, representing 98.28% of total oil composition. Phytol was the major component (21.35%), followed by α-thujaplicin (18.64%), dodecanol (12.55%), n-tetradecanol (8.93%), benzyl acetate (8.08%). (see study below) (36)
- Purification of ethanolic extract of aerial parts yielded nine new compounds: N-acetylnorpandamari-lactonines A (1) and B (2); pandalizines A (3) and B (4); pandanmenyamine (5); pandamarilactones 2 (6) and 3 (7), and 5(E)-pandamarilactonine-32 (8); and pandalactonine (9). (39)

- Oil is considered a stimulant, antispasmodic and antiseptic.
- Roots are diuretic, tonic and depurative.
- Considered cardiotonic, cephalic and aphrodisiac.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, cockroach repellent, neuroprotective, insulin senstivity increasing, anti-hyperuricemic, xanthine-oxidase inhibitory, anti-amyloidogenic, skin moisturizing and smoothing, sleep-inducing, aroma-therapeutic, antimalarial properties.

Parts used
Leaves, anthers, tops, seeds.

- In the Philippines, leaves are popularly used in the cooking of rice, imparting a pleasant fragrance and flavor.
- Widely used in  Philippine, Malaysian, and Indonesian cuisine as green food coloring and flavoring agent, imparting a pleasant aroma to traditional cakes such as pandan cake, buko pandan salad, pandan cake, kue, kakanin, klepon, kue putu, among many others. Tied know of bruised pandan leaf is added to fragrant coconut rice to enhance the aroma.
- Leaves are also used to flavor ice cream and sherbets
- Used in cooking bread for its nutty flavor.
- In Malaysia, used for coloring and flavoring; also as appetizer.
- Powder made from interior of anthers, smoked for sore throat.
- Roots, brayed in milk, used internally for sterility and threatened abortion.
- Used for small pox and leprosy.
- Ashes of wood used for wound healing.
- Seed concoctions used to strengthen the heart and liver.
- Oil used as stimulant and antispasmodic; used for headaches and rheumatism.
- In India, oil is used as remedy for earache and meatal suppuration.
- In northern India, used for jaundice.
- In Malaysia, said to be a cure for measles, gonorrhea, syphilis, dengue, and anemia.
- Powder made from anthers and tops of bracts used for epilepsy.
Perfumery / Cosmetics: Oil is valued as perfumery and cosmetic ingredient.
Kevda oil, a perfumed oil, is extracted from floral bracts.
- Repellent: Essential oil used as repellent against ordinary cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Powdered leaves used as repellent against Callosobruchus chinensis infestation of mung bean seeds. (26)
- Crafts: Leaves used for making sleeping mats, baskets, and containers.
- Air freshener: The pleasant aroma from leaves makes for a natural air freshener. In Thailand, cab drivers sometimes use pandan for this purpose. (32) Essential oil, likewise, has potential as air freshener.
- Pigment: Leaves yield a green pigment. (see study below) (44)

Antioxidant: Study of methanol and aqueous extracts of P. odoratissimus roots showed higher antioxidant potential in the DPPH scavenging assay and reducing capacity. A positive correlation was found between phenolic and flavonoid content. (1)
Hepatocurative: Study of Ketaki (P. odoratissimus) root decoction on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in albino rats showed it to be hepatocurative but not hepatoprotective. (2)
Antibacterial: (1) Study showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and a potential source for new classes of antibiotics. (2) Study evaluated the in vitro activity of pandan leaves crude extract against bacterial isolates such as S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.(10)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of the methanolic effect of P. odoratissimus against free radical damage showed 87.52% reduction of DPPH and 73.55% inhibition of nitric acid.

Hypoglycemic / 4-hydroxybenzoic acid: Study of root extract of P. odorus showed significant lowering of plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. No significant alteration of plasma glucose was noted in healthy rats. Study isolated a known compound, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that produced a hypoglycemic effect through increases peripheral glucose consumption. (6)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves for effect on blood glucose level and hypoglycemic mechanisms. Results showed reduction of postprandial blood glucose, stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cell line and inhibition of alpha glucosidase enzyme activity. Study suggests a potential natural source of antihyperglycemic agent. (13)
Effect on Growth of E. Coli and S. aureus / Food Safety Concerns / Leaves: Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves are used in food preparation in Asian countries as flavoring agent. Study evaluated the effect of leaf extracts on the growth of two important microorganisms i.e. E. coli and M. aureus from the point of view of food safety. Study showed the leaf extracts in water and ethanol stimulates the growth of these microorganisms--an alarming signal as both these organisms are capable of producing potent endotoxin and exotoxin. M. aureus produces heat stable exotoxins in rice preparations, which may be due to the reducing sugar content of 17% (glucose) in eaves, extracted during cooking. (14)
Potential as Food Preservative / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of pandan leaves extract in lowering the total count and number of mold on traditional food. Results showed pandan leaves extract contained bioactive compounds like tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. There was no colonization found in Putu Ayu with 15% pandan leaves extract. Results showed pandan leaves extract in concentration of 15% was able to decrease Total Plate Count and number of mold in traditional food. (15)
Effect on Fructose Induced Metabolic Syndrome / Leaves: Study evaluated the ability of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf water extract to reverse the cluster of diseases in a metabolic syndrome rat model induced by fructose in drinking water. Administration of P. amaryllifolius attenuated most of the metabolic syndrome symptoms as well as improved obesity. Results suggest PA which is rich in total flavonoids and total phenolic acids may be suggested as useful dietary supplement to improve metabolic syndrome components induced by fructose. (16)
Effect on Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of P. amaryllifolius leaf extract on insulin resistant state in mice fed on high fat diet. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose level as well as improvement in insulin resistance. There was increased liver glycogen storage and serum adiponectine and decreased serum leptin levels, along with reduced lipid droplet in liver tissue and adipocyte size in epididymal fat tissues. Results showed decrease in several parameters of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. (17)
Anticancer / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effect of ethanol leaf extracts of P. amaryllifolius. Results showed antimicrobial activities against tested oral bacteria with MICs in range of 32 to 125 µg/ml. Extract exhibited cytotoxicity effect against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HNSCC cell line: HN31) . Antioxidant activity showed reduction of free radical DPPH by about 50%. (18)
Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies / Roots: Study for acute toxicity in male and female rats showed no significant toxicity at oral dose of 5000 mg/kbw. On chronic toxicity testing, at doses of 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/kbw for 180 days. Both oral and acute toxicity studies showed no toxicity in measures of body weight and organ weight, histology and gross examination, hematologic and biochemical parameters. (19)
Insecticidal Against Diamondback Moth / Leaves: Study evaluated the insecticidal effects of chloroform extract of leaves against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. At 72 hours post-exposure at 8 mg/ml concentration there was 86.67% mortality. Larvae mortality and duration of exposure were directly related to the concentration o the leaf extract and inversely related to fecundity. (
Antihyperuricemic / Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of P. amaryllifolius leaf extracts in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats.. The leaf water extract showed highest total phenols while a petroleum ether extract showed highest total flavonoids. The water extract showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH, metal chelating and H2O2 assays. Treatment with the water extract showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in serum uric acid level by 85% and XO activity by 64%. Results suggest a potential therapeutic option in hyperuricemia treatment. (
Hypolipidemic Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effete of ethanolic extract of P. amaryllifolius leaves on triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic in mice. Oral administration of PA extract significantly reduced total cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels. The extract also inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity with 32% reduction, comparable to positive control, atorvastatin. (
Antimicrobial Alkaloids / Leaves: Study of crude base of P. amaryllifolius leaves yielded alkaloids, pandamarilactone-1 (1), pandamarilactone-32 (2), pandamarilactonine-A (3) and pandamarilactonine-B (4). Compound 3 was most active among the four isolates with MIC of 15.6 µg/mL and MBC of 31.25 µg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
Extraction of Aroma Compound / Enhancement of Rice Flavor / Leaves: Study reported on the extraction of 2-AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) from pandan leaves. The work reports on phenomena that occur during cooking and storage, in particular, changes to 2-AP absorption when cooking rice grains with pandan leaves. Parameters measured were cooking method of excess and optimal water conditions. Grinding and freeze-drying method revealed the best pre-treatment for supercritical extraction. Study quantified the potential of leaves to enhance the flavor of cooked rice under excess water conditions. Storages for 15 min at 24.0 ± 1.0º C is considered optimum time for obtaining cooked rice with a high quality of flavor. (
Extraction of 2AP in Pandan Leaves: Study showed ethanol was the best solvent to extract 2AP from pandan leaves compared to methanol. Ethanol provided a higher 2AP peak on the chromatogram. No 2AP was detected with propanol. Results suggest polarity of the solvent plays an important role in 2AP extraction. (25)
Prolonged Sleeping Time / Reduced Locomotor Activity / Root: Study evaluated the hypnotic and locomotor effect of root decoction of P. amaryllifolius in mice. Results showed significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner 10 minutes after feeding and significantly suppressed locomotor activity in amphetamine-treated mice. The extract also prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. (27)
Anticholinergic / Antihistaminergic: Study evaluated the interaction of ethanolic extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius with cholinergic and histaminergic receptors in the guinea pig ileum. Results showed competitive reversible antagonistic effects on actions of histamine or acetylcholine in guinea pig ileum.    (29)
Effect on Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensorial Quality of Ice Cream / Leaves: Study showed increase in pandan juice concentrations did not significantly affect (p<0.05) the sensorial attributes of tested ice cream samples. However, it significantly (p>0.05) increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant property of pandan ice creams. (
Potential Treatment for Cholera / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial property of P. amaryllifolius against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A methanol extract was shown to inhibit the growth of Vibrio cholera and C. freundii. Further studies were suggested to find out the anti-cholerae compound of the methanol extract. (
Natural Cockroach Repellent / Leaves: Study evaluated seven compounds and fractions from P. amaryllifolius leaves for repellent activity against cockroach Blatella germanica. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, pandan essence, and the hexane-pandan extract were repellent at all concentrations tested with 65-93% repellency. Undiluted crude aqueous pandan extract displayed an attractancy of 62%. Although not the most efficient for cockroach repellency, natural non-insecticidal means of combating cockroaches is preferred to the many undesirable effects of many synthetic repellents such as DEET. (33)
Antioxidant / Flavonoid and Phenolic Contents: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Pandanus amarylliifolius confirmed presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarin, and reducing sugar.  The ethanol extract showed higher DPPH (129.327 µg/ml) activity and TPC (38.12 mg GAE/dw) than wat3er extract (265.738 µg/ml and 10.97 mg GAE/dw). Results support use of the plant for food and pharmaceutical purposes. (35)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated phytochemicals and antibacterial efficacy of essential oil of P. amaryllifolius leaves against Gm- and Gm+ bacteria. GC-MS analysis of leaf EO revealed 54 compounds, representing 98.28% of total oil composition. The EO showed greatest antibacterial activity against all gram-negative bacteria, with largest inhibition zones against E. coli and M. luteus at 15.3 and 10.7, respectively. P. amarylliifolius leaves oil is rich in phytol,
α-thujaplicin, tetradecanol, dodecanol, benzyl acetate, and linalool, which may play a role as antibacterial compounds. Other minor constituents, eugenol, n-heptadecane, benzyl benzoate, indole, and benzyl alcohol may have important bacterial properties. Study suggests the EO of leaves has potential as alternative drug for screening and development of natural bactericides. (see constituents above) (36)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective ability of P. amaryllifolius to protect against acute hepatic damage induced by CCl4 in rats. Rats pretreated with P. amaryllifolius displayed significantly increased catalase antioxidant enzyme activity relative to CCl4 treated group. Extract moderately reduced serum ALT and AST levels (4-34%, p<0.05). Formation of MDA due to lipid peroxidation was greatly reduced (29-70%, p<0.05), while GSH was dose dependently increased (94-100%. p<0.05). Effect was further evidenced by reduced histological changes in the liver. Hepatoprotective effect was attributed to antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of P. amaryllifolius. (37)
Antioxidant Leaf and Root Topical Emulsion: Study evaluated the development of a root and leaf topical emulsion as antioxidant. Dried leaf and root were extracted separately and macerated with either ethanol or propylene glycol. The propylene glycol extract exhibited higher DPPH activity and total phenolic content that the ethanol extract. The leaf extract showed higher DPPH activity than the root. Although the antioxidant activity of crude extracts was lower than standard vitamin C and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the ethanol/propylene glycol solution extract showed higher inhibition (90.1%) of linoleic acid peroxidation than 200 ppm of vitamin C and BHT. An oil-in-water emulsion with 3% ethanol and propylene glycol extract showed a creamy texture, medium viscosity, and good stability under accelerated aging test. Results suggest potential as an antioxidant ingredient in topically applied formulations. (38)
Source of Natural Cellulosic Fiber / Leaves: Study reports on the extraction of P. amaryllifolius fibers via a water retting extraction process and evaluated for potential fiber reinforcement in polymer composite. Tensile strength was found to be 45.61 MPa for average fiber diameter of 368.57 µM. Moisture content analysis showed 6.00% moisture absorption rate of the fiber. Thermogravimetric analysis justified thermal stability up to9 210°C, which is within polymerization process temperature conditions. Overall P. amaryllifolius fiber has potential as alternative reinforcement particularly for a bio-based polymer matrix. (40)
Effect of Drying Methods / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of different types of drying methods on antioxidant activity, phenolic content, chlorophyll content and phytochemicals and suggest the best method for producing a good tea. Total phenolic content was higher in microwave drying (0.627 mg gallic acid DW) and over drying (0.417 µg gallic acid DW). Antioxidant activity was higher in IC50s for microwave drying compared to oven drying. TCC (total chlorophyll content) was higher in microwave dried leaves (9.540 mg/g) compared to over dried leaves (9.204 mg/g). Results showed microwave drying produced the best dried tea quality in terms of phenolic and chlorophyll content and antioxidant properties. Drying methods that use high temperatures to dehydrate P. amaryllifolius may cause up to 60% loss of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. (41)
Aromatherapy and Music for Dental Treatment / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of pandan leaves aromatherapy and relaxation music to reduce anxiety level of pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. Patients were divided in four groups: control, pandan leaves aromatherapy, relaxation music, and combination of aromatherapy and music. Anxiety parameters measured were blood pressure and pulse rate. Results showed significant differences in blood pressure and pulse rate between control and other groups, with the most significant difference in the combination group (p<0.05). Results suggest aromatherapy and music can reduce anxiety level of pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. (42)
Neuroprotective / Anti-Amyloidogenic / Alzheimer's Disease: Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) plaques leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cell death is one of the most accepted pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Study evaluated the P. amaryllifolius for invitro anti-amyloidogenic and neuroprotective effects. Crude extracts were evaluated for potential to inhibit Aß aggregations and oligomerizations respectively.  Crude alcoholic extract (CAE 50 µg/mL) and crude base extract (CBE 50 µg/mL) obstructed Aß aggregation. Only CBE inhibited Aß nucleation at 100 µg/mL. Both CAE and CBE restored cell viability reduced ROS, and reversed mitochondrial dysfunctions in Aß-insulted SY-SY5Y cells. Results provide new insights into the potential of P. amaryllifolius against AD.   (43)
Green Pigment / Leaves: Leaves of P. amaryllifolius are used as natural colorant due to presence of high chlorophyll content.  Study reports on the extraction of green pigment from the leaves. Optimal results were observed with blanching under 95°C in 10 seconds, extraction by ethanol 90%, ethanol: solid (2.0:1.0), 60°Cm 8 minutes; vacuum drying at 60°C with support of carrier (0.5 maltodextrin: 0.5 gelatin: 1.0 pandan fluid). (44)
Body Scrub Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated the formulation of a cream body scrub preparation from an ethanol extract of pandan wangi leaves and its effectiveness in smoothing the skin. Parameters measured were consistency, color, odor (organoleptic), homogeneity, pH, spreadability, emulsion type, irritation potential, stability, and effectiveness of 1, 2, and 3% concentrations. Results showed the leaves could be formulated in cream scrub preparations to increase moisture and improve skin smoothness.  (45)
Time Sleep Inductor / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of fragrant Pandan leaf extract in shortening the sleep induction time of male Swiss Webster strain mice. Results showed the leaf extract at dose of 8 mg/gBB can shorten the time of mice sleep induction. A dose of 4 mg/g BB did not shorten induction time. (46)
Anti Breast Cancer Via Apoptosis: A previous study showed P. amaryllifolius selectively inhibited cell proliferation of hormone independent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Study evaluate the mode of killing and mechanism of action. Cell cycle analysis, Annexin V and Tunel assays suggested that P. amaryllifolius extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, PS externalization, and DNA fragmentation. ELISA for cytochrome c, caspase-3/7, 8 and 9 indicated apoptosis contributed by mitochondrial cytochrome c release via induction of caspase 3/7, 0, and p53 associated with suppression of XIAP. Results suggest P. amaryllifolius extract induced apoptosis on hormone dependent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.   (47)
Natural Mouthwash / Nanoemulsion / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of scented Pandan leaf extract as natural mouthwash using nanoemulsion technique. The average salivary pH value of P3 (4% extract) approached the average salivary pH of P0+ (commercial mouthwash). Results showed the use of Pandanus amaryllifolius extract with nanoemulsion technique can be used as natural mouthwash to maintain the salivary pH. (48)
Antidyslipidemic Alkaloids / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of several alkaloids from pandan leaf as antidysllipidemic and their safety profile. Analysis studied the binding affinity of the alkaloids (pandanusine B, pandamarilactonine A, pandamarilactonine B) to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) alpha and Niemann Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1). Toxicity tests indicated the alkaloids were safe; pandamarilactonines had the highest LD50 (2.736 mol/kg).  Results suggest the pandan alkaloids have potential antidyslipidemic activity via interaction with HMG-CoA reductase, PPAR alpha, and NPC1L1, with a good safety profile. (49)
Antimalarial / Roots: In vivo randomized study evaluated the antimalarial activity of methanol extract of Pandan wangi (P. amaryllifolius) roots on white male mice (Mus muscullus) lymphocyte count infected by Plasmodium berghei. Results showed extract concentration of 6.5%, 13%, and 26% have antimalarial effect shown by decrease in parasitemia percentage. The 26% extract can significantly increase the number of lymphocytes. The decreased number of parasitemia did not directly correlate with the increased lymphocyte. (50)
Effect on Blood Coagulation: Study evaluated the effects of ethanol leaf extract of P. amaryllifolius on blood coagulation and platelet activity using a Wistar albino rat model. Results showed significant increases (p<0.05) in clotting time and APTT level of rats treated with 400 and 800 mg/kg concentrations and 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg concentrations, respectively. There was no significant difference in platelet counts with all doses. Results suggest an anticoagulant effect evidenced by significant prolongation of clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time at 400 and 800 mg/kg concentrations. (51)

Small scale commercial production.

Updated July 2024 / January 2020 / January 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Datei:Pandan (screwpine) leaves.JPG / Pandanus amaryllifolius, Pandanaceae / Dekoelie / 24-12-04 / Creative Commons / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: File:Kewda / (Pandanus odoratissimus).jpeg / Razib Mustafiz / 2 March 2009 / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / (Pandanus odoratissimus).jpeg / Dreamstime / Click on image to go to source page / Dreamstime

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antioxidant Activity and HPTLC Analysis of Pandanus odoratissimus L. Root
/ J. M. Sasikumar, U Jinu and R Shamna / European Journal of Biological Sciences 1 (2): 17-22, 2009
Hepatoprotective and hepatocurative activity of the traditional medicine ketaki (Pandanus odoratissimus
Roxb.) - An experimental evaluation
/ Ilanchezhian R, Roshy Joseph. C / asianjtm
Antimicrobial Effects And Phytochemical Studies Of Various Extracts Of Pandanus Odoratissimus Linn. /
Ramesh L. Londonkar, Abhaykumar Kamble / Trade Science Inc., Short Communication, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2009
Essential oil composition of ‘kewda’ (Pandanus odoratissimus) from India / V K Raina, Ajai Kumar et al /
Flavour Fragr. J. 2004; 19: 434–436
Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Pandanus odoratissimus. / Londonkar, R.; Kamble, A. /
International Journal of Pharmacology 2009 Vol. 5 No. 6 pp. 377-380
Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity - A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000) / Mohamed Bnouham, Abderrahim Ziyyat et al / Int J Diabetes & Metabolism (2006) 14: 1-25
Pandan Wangi / GLOBinMED
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Common Names / ZipcodeZoo
Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius Collected from Marikina, Philippines / Daisy C. Lopez* and Maribel G. Nonato / Philippine Journal of Science, June 2005; 134 (1): pp 39-44
In Vitro Activity of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Leaves Crude Extract Against Selected Bacterial Isolates
/ Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal, Ladylyn B. Alaras, Karen G. Dahilan, Sarah, Andrea A. Depadua, Christine Joy G. Pulmones / JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010; Vol 4, No 1 / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7719/jpair.v4i1.103

Extraction of Pandanus Amaryllifolius essential oil from pandan leaves / Nur Syazwani, Ghazali (2011) / Open Access Repository of UMP Research and Publication
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Antihyperglycemic effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract / Anchalee Chiabchalard and Nattakarn Nooron / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2015; 11(41): pp 117-122 / PMCID: PMC4329610 / PMID: 25709220 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.149724
Effect of Leaf Extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Roxb.) on growth of Escherichia coli and Micrococcus (Staphylococcus) aureus. / Faras A F, Waadkar S S, Jai Ghosh / International Food Research Journal, Jan 2014; 21(1): pp 421-423
Pandan leaves extract (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) as a food preservative / Resmi Aini, Ana Mardiyaningsih / Indonesian Jounal of Medicine and Health, 2016; 7(4): pp 166-173 / DOI: 10.20885/JKKI.Vol7.Iss4.art8
The effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Roxb.) leaf water extracts on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rat model / Nur Hidayah Reshidan, Suhaila Abd Muid, and Norshalizah Mamikutty / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019; 19, Article no 232 / PMID: 31462242 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2627-0
Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf extract increases insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice / Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Jarinyaporn Naowaboot, Nuntiya Somarn / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Oct 2016; 6(10): pp 866-871 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.010
Antioxidant Anti-Cancer and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract (In Vitro) - A potential medical application / Suttipalin Suwannakul, Plykaeow Chaibenjawong, Suttasinee Suwannakul / Journal of International Dental and Medical Researh, 2018; 11(2): pp 383-389  /
ISSN: 1309-100X
Acute and Chronic Toxicities of Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb. Water Extract from the Roots in Rats / Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Nirush Lertprasertsuke, Kanjana Jaijoy / SOJ Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016; 3(2): pp 1-7 / / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2374-6866/3/2/00140
Toxicity of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. chloroform extract against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella(Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) / Imthithal I J, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha, and Idris A B / AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018; 1940, 020034 /  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5027949
In vitro antioxidant and in vivo xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of Pandanus amaryllifolius in potassium oxonate‐induced hyperuricemic rats / Nur Afira Ahmad Shukor, Abdulwali Ablat Nur Airina Muhamad, Jamaludin Mohamad / International Journal of Food Science & Technlogy, 2018; 53(6) / https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13728
Hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves on triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice / Ngoc Trinh HuynhMs., Duong Ngoc Thoi Nguyen, Manh Hung Tran / Intternational Journal o Pharmacological Research, 2018; 8(12)
Antimicrobial alkaloids from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius / Hanna Mae C. Laluces, Atsushi Nakayama, Maribel G. Nonato, Thomas Edison dela Cruz, Mario A. Tan / J App Pharm. Sci., 2015; 5(10); pp 151-153 / doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2015.501026
Extraction of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline (2AP) in Pandan Leaves (Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb.) Via Solvent Extraction Method: Effect of Solvent / Norzita Ngadi, Noor Yahida Yahya / UTM, Jurnal Teknologi, 67(2)
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Ke Fern / Useful Tropical Plants
Pandanus amaryllifolius Root Extract Prolongs Sleeping Time and Reduces Locomotor Activity in Mice / P. Peungvicha, Y. Wongkrajang, B. Kongsaktrakoon, R. Temsiririrkul2 and H. Watanabe / Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 41(3): pp 6-12
Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves / Chenk XK et al / Zhong Yao Cai, 2014; 37(4): pp 616-620 / PubMed ID 25345137
Pandanus Amaryllifolius Extract has Anticholinergic and Antihistaminergic Effects in the Guinea Pig Ileum / Peng Nam Yeoh, Kah Yen Koh, Jo Ann Lee, Yu Sui Chen, Mohd Azlan Nafiah / The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013; 4 04 / DOI: 10.2174/2210289201304010065]
Effect of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) Juice Concentrations on Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity and Sensorial Quality of Cocoa Butter-Based Ice Cream / Chin Hui Han / 20th World Congress on Nutrition & Food Sciences, July 9-10, 2018, Sydney, Australia
Pandanus amaryllifolius / Wikipedia
Pandan Leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) As A Natural Cockroach Repellent / Li J, Ho S H / Schoolf of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore
Pandanus amaryllifolius / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Roxb.) / N T C Quyen, N T N Quyen, L T H Nhan, T Q Toan / IOP Conference Series.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2020: 991 012029 / DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/991/1/012019
Study on the Phytochemical Constituents in Essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolious Roxb. Leaves and their Anti-bacterial Efficacy / Ae Mar, Aye Aye Mar, Pwint Phyu Thin, Moh Moh Zin / Yadanabon University Research Journal, 2019; 10(1)
Hepatoprotective effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity: A biochemical and histopathological study / Shameenii A P P Thanebal, Senty Vun-Sang, Mohammad Iqbal / Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2021; 14(10): 103390 / DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103390
Antioxidant Activity of Pandanus amaryllifolius Leaf and Root Extract and its Application in Topical Emulsion / Ampa Jimtaisong, Panvipa Krisdaphong / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013; 12(3) / eISSN: 1596-9827 / pISSN: 1596-5996
Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius: Isolation and Their Plausible Biosynthetic Formation / Yu-Chi Tsai, Meng-Lun Yu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Ludger Beerhues, Yuan-Bin Cheng et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2015; 78(10): pp 2346-2354 / DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00252
Extraction and Characterization of Natural Cellulosic Fiber from Pandanus amaryllifolius Leaves
/ ZN Diyana, R Jumaidin, MZ Selamat, RH Alamjuri, Fahmi Asyadi Md Yusof / Polymers, 2021; 13(23) /
DOI:   10.3390/polym13234171
EFFECT OF DRYING METHODS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF PANDANUS AMARYLLIFOLIUS / Nor Atiqah Binti Jusril, Awang Soh Mamat et al / Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science, 2016; 3(2)
Pandan Leaves (Pandanus Amaryllifolius) Aromatherapy and Relaxation Music to Reduce Dental Anxiety of Pediatric Patients / Seno Pradopo, Betadion Rizki Sinaredi, Bernadeth Vindi Januarisca / Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, 2017; 10(3): pp 933-937 / ISSN: 1309-100X
Pandanus amaryllifolius Exhibits In Vitro Anti-Amyloidogenic Activity and Promotes Neuroprotective Effects in Amyloid-β-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells / Mario A Tan, Hayato Ishikawa, Seong Soo A An /  Nutrients,  2022; 14(19): 3962 / DOI: 10.3390/nu14193962
Green Pigment Extraction from Pandan (Pandanus Amaryllifolius) and its Application in Food Industry / Nguyen Phuoc Minh, Tan Thanh Vo et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2019; 11(3): pp 925-929
The Effectiveness of Pandan Wangi Leaves (Pandanus Amaryllifolius Roxb.)Body Scrub Formulation in Smoothing the Skin / L Leny, Vivi Eulis Diana, Mandike Ginting, Benni Iskandar, Cahya Fadhila / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development,  2022; 10(1) / DOI: 10.22270/ajprd.v10i1.1072
The potential effect of pandan wangi leaf “pandanus amaryllifolius roxb.’’ extract from Indonesia as time sleep inductor / Nita Tri Sulistiyati, Riandini Aisyah, EM Sutrisna / International Journal of Current Research in Physiology and Pharmacology, 2019; 34(2): pp 5-7 / DOI: 10.31878/ijcrpp.2019.34.2
In vitro evaluation of Pandanus amaryllifolius ethanol extract for induction of cell death on non-hormone dependent human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell via apoptosis / Hueh Zan Chong, Swee Kkeong Yeap, Asmah Rahmat et al /  BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012; 12(Art 134)
Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract prepared by nanoemulsion technique as a natural mouthwash / S Safrida, K Khairil, W Artika, R Rinaldi / Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1460: 012050 /
DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1460/1/012050
Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb Leaf as Promising Candidates for Antidyslipidemic Agents: An in silico study / Martohap Parotua Lumbanraja, Kusnandar Anggadiredja et al / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2023; 15(1): pp 106-111 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2023.15.14
Efektivitas ekstrak metanol akar pandan wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Sebagai antimalaria terhadap jumlah limfosit dalam darah mencit (Mus musculus) yang diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei / Danang Mustofa, Muhammad Ibnu Kahtan, Diana Natalia et al / Multidisciplinary Journal of Science and Medicinal Research, 2019; 10(2) / DOI: 10.15562/ism.v10i2.366
Effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. ethanolic leaf extract on blood coagulation and platelet count using Wistar albino rat as a model / John Paolo M Navera, Jessel Mae P Abe, Nicole Beatrice E Alzate et al / The STETH, 2013, Vol 7 / ISSN: 2094-5906

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,500 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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