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`Family Rutaceae
Feronia elephantum Correa
Mu ping guo

Scientific names Common names
Feronia elephantum Correa Pamunoan (Bis..)
Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle Panoan (Tag.)
Limonia acidissima L. Curd fruit (Engl.)
Schinus limonia L. Elephant apple (Engl.)
  Monkey apple (Engl.)
  Wood apple (Engl.)
Feronia elephantum Correa is an unresolved name. The Plant List
Murraya odorata Blanco is an unresolved name. Some data suggest it is synonymous with Feroniia elephantum Correa. The Plant List
Julia F. Morton offers three other synonyms: Feronia limonia Swingle, Limonia acidissima L., Schinus limonia L. (Morton, J. 1987, Wood-Apple. p 190-191: Fruits of warm climates. (3)
Other compilations list Limonia elephantum as synonym of Feronia elephantum.

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Tuffahh el fil.
ASSAMESE: Kath baei.
BENGALI: Bela, Kait, Kapittha, Kath bael, Kath bel, Kayetabela.
BURMESE: Thanat kha, Thibin, Thii thii ping, Thee.
CAMBODIA: Kramsang.
CHINESE: Mu ping guo.
DUTCH: Olipfants appel.
FRENCH: Arbre a tanaka, Citronnier des elephants, Feronie de l'Inde, Pomme d' elephant, Pomme de bois, Pomme des elephants, Citron des mois.
GERMAN: Elefantenapfel.
GUJARATI: KKotha,, Kothi, Kothu.
HINDI: Dadhiphal,Dantasath, Kabeet, Kabut, Kait, Kaitha,, Kapitth, Katabel, Kat bel, Kath bel, Katha.
ITALIAN: Pomo d'elefante.
JAPANESE: Feronia rimonia, Rimonia akidisshima, Tanaka, Zou no ringo.
KANNADA: Baelada hanina mara, Baelada hannu, Baelada mara, Belada hannu, Dadhiphala, Damtasata, Kaadu bilwapatre, Kapithha, Manmatha mara, Nayibel, Nayi bela.
KHMER: Kramsang, Kvet.
KONHANI: Belpatre.
LAOS: Ma-fit.
MALAY: Gelinggai, Belinggai, Kawista, Kusta.
MALAYALAM: Blanka, Naay veelam, Vilam kai, Vilankaay.
MARATHI: Kapith, Kavant, Kavanti, Kavat, Kawath.
ORIYA: Kaintha, Koyito.
RUSSIAN: Feronoiia limonnaia, Slonocaia iabloni, Slonove iabloko.
SANSKRIT: Cirapaki, Dadhi, Dadhiphala, Dadhistha, Dadhittha, Dantasatha, Kapripriya, Kapita.
TAMIL: Kapittam, Kavittam, Tantacatam, Velam, Velan, Vilankay maram,
THAI: Ma-khwit= Mafit.

Gen info
- Feronia elephantum is the only species of its genus, in the family Rutaceae.
- In India, the fruit was traditionally referred to as a "poor man's food" until processing techniques were developed in the mid-50s. (3)

Feronia elephantum is a tree growing 3-4 meters high. Leaves are fragrant, opposite, odd-pinnate. Leaflets are in two pairs, lanceolate, entire, and glabrous. Common petiole flattened above. Flowers are terminal, white, racemose, with 2 flattened peduncles. Calyx inferior, with 5-6 divisions. Corolla with 5-6 petals. Anthers oval. Ovary oblong, 5-lobuled. Style short, caducous. Stigma, spindle-shaped. Ovules numerous, compressed, in several series. Fruit pulpy, globose, with a woody rind, with one compartment and many compressed, oblong seeds. (2)

- Mountains of Angat and woods of Catugan, Iloilo. (2)
- Common in the wild in dry plains of India and Ceylon.
- Cultivated along roads, fields, and orchards.

- Nutrition data per 100 g of edible (ripe) pulp and seeds: moisture 74.0% and 4.0%, protein 8.00% and 26.18%, fat 1.45% and 27%, carbohydrates 7.45% and 35.49%, ash 5.0% and 5.03%, calcium 0.17% and 1.58%, phosphorus 0.08% and 1.43%, iron 0.07% and 09.03%, and tannins 1.03% and 0.08%. The pulp represents 36% of the whole fruit. Pulp contains 3 to 5% pectiin (16% yield on dry weight basis). Seed yields a bland, non-bitter oil high in unsaturated fatty acids. (3)
- Gum consists of 35.5% arabinose and xylose, 42.7% d-galactose, and traces of rhamnose and glucuronic acid. (3)
- Heartwood yields ursolic acid and a flavanone glycoside, 7-methylporiol-b-D-xylopyranosyl-D-glucopyranoside. (3)
- Unripe fruits contain 0.015% stigmasterol. Leaves contain 0.012% stigmasterol and 0.01% bergapten. Bark contains 0.016% marmesin. Root bark contains aurapten, bergapten, isopimpinellin. (3)
- GC-MS study of essential oil yielded 23 compounds accounting for 83.87%. The major component was oxygenated sesquiterpene, caryophyllene oxide (62.29%), followed by caryophyllene (6.05%), aromadendrene (3.58%), humulene epoxide II (3.00%), phytol (1.21%) and α-copaene (1.03%). (see study below) (5)
- GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of leaves and bark yielded 18 and 14 compounds, respectively. Dominant compounds in the leaves extract were 7-Norbornadienyl t-butyl ether (17.26%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1-heptanol (11.40%), 1-octanol,2-butyl (8.47%), phenol 4-[2-{dimethylamino}-ethyl] (4.56%), 2,3-dimethylquinolin-4(1H)-one (3.58%), ethyl iso-allocholate (1.63%). Ethanol extract of bark yielded 2-propenenitrile, 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) (60.72%), phenol 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxy (9.35%), 3-{2-N-acetyyl-N-methylaminethyl)indol (1.15%). chooesta-8,24-dine-3-ol, 4-methyl-(3a'-4a') (0.86%) as major components. (8)
- GC and GC-MS study for essential oil yielded 24 constituents, of which 18 were identified. Trans-anethole (57.73%) and methyl chavicol (37.48%) were the major compounds, while cis-anethole, p-anisaldehyde, (E)-jasmone, methyl eugenol, ß-caryophyllene, linalool and (E)-methyl isoeugenol were identified as minor components. (9)
- Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Limonia acidissima plant parts i.e., bark, leaf, rind, pulp, and seed showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, phenols, gum and mucilage, fixed oils and fats, resins and tannins. The pulp showed the highest amount of protein while carbohydrate content was more in seeds, and the rind was rich in amino acid. (23)
- Study of Feronia limonia fruit pulp isolated a flavonoid, luteolin, with a molecular formula of 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one. (25)
- Study isolated a monoterpenoid furanocoumarin lactone, fernolin, along with aurapten, marmesin, bergapten, and xanthotoxin from the roots of Feronia limonia. (36)
- Study of air dried, powdered and defatted fruit material of F. limonia isolated and elucidated a flavone glycoside:: 5,4-dihydroxy-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl) 3,5,6-trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside.  (38)
- GC and GC-MMS study of leaf essential oil yielded 51 compounds. Major constituents were estragole (34.69%) and ß-pinene (23.59%), followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05%), eugenol (6.50%), linalool (3.97%), phytol (3.27%), sabinene (2.41%), and limonene (2.27%) (see study below) (39)
- Study of Feronia limonia flowers isolated a new quinoline alkaloid, along with four alkaloid precursors, one coumarin, a known steroid stigmasterol and p-coumaric acid. (51)
- Study of roots and leaves yielded a flavonoid characterized as 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-methoxybut-2-enyl)chroman-4-one, along with known imperatorin, bergapten, and xanthotoxin. (52)

- The tree is grown from seeds and will not bear fruit until at least 15 years old. (3)
- Ripe fruit considered refrigerant, astringent, cardiac and general tonic. (2)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, mosquito larvicidal, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcerogenic, wound healing, antispermatogenic, antisteroidogenic, muscle relaxant, anticancer, anti-mycobacterial. anti-corrosion, wound healing properties.

Parts used
Fruit, leaves, rind.


- Fruit pulp of ripe fruit is edible.
- Rind is hard and cracked with a hammer. The scooped-out pulp is sticky, and eaten raw with or without sugar, or blended with coconut milk and palm-sugar syrup and drunk as beverage, or frozen and eaten as ice cream. (3)
- Fruits used for making preserves and chutney.
- In India, the green fruit is used as astringent in diarrhea and dysentery. Decoction of tender leaves, with the agreeable aroma of anise, used as stomachic and carminative. (2) In Indian system of medicine, used for treatment of diabetes. (4)
- Ripe fruit is given for diseases of the gums and as a gargle. Also used for treatment of salivation and ulcers of the throat. Fruit pulp or pulverized bark used locally for bites of venomous animals. (2)
- In India, fruit used as a liver and cardiac tonic. Unripe fruit used for treatment of hiccups, sore throat, and diseases of the gums. (3)
- Juice of young leaves mixed with milk and sugar candy as remedy for biliousness and intestinal problems in children. Powdered gum mixed with honey used for dysentery and diarrhea in children. Leaf decoction used as digestive aid in children. (3)
- Oil from crushed leaved applied to itches. Leaves, bark, roots, and fruit pulp used for snakebites. (3)
- In Indian folk medicine, used for treatment of blood impurities, leucorrhea, and as diuretic and liver tonic. (7)
- In southern India, fruit pulp used to induced sterility in men. (20)
- In the rural population of Silakhana village in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh, juice from macerated leaves used for dysentery and other bowel problems. (47)
- Gum: Trunk yields a gum that has been used in India as a substitute for gum arabic. The gum exists as irregular and semitransparent pieces, brownish-red, and with water forms an adhesive mucilage.
(2) The gum is used as substitute or adulterant of gum arabic; also used for making artist's watercolors, inks, dyes, and varnish. (3)
- Rind: Fruit shell is made into snuffboxes and other small containers. (3)
- Ethnoveterinary: In Bundelkhand, India, ground fresh leaves used by rural farmers for treatment of intestinal worms in cattle. (41)

Feronia elephantum is an unresolved name. Julia Morton's study on Wood apple: Fruits of warm climates (1987) list s Feronia limonia, Wingle, Limonia acidissimma L, and Schinus limonia L. as synonyms. Along with Feronia elephantum, they all share the common name "wood apple." This STUDIES section will include scientific studies attributed to the synonyms.
Antidiabetic / Fruit: Study evaluated the in-vivo hypoglycemic and antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract of fruit pulp of F. elephantum in glucose loaded animals and alloxan induced diabetic animals. In both models, there was reduction of blood glucose level. The hypoglycemic/antidiabetic activity was significant but of less potency than standard metformin. (4) Study showed oral administration of 250mg/kbw of 95% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits significantly lowered blood glucose levels of fasted, fed and STZ-induced diabetic male albino rats. Histological studies showed marked degranulation in ß-cells of extract treated rats. Lowering of blood glucose was attributed probably to stimulation of insulin secretagogue activity. (7)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and DNA fragmentation activities of F. elephantum essential oil. GC-MS analysis yielded 24 compounds with caryophyllene oxide (62.29%) as dominant compound. The EO showed considerable antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical, OH radical scavenging, metal chelating and prevention of deoxyribose degradation. Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation activities were analyzed against breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities may be due to the major compound, caryophyllene oxide. (see constituents above) (5)
Antiulcerogenic / Indomethacin-IInduced Gastric Ulcer / Fruit Pulp / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated F. elephantum fruit pulp extract against indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Measured parameters were pH and acid concentration of gastric contents, and ulcer index. Results showed antiulcer activity, but not as potent as ranitidine. Acute toxicity study at dose range of 250-5000 mg/kg showed no mortality. Results showed potent antiulcer activity with ow toxicity. Activity was probably via reduction in gastric acid secretion. (6) Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of F. elephantum leaves and bark in a model of NSAID (indomethacin)-induced ulcer in rats. Pretreatment with extract significantly decreased the ulcerated area, decreased volume and acidity of gastric juice. (14)
Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study evaluated various extracts of fruit pulp of Feronia limonia for secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi by well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, and glycosides. Among all extracts, the methanol extract showed highest sensitivity. (10)
Antimicrobial / Leaf Essential Oil: GC and GC-MS analysis of leaves for essential oil yielded 33 compounds representing 92.6% of the total oil. Main constituents were ß-pinene (28.4%), Z-anethole (22.1%), methyl chavicol (12.0%), and E-anethole (8.1%). The oil was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The oil showed activity against Micrococcus luteus (gram+), proteus mirabilis (gram-), and fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. (11)
Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic activity of crude extract of leaves using acetic acid induced writhing model of pain in mice. Crude extract of leaves of F. limonia produced 23.74% and 45.32% writhing inhibition in mice at oral doses of 250 and 500 mg/kbw in mice, respectively. Diclofenac sodium showed 50.46% inhibition at dose of 25 mg/kbw. (12) Study evaluated chloroform and ethanol extracts of Feronia limonia powdered leaves for analgesic activity. Peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing in mice while central activity was evaluated using Eddy's hot plate method. Results showed significant activity as evidenced by decreased writhing movements in acetic acid induced writhing test and significantly increased reaction time in hot plate test. (28)
Silver Nanoparticles / Adulticidal Against Vectors / Leaves: Study evaluated the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Feronia elephantum leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Considerable mortality was evident after treatment of F. elephantum for all three vector es. The synthesized AgNPs were highly toxic compared to crude leaf aqueous extract. Results suggest the leaf aqueous extracts of F. elephantum and green synthesis of AgNPs have potential use for eco-friendly control of the three mosquito vectors. (13)
Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide Induced Liver Necrosis / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of F. elephantum against thioacetamide (TA) induced liver necrosis in diabetic male wistar rats. Liver necrosis was measured in terms of mortality, liver volume, liver weight, AST, ALT, and histopathologal signs of necrosis and inflammation. Results showed improvement in liver function parameters without change in liver weight, volume, and serum glucose levels. (15)
Hypoglycemic activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Limonia elephantum in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed statistically significant hypoglycemic effect with an oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg, comparable to metformin at 1.5 mg/kg. (16)
Cosmetic Potential / Leaves: Study reports on the potential of Limonia acidissima in cosmetics The essential oil of leaves have shown antibacterial activity, attributed to carvacrol and cyclodecandine constituents. Antifungal and antibacterial activity is attributed to psoralene. The pulp has shown high moisture content. Phytoconstituents include saponins, flavonoids, amino acids, beta carotene, tannins, carbohydrates, vitamin B and triterpene. Taken together, L. acidissima shows potential for use in cosmetic products. (17)
Wound Healing / Antioxidant / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of methanol extract of fruit pulp of Limonia acidissima in incision, excision, and dead-space wound models in albino rats. Results showed increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline concentration. Also, increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., higher SOD and catalase levels were observed in the extract treated groups. Wound healing activity was statistically significant (p<0.001) in animals treated with 400 mg/kg of extract. (19)
Reversible Antispermatogenic / Antisteroidogenic / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of fruit pulp of Feronia imonia in Wistar male albino rats. Results showed testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles were significantly (p<0.01) reduced, effects which were associated with a decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percentage of abnormal sperm. Also, at 400 mg/kbw then fruit pulp markedly reduced epididymal and testicular protein,, G6PD, and hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, along with elevation in testicular testosterone and ascorbic acid content. Results suggest reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, partially supporting its traditional use as male contraceptive. (20)
Mosquito Larvicidal / Dried Leaves: Bioassay guided fractionation of an acetone extract of Feronia limonia dried leaves yielded a potent mosquito larvicide, n-hexadecanoic acid, which was found effective against fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, with LC50s of 129.24, 79.58, and 57.23 ppm, respectively. (21)
Hepatoprotective / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective potentials of extracts, fractions and isolated compound from leaves of Feronia limonia against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. A methanol extract was found to be non toxic and hepatoprotective in nature as compared with the petroleum ether extract.  (22)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated Limonia acidissima plant parts for phytochemical constituents. The methanolic extract of plant parts were tested against E. coli and S. aureus using disc diffusion method. The extracts from different plant parts showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. (see constituents above) (23)
Muscle Relaxant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the muscle relaxant and antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Feronia limonia in mice. Using rotarod method and actophotometer method, the extracts showed significant reduction in muscle coordination, with the ethanolic extract exhibiting better activity compared to the aqueous extract. The extracts showed activity against four bacterial test strains i.e. gram negative P. aeruginosa and E. coli and gram positive S. aureus and S. faecalis. (24)
Anti-Corrosion / Leaves: Mild steel used as structural material for pipes, tanks, etc. invariably corrodes when in contact with various solvents. Feronia elephantum leaf extract has been shown to be an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 and 1 M HCl solutions. The protective efficiency is suggestive of physical adsorption mechanism. Results confirm the formation of a protective layer by F. elephantum leaf extract over mild steel surface. (26)
Antitumor / Pectin Polysaccharide: Study isolated an acidic heteropolysaccharide from F. limonia. A partially carboxylated a-(1-4) polygalacturonan backbone structure with 2- and 2,4-O-
α-L-rhamnopyranosyl, 2- and 2,3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl and 3-,2,4- and terminal α-D-galactopyranosyl bearing side chains was tentatively assigned. Preliminary study in a murine model showed significant in-vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell growth inhibition. (27)
.23 ppm, respectively. (21)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Stem Bark and Roots: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of F. elephantum stem bark and roots against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats in measures of liver enzymes and biochemical parameters and histopathological examination. Results showed potent hepatoprotective activity. Phytochemical screening yielded various constituents including glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and phenols, which may be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. (29)
Neuroprotective / Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Study evaluated the neuroprotective activity of Feronia limonia on ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injury in rats using neurobehavioral tests such as neurodeficit score, rota rod test, hanging wire test beam walk test and elevated plus maze, along with biochemical parameters. Results showed statistically significant improvement in the neurobehavioral parameters such as motor performance, along with significant reduction in total nitrite (p<0.01) and lipid peroxidation (p<0.01), and significantly enhanced activity of enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase and SOD. (30)
Antidiarrheal / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antidiarrheal potential of ethanol extracts of F. limonia leaves. The extract showed moderate antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. pyogenes and gram-negative E. coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae and S. flexneri in a dose-dependent manner. On castor-oil induced diarrhea model in mice, extract significantly reduced the severity and frequency of diarrhea. Loperamide was used as standard. (31)
Antidiabetic / α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Fruit: / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro antidiabetic activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of F. elephantum fruits and Paspalum scrobiculatum grains using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays. All the extracts exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes with IC50 values comparable to acarbose, a marketed antidiabetic drug. (32)
Ferolactone / Furanocoumarin / Antihepatotoxic / Fruit: Study pf F. limonia fruit yielded a new furanocoumarin, ferolactone. Ferolactone exhibited significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the levels of serum enzymes SGOY, SGPT,, alkaline phosphatase, along with increase total protein against CCl4-induced toxicity in albino wistar rats. Histopathological exam of the liver showed significant recovery of liver hepatocytes in ferolactone-treated animals. (33)
Antioxidant Potential / Amino Acid Analysis / Fruit: Study evaluated Limonia acidissima fruit for antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and amino acid content using invitro assay models. The highest percentage of phenol and flavonoid contents were found in the methanol extract, the lowest in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract also exhibited higher activity in DPPH, HRSA, FRAP and TAA, while the ethyl acetate extract was active for ABTS radical scavenging activity. The water extract showed higher NO radical scavenging activity than other solvent extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid contents correlalted with antioxidant capacity. Amino acid analysis revealed that among all essential amino acids, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan were present in higher amounts. Results suggest enormous health benefits and potential uses in food and pharmaceutical applications. (34)
Use of Fruit Powder for Herbal Biscuits: Study evaluated the use of L. acidissima fruit powder for fortification of wheat flour used for making phynolic enriched herbal biscuits. Study showed the herbal biscuits developed with fortified L. acidissima fruit powder showed great antioxidant activity. (35)
Antidiabetic / Bark: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of bark of Feronia limonia on alloxan induced rats. Glibencladmie was used as reference drug. The bark extract yielded flavonoids and phenols. Results showed the bark extract was efficacious in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels. (37)
Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaf Essential Oil: Study evaluated the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 51 compounds. The essential oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity. Results suggest a potential new source of larvicide for control of vector mosquitoes. (see constituents above) (39)
Anticancer / Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines / Fruit: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of Limonia acidissima fruit extract against breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3 and MDA MB435. Fraction3 of the ethanol extract showed anticancer activity against SKBR3 and MDA-MB435 human breast cancer cell. The extract significantly reduced cell proliferation in both cancer cell lines. Fraction 3 induced accumulation of cells in G2/M phase in MDA-MB435 cells. Results showed the extract fraction could induce cell cycle arrest. However, molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. (40)
Dermatological Properties / Antibacterial and Skin Whitening / Bark: Study evaluated the invivo antistaphylococcal activity of Feronia limonia bark extracts (petroleum ether, ethanol and water crude extracts). Healing potential was evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus induced excision type cutaneous wounds in guinea pigs. All extracts showed similar healing effects on different doses. Pet-ether and ethanol extracts were applied on sun rays induced hyperpigmented skin. Results showed a whitening effect, although lower than that of control, kojic acid. Two compounds were isolated from the chloroform extract, bergapten and marmesin. (42)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Toxicity / Leaves: Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced toxicity in rats as evidenced by return of affected hepatic biochemical markers to near normal levels. (43)
Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Studies / Fruits: Study evaluated the methanol extract of Feronia limonia fruits for anti-inflammatory activity using invivo and invitro methods in rats. Invivo, the ME significantly inhibited edema induced by carrageenan in rats; in vitro, on thermally induced protein denaturation, the ME exhibited significant protein denaturation. There was no toxicity with tested doses. (44)
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles / Potential Against M. Tuberculosis / Leaves: Study reports on the green, eco-friendly , inexpensive synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using L. acidissima aqueous extract of leaves. The ZnONPs was shown to control the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and presents potential as a novel medicine ingredient to combat tuberculosis disease. (45)
Value Added Products by Enzyme Liquefaction of Fruits: Study reports on the enzymatic liquefaction of wood apple pulp using four enzymes cellulase, hemicellulase, pectinases and xylases. on parameters of time, temperature, concentration and enzyme pH, The combination of enzymes and optimum conditions of the parameters resulted in more juice yield. Novel value added products were prepared like instant ketchup mix, squash mix, and fruit bars. (46)
Antidermatophytic / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidermatophytic and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Limonia acidissima. Results showed broad spectrum of activity against fungi and bacteria viz., Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. (48)
Multi-Purpose Herbal Scrub Gel Formulation / Fruit: Study evaluated a multi-purpose herbal scrub incorporated into a gel for cosmetic uses. Limonia acidissima contains four times more vitamin C than other citrus fruit, along with beta-carotene, vitamins A and B, with potential benefit as anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, natural exfoliating, skin lightening properties. (49)
Cardioprotective Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Ischemia / Fruit: Study evaluated the cardioprotective activity of ethanolic fruit extract of L. acidissima against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats assessed by cardiac marker enzymes. Results showed dose dependent cardioprotective effect as evidenced by significantly decreased cardiac marker enzymes and increased antioxidant enzymes. The activity was attributed to its antioxidant property. (50)

Seeds in the cybermarket.

March 2021

IMAGE SOURCE: Feronia elephantum / A J T Johnsingh / Creative Common-dhare alike 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Fruit: Feronia elephanthum / © Indiamart / click on image to go to source page / indiamart
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE:Illustration: Feronia elephantum / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Feronia elephantum / The Plant List
Feronia elephantum / T H Pardo de Tavera / The Project Gutenberg eBook of the Medicinal Plants of the Philippines
Wood-Apple / Julia Morton / Fruits of warm climates, 1987
Antidiabetic activity of fruit pulp of Feronia elephantum Corr. / Anurag Mishra, Ganesh Prasad Garg / Pharmacognosy Journal, Feb 2011; 3(20): pp 27-32
In vitro antiioxidant and cytotoxic activities of essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa / Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan and Delma David / Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed., April 2014; 4(4): pp 290-293 / DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014B878 / PMID: 25182553

Effect of Feronia elephantum (Corr.) Fruit Plp Extract on Indomethaciin-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Rats / A Mishra, S Arora, R Gupta, R K Punia, A K Sharma / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009; 8(6)n / DOII:10.4314/tjpr.v8i6.49395
Effect of ethanolic extract of Feronia elephantum Correa fruits on blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Rahuul Gupta, Samta Johri, A M Saxena / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resrouces, Jan-Feb 2009; 8(1): pp 32-36 / ISSN: 0972-592X|
GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Components of Feronia elephantum Correa (Rutaceae) / <uthulakshmi A, Jothibai Margret R and Mohan V R / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2012; 2(2): pp 69-74

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa / Chitra Pande, Geeta Tewari, Cgaru Singh, Shalini Singh, and R C Padalia / Natural Products Research, 2010; 24(18) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786411003752078
Comparative phytochemical studies and antimicrobial potential of fruit extracts of Feronia Limonia Linn. / Jayashree V H, Ramesh Londonkar / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical
Sciences, 2014; 6(1) / ISSN: 0975-1491
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of the Leaves of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) from North West Karnataka / Rajesh K Joshi, Vijayalaxmi M Badakar, Sanjiva D Kholkule et al / Natural Products Communications / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1100600134
Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Feronia limonia leaves / Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, Sm Faysal Bellah, Mizanur Rahaman Khan, Md Iqubal Hossain Raju, Md Mustafizur Rahman, and Anjuman Ara Begum / American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2013; 4(5): pp 468-472 / ISSN: 2153-649X / DOI: 10.5251/ajsir.2013.4.5.469.472
Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutacea) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector es / Kaliyan Veerakumar and Marimuthu Govindarajan / Parasitology Research, 2014; 113: pp 4085-4096
Antiulcer effect of Feronia elephantum Correa leaf and bark extract in indomethacin induced albino rats / A Muthulakshmi, R Jothibai Margret and V R Mohan / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, May 2013; 3(4Suppl1): pp71-74 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.34.S13 / ISSN: 2231-3354
Protective effect of aqueous extract of Feronia elephantum Correa leaves on thioacetamide induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats / Prashant Sharma, Subhash L Bodhankar, and Prasad A Thakurdesai / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed., Sept 2012; 2(9): pp 691-695 / DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1671(12)60211-1 / PMID: 23569996
Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Limonia elephantum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats / K Kamalakannan and Veluchamy Balakrishnan / Bangladesh J Pharmacol., 2014; 9(3): pp 442-446 /
DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v9i3.19705
Wood Apple (Limonia acidissima L.): A Multipurpose Herb in Cosmetics / Vishakha Bagul, Sonal Dhabekarm Disha Sansarode, Sneha Dandekar / IJSDR, July 2019; 4(7) / ISSN: 2455-2631
Sorting Limonia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Wound healing and antioxidant activities of the fruit pulp of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) in rats / K Ilango, V Chitra / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2010; 9(3) / DOI: 10.4324/tjpr.v9i3.56281
Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic actvities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats / Ramaiyan Dhabapal, J Vijaya Ratna, I Sarathchandran, Malaya Gupta / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Feb 2012; 2(2): pp 1024-1030 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60355-4
Effect of Feronia limonia on mosquito larvae / A Abdul Rahuman, Geetha Gopalakrishnan, B Saleem Ghouse, S Arumugam, B Himalayan /m Fitoterapia, Sept 2000; 71(5): pp 553-555 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00164-7
Cytotoxicity evaluation and hepatoprotective potential of bioassay guided fractions from Feronia limmonia Linn Leaf / Mahendra Jain, Rakhee Kapadia, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Menaka C Thounaojam, Ranjitsinh V Devkar, S H Mishra / Asian Pacific Journal of 'Tropical Biomedicine, Dec 2011; 1(6): pp 443-447 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60097-X
Preliminary studies on phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Limonia acidissima L. plant parts / Asha Thomas, N R Ponnammal / Anc Sci Life., Oct-Dec 2005; 25(2): pp 57-61 / PMID: 22557192
Muscle relaxant and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Feronia limonia / Praveen D, Ranadheer Chowdary P, Sajel S and Vijey Aanandhi / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 7(9): pp 809-812 / ISSN: 0975-7384
Isolation and identification of a flavone from fruit pup of Fernia limonia / Jayashree V Hanceinalmath, Ramesh Londonkar / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 2014; 6(4): pp 28-31 / ISSN: 0975-7066
Effect of Acidified Feronia elephantum Leaf Extract on the Corrosion Behavior of Mild Steel / Pitchaipillai Muthukrishnan, Periakaruppan Prakash, et al / Mettalurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2015; 46: pp 1448-1460 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-015-0322-1
An antitumor pectin polysaccharide from Feronia limonia / Y Saima, A K Das, K K Sarkar, A K Sen Sr, P Sur / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Aug 2000, 27(5): pp 333-335 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(00)00134-3
Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Leaves Extracts of Feronia limonia in Experimental Animal Models / Pradeep Kumar Samal, J S Dangi, Kedar Pd Meena, N R Beck, Aswani Pate and Gariima Maheshwari /
Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Feronia elephantum Correa stem bark and root / Mudita Mishra,, Rushijant Mishra, N Balakrishnan, Santosh Kumar Verma / Asian Pacific Journal of Health Sciences, Oct- Dec 2017; 4(4) / DOI: 10.21276/apjhs.2017.4.428 / eISSN: 2349-0659
Neuroprotective effect of Feronia limonia on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury in rats / Purushottam B Rakhunde, Sana Saher, Syed Ayaz Ali / Indian J Pharmacol., Nov-Dec 2014; 46(6): pp 617-621 /
DOI: 10.41003/0253-7613.144920 / PMID: 255383
Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antidiarrheal Activities of Feronia limonia Leaf Extract / Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, Mizanur Rahaman Khan, Johir Rayhan, Afrina Afrose, Sohel Rana, Anjuman Ara Begum / American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013; 4: pp 2181-2185 / DOI: 10.4326/aips.2014.411270
In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of extracts of Feronia elephantum fruit and Paspalum scrobiculatum grains / G Jyothi Reddy, K Bhaskar Reddy, G V Subba Reddy / Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 200019; 5(S1): pp 42-47 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.31024/ajpp.2019.5.s1.4
Antihepatotoxic activity of ferolactone, a new furanocoumarin from Feronia limonia / Rucha Upadhyay, Amita Verma, N D Pandey and S S Narvi / Medical Chemistry Research, 2012; 21: pp 2955-2960 / DOI: https://doi.org10/1007/s00044-011-9825-8
Antioxidant potential and amino acid analysis of underutilized tropical fruit Limonia acidissima L. / Deivamarudhachalam Teepica Priya Darsini, Vellingiri Maheshu, Mounasamy Vishnupriya, Surendran Nishaa, Jagathala MahaingamSasikumar / Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Dec 2013; 4(Suppl): pp 62-69 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fra.2013.08.001
Fortification of Limonia acidissima Linn Fruit Powder to Develop the Phynolic Enriched Herbal Biscuits / Avinash Singh Patel and Arun Kumar Pandey / Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology, 2014; Vol 1: pp 74-85
Coumarins from the roots of Feronia limonia / Amulaya Agrawal, I R Siddiqui, J Singh / Phytochemstry, 1989; 28(4): pp 1229-1231 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(89)80215-8
Evaluation on anti-diabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of bark of Feronia limonia / Amit Jain / International Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2019; 1(1)
Isolation and structural elucidation of the novel flavone glycoside from Feronia limonia L. / Arshed Iqbal Dar, Gangaram Masar, Vikram Jadhaw, S K Bansal, R C Saxena / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Aug 2013; 7(8): pp 607-704 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jopr.2013.04.058
Chemical constituents and larvicidal potential of Feronia limonia leaf essential oil against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus / A Senthilkumar, M Jayaraman, V Venkatesalu / Parasitology Research, 2013; 112: pp 1337-1342 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3188-z
Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit Extracts on Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines / D Pradhan, G Tripathy, S Patanaik / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2012; 11(3) / DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v11i3.10
An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India / Raj Kumar Verma / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, May 2014; 4(Suppl1): pp 460-467 / DOI: https:/doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1067
Study on some dermatological properties and chemical constituents of Myanmar natural cosmetic Feronia Limonia (L.) Swingle (Thee) bark / Phyu Phyu Zaw, Aye Aye Tun / J Myanmar Acad Arts Sci., 2018; Vol XVI, No 1A
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Feronia limonia leaves on paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats / Syed Mansoor Ahamed, Jayaveera K N, Venkateshwara Rao J, Nagarjan Tukuru / Adv Pharmacol Taoxicol., 2010; 11(1): pp 47-53 / ISSN: 0973-2381
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Toxicity Studies of Feronia limonia in Acute Inflammatory Model in Rats / Jayashree V Hanchinalmath, Ranesh Londonkar / Int J Pharm Sci Rev Rev., Mar-Apr 2014; 25(1): pp 303-306 / ISSN: 0976-044X
Limonia acidissima L. leaf medited synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis / Bheemanagouda N Patil, Tarikere C Taranath / International Journal of Mycobacteriology, June 2016; 5(2): pp 197-204 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1015/j.ijmyco.2016.03.004
Enzyme liquefaction and development of novel value added products from Wood Apple (Feronia elephantum) - an uptapped forest resource / Shaji Dhanya / Dissertation, 2005 / Food Sci & Technol. Information Services /Institutional Repository of CSIR-CFTRI
Preventive medicinal plants consumed by the rural population of Bangladesh - a randomized survey of Silakhana village in Bagerhat district / Anita Paul, Md Hasan Arif, Muhammad Tazul Islam, Muhammad Rahmatullah et al / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2012; 6(4): pp 276-280
Antidermatophytic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Limonia acidissima Groff. / P Shivankumar Singh. G M Vidhyasagar / International Letters of Natural Sciences, 2015; Vol 39: pp 56-62 / DOI: 10.10653/www.scipress.com/ILNS.39.56
Formulation and evaluation of multipurpose herbal scrub in get form using Limonia acidissima / Vishal Ashok Chaudhari, Dr Manoj V Girase, Bhushan Gulab Borase et al / Internation Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, April 2020; 7(2) / eISSN: 2349-1269, pISSN: 2349-5138
Cardioprotective Activity of Limonia acidissima Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats / Hasitha Diana Manohar, Srinivasan D, Sengottuvelu S / Research J Pharm and Tech., 2016; 9(5)" pp 541-544 / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00102.5
A novel alkaloid, four alkaloid precursors and a coumarin from Feronia limonia / Pitchai P, R Ulagi, P S Mohan, R M Gengan / Indian Journal of Chemistry / eISSN: 0975-0983, pISSN: 0376-4699
Isolation of a flavonoid from Feronia limonia / Javed Intekhab, Mohammad Aslam / Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 2009; 13(3): pp 295-298 / ISSN: 1319-6103

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