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Family Flacourtiacea
Pañgi
Pangium edule Reinw.
FOOTBAL FRUIT

Scientific names Common names
Pangium edule Reinw. Pañgi (S. L. Bis., P Bis., Bik.)
  Salingkumut (Mand.)
  Football fruit (Engl.)
Pangium edule Reinw. is an accepted name The Plant List
Hydnocarpus polyandra Blanco is an unresolved name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHAMORRO: Lasret, Raoel, Rauel.
INDONESIA: Picung.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Sis, Solomon.
POHNPEI: Duhrien.

Botany
Pañgi is a large, widely spreading tree reaching a height of 25 meters. Leaves are very large, smooth, leathery, broadly ovate or rounded, about 20 centimeters long, with pointed tip and heart-shaped base. Petioles are as long as the leaves. Flowers are yellowish-green or whitish, having a faint odor, about 4 centimeters across. Fruit is pendant upon thick, brown stalks, ovoidly rounded, 10 to 20 centimeters in diameter, brown and rough, containing seeds which are 3 to 5 centimeters across, compressed, somewhat angular, embedded in a yellowish, sweet, aromatic and edible pulp.

Distribution
- In primary forests at low and medium altitudes in Camarines and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon, and in Palawan, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Negros and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

Constituents
- Leaves yield a cyanogenetic glycoside, gynocardine, identical to that found in Gynocardia odorata.
- An emulsion-like enzyme, gynocardase, has been identified with the glucoside.
- Kernel oil yields palmitic and oleic acids, and an optically active oil, either hydnocarpic or chaulmoogric, or both.

Properties
- Kernel is considered poisonous.
- Plant considered anthelmintic
- Seeds, fruit, leaves and bark possess narcotic properties, in excessive amounts may cause sleepiness, headache, intoxication, delirium or even death.


Parts used and preparation
Seeds, leaves.

Uses
Edibility
- Pulp surrounding the seed is eaten in some parts of the Philippines. However, there are reports that it causes headaches.
- Although the kernel is considered poisonous, it is rendered edible by steeping or roasting.
- In Java, the oil is edible after prolonged boiling.
- In Kosrae, although considered poisonous, carefully washed and cooked older leaves, fruits, and seeds can be eaten.
(3)
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, all parts of the plant are considered anthelmintic.
- Seeds, fruits, leaves, and bark considered narcotic, and in excessive doses causes sleepiness, headache, intoxication, delirium, and occasionally fatal
- Freshly crushed seeds applied by Malays to boils.
- Leaves have anthelminthic action.
Others
- Oil: Oil used as illuminant and for making soap.
- Fish poison: In the Camarines, plant is used as a fish poison.
- Poison: In Pohnpie, poisonous seeds used as bait to kill rats.
(3) Fresh seeds and oil used as dart poison by Sakais.
- Fish preservative: Seed used as antimicrobial for ketchup products. Meat of Picung seeds mixed with salt used to preserve fresh mackerel for 6 days without changing quality. (8)


Studies
Antioxidant / Antibacterial:
Study showed a significant correlation between the total phenolic content and its antioxidative and antibacterial activity suggesting that phenolics of the seed extract could be potential natural antioxidant and antibacterial sources. (1)
Antioxidant / Seed: Study evaluated the effect of seed extracts along with synthetic antioxidant (BHT) on the oxidative stability of cooked ground turkey stored for 7 and 17 days. Assessing lipid peroxidation using TBARS, CD and peroxide values vis-a-vis refrigeration storage, results showed significantly reduced lipid oxidation and exhibited significant activity comparable to BHT at 200ppm. (4)
Tocopherols / Antioxidant Compounds / Seed: Tocopherols are the most powerful antioxidant among the vitamin E group. Study evaluated the tocopherols content in seeds of Pangium edule. Study detected high antioxidant activity suggesting the presence of other antioxidants in the seeds besides tocopherols. (5)
Antibacterial / Fermented Seeds / Foodborne Pathogens: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of fermented P. edule seed extract against several foodborne pathogens, i.e., E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, P. mirabilis and S. aureus. Results showed potent activity against some foodborne pathogens and a potential application as a natural food preservative. (6)
Biodiesel Potential / Seed Oil: Study evaluated kepayang seed oil for biodiesel characteristics, i.e., viscosity, density, acid number, iod number, soup number, gliserol number, and ester content. Results showed kepayang biodiesel can be used for diesel engine as substitute for petrol diesel. (7) Study reported on the biodiesel production from P. edule seed oil using a two-step acid-base-catalyzed trans-esterification. Seed was found to have an acid value of 19.62 mg/KOH/g oil. Remarkable features are its cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points. Results suggest the viability of using the biodiesel in cold countries. (9)
Food Preservative: Study evaluated the effectiveness of Picung (Pangium edule) from two geographical sites in preserving Macerel (Rastrellinger sp). Results showed no difference in cyanide acid content and no difference in preserving food between picung from the two different sites. There might be some difference in influences of the recipe and prolonged preservation time. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update March 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Flacoutiaceae / Pangium edule / Twig with staminate flowers / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL51694] / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Digitized from: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Wild Food Plants of the Philippines / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Fig 70 / Pangium edule (Pañgi) / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Illustration / File:Pangium edule Blanco2.391-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidative and Antibacterial Activities of Pangium edule Seed Extracts / Fook Yee Chye and Kheng Yuen Sim / Int. J. Pharmacol., 5: 285-297, 2009
(2)
Pangium edule / Common names / PIER
(3)
Pengium edule / People and Plants of Micronesia
(4)
The antioxidant activity of the extract of Pangium edule Reinw. (Keluak) seed in cooked ground turkey / Suyanto, Paulina / Thesis / Food Science & Human Nutrition / 2012 / University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
(5)
Determination of antioxidant compounds from the seeds of Pangium edule by solid liquid extraction method / Fan, Chao Way / http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/13101
(6)
Antibacterial Activity of Fermented Pangium edule Reinw. Seeds Extract against Foodborne Pathogens / Yaya Rukayadi / Udayana University, Bali Indonesia, 2012
(7)
THE BIODIESEL CHARACTERISTIC OF KEPAYANG OIL (Pangium edule Reinw.) / Nofiarli; Kasim, Anwar; Nurdin, Hazli / Journal of Agricultural & Biological Science;Mar2013, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p 241
(8)
Characteristic of Pangium Edule Reinw as food preservative from different geographical sites / Anwar Kasim* and Wahyudi David / Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Food and Energy (APJSAFE), Vol 1 (1): 6-9 2013
(9)
Pangium edule reinw: A promising non-edible oil feedstock for biodiesel production / Atabani, A.E.; Badruddin, I.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Chong, W.T.; Lee, K.T. / Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 40 (2). pp. 583-594 (2015)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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