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Family Poaceae
Eleusine indica (Linn.) Gaertn.

Long zhao ji

Scientific names  Common names 
Agropyron geminatum (Spreng.)Schult. & Schult.f.  Ba-gañgan (Bik.)  
Chloris repens Steud. Bakis-bakisan (Tag.) 
Cynodon indicus (L.) Raspil.  Barañgan (Bik.) 
Cynosurus ara Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.  Bikad-bikad (Sul.) 
Cynosurus indicus (L.)  Bila-bila (P. Bis.) 
Cynosurus pectinatus Lam. Bugtusan (Bis) 
Eleusine distachya Trin. ex Steud. Dinapaiuk (If.) 
Eleusine distans  Link Gagabutan (Tag.)
Eleusine distans  Moench Hayapaw (Pamp.)
Eleusine domingensis  Sieber ex Schult. Jatjatan (Benguet)
Eleusine glabra Schumach. Kabit-kabit (Tag.) 
Eleusine gonantha Schrank Palad (C. Bis.) 
Eleusine gouinii E.Fourn. Palagtiki (Bis.) 
Eleusine inaequalis E.Fourn. Paragis (Tag.) 
Eleusine indica (Linn.) Gaertn. Parañgis (Ilk.) 
Eleusine japonica Steud. Parañgis-sabuñgan (Pamp.) 
Eleusine macrosperma Stokes Sabung-sabuñgan (Tag., Pamp.) 
Eleusine marginata Lindl. Sambali (Tag.) 
Eleusine pectinata (Lam.) Lam. Crab grass (Engl.)
Eleusine polydactyla Steud. Crow foot (Engl.)
Eleusine rigidifolia E.Fourn. Crowsfoot grass (Engl.)
Eleusine scabra E.Fourn. Dog's tail,(Engl.) 
Eleusine textilis Welw. Fowl-foot grass (Engl.)
Juncus loureiroana Schult. & Schult.f.  Goose grass (Engl.)
Leptochloa pectinata (Lam.) Kunth Indian goose grass (Engl.)
Paspalum dissectum Kniph. Iron grass (Engl.)
Poa spicata Willd. ex Steud. Silver crabgrass (Engl.)
Triticum germinatum Spreng Wire grass (Engl.) 
  Yard grass (Engl.) 
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Paragis is a local common name shared by (1) Eleusine indica, wire grass (2) Paspalum scrobiculatum, kodomillet.

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Kalassindra (Chad).
BANGLADESH: Binna challa, Chapra, Gaicha, Malangakur, Malankuri.
CHINESE: Long zhao ji, Niu jin cao, Xi shuari cao.
FRENCH: Pied de poule de l'Inde.
HINDI: Jangali marua.
INDIA: Jhingari, Nandimukha, Nandiaa; Mahaar, Naachni; Thippa Ragi, Kechila ghas, Malkantari-mundari.
INDONESIA: Rumput belulang.
ITALIAN: Panico indiano.
JAPANESE: Ohi shiba, Ohi jawa.
LAOS: Nya phak kole.
MALAWI: Chinsangwi, Chigombe, Kanggodza, Chipikamongu.
MALAY: Rumput kekuasa.
MALAYSIA: Rumput sambau.
MARATHI: Nachani.
MYANMAR: Sin-ngo-let-kyar, Sin-ngo-myet.
NEPALESE: Kode vanso.
ORIYA: Mandiaa.
PORTUGUESE: Pata de galinha, Capim de caradouro.
RUSSIAN: Elevzina indiiskaia.
SHONA: Makha.
SPANISH: Grama de caballo, Hierba dulce, Natajo dulce, Pata de gallina, Pata de ganso, Yerba dulce.
TAMIL: Kelvaraku , Kevuru.
THAILAND: Yaa teen-ka
VIETNAMESE: Mantrau, Nuggcan.

Gen info
Etymology: The genus name Eleusine derives from Eleusis, a Greek city where the goddess of grain Demeter, was worshiped. (The Roman equivalent is Ceres). The species epithet is from Latin, indicus, referring to India. (59)

Paragis is an annual, erect, tufted, adventitious, glabrous grass, 10 centimeters to 1 meter in height. Leaves are 10 to 30 centimeters long, sometimes involute when dry, 3 to 7 millimeters wide, distichous, rather flaccid, with flattened sheaths. Spikes are 3 to 6, all in a terminal whorl, or one or two lower down, 2.5 to 10 centimeters long, 3 to 5 millimeters thick. Spikelets are very numerous, crowded, 3- to 5-flowered, 3 to 4 millimeters long, the first glume 1-nerved and small, the second, 3-nerved, and the third and succeeding ones ovate, acute.

- Native to the Philippines.
- An abundant weed in waste places and along river banks, roads, and settled areas throughout the Philippines.
- Strictly xerophytic.
- Also found throughout warm countries.

- Ash of leaves contain SiO, 16-47%; CaO, 10-13%; and chlorine, 6-7%.
- Study showed the dry matter content to be 35.8%, crude protein 12.4%.
- Methanol extract yielded flavonoids +++, tannins +, alkaloids ++, cardiac glycosides ++, anthracene glycosides ++, anthraquinones +.
- Elemental analysis (dry weight basis expressed as ppm) yielded: calcium
21240 ± 213, potassium 25050 ± 223, magnesium 4049 ± 28, phosphorus 2375±84, B 24.74 ± 1.19, copper 55.12±2.14, iron 455.0 ± 5.10, manganese 163.8 ± 2.64, molybdenium 13.49 ± 1.32, and zinc 80.23 ± 2.17. Calorific value cal/g was 3753 ± 223, ash % 11 ± 0.22. (see study below) (21)
- Study of aqueous extract for total phenolic content yielded 14.9±0.002 mg/g gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. (see study below) (11)
- Studies have isolated two main flavonoids i.e.,
schaftoside (6-C-β-glucopyranosyl- 8-C-α-arabinopyrano-sylapigenin) and vitexin (8- C-β- glucopyranosylapigenin). (39)
- In a study of 10 botanicals, E. indica yielded the highest calcium content (165.0 mg/100 g). Iron content was 9.7 mg/100 g. The plant also yielded alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids. (45)

- Plant considered diuretic, anthelmintic, diaphoretic, febrifuge.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, antidiabetic, phytoremediative, pancreatic lipase inhibitory, antioxidant, antileishmanial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, nephroprotective properties.

Parts used
Whole plant, leaves, roots, leaf juice.

Edibility / Culinary
- Roots and seeds are edible.
- Roots eaten raw, young seedling raw or cooked.
- Grain is a famine food in India and parts of Africa.
- Used as millet, cooked whole or ground into flour and used in making cakes, gruel.

- Decoction of fresh leaves used as anthelmintic.
- Decoction of the fresh plant used as a diuretic and for dysentery.
- In Surigao del Sur, decoction of leaves drunk three time daily as diuretic. (41)
- In Sablan, Benguet Province, decoction of leaves used for kidney problems and arthritis. (45)
- The Mamanwa tribe of Mindanao drink decoction of whole plant   three times daily to relieve fatigue and flatulence. (
- Whole plant mixed with gogo used for dandruff; also prevents hair loss.
- Decoction or fresh juice of leaves prescribed after childbirth.
- Decoction of roots used for fever.
- Poultice of leaves applied to sprains and lumbago.
- Decoction of whole plant (roots to flowers) taken for hemoptysis.
- Used for hypertension.
- Bakwiri people of West tropical Africa use infusion of whole plant for hemoptysis.
- Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga burn dried leaves and stems as repellent against hematophagous insects. (
- In Singhalese Materia Medica, reported as useful for sprains and dislocation.
- In Malaysia, decoction of roots used for asthma. Also used for hastening placenta delivery after childbirth, treatment of dysmenorrhea, asthma, fever, urinary infection, hemorrhoids.
- In coastal Guyana, decoction of plant used to relieve pains from abdominal muscle strain; applied to wounds to stop the bleeding. Decoction of grass used as tonic and to relieve bladder disorders.
- In Malaya, leaf juice given after childbirth to help expel the placenta.
- In Sumatra, used as anthelmintic.
- In Cambodia, used for fevers and liver complaints.
- In Venezuela, seed decoction given to infants suffering from black jaundice.
- In Nigeria, leaves used for diabetes and malaria.
- In Colombia, decoction of plant for diarrhea, dysentery and convulsions.
- In Cameroonian folk medicine, used for diarrhea, dysentery, epilepsy, and intestinal occlusion. (
18) Also used in the treatment of infertility in females. (24)
- In Sri Lanka, for muscle sprains, roots or the entire plant mixed with scraped coconut and a piece of Curcuma domestica is pounded well and heated till cooked, then packed over sprained muscles and bandaged.
- In Myanmar, leaves used for treatment of hypertension. (26)
- In Bangladesh, roots used in a mixture of herbal plants for the treatment of prolapsed uterus. (32) Crush plants are bandaged to areas of fractures. Plant decoction drunk to treat convulsion in children. Whole plant extract taken for liver disorders. (47)
- In India, roots used for treatment of snake bites: 20 g of roots are crushed into a paste with 10 g of Zingiber officinale and nine pieces of black pepper, half taken orally with honey and the other applied to the snake bite. (43)
- Weaving: Stems used for making mats, baskets, hats.
- Paper: Plant suitable for paper making.
- Ritual: In Bontoc, used in mangmang rituals.
Malays hold the grain in their hand in spirit-summoning rituals.
- Fodder: Grass, when young, is eaten by cattle.
- Veterinary: In West Bengal, India, used as antipyretic for herbivores. After collection, plants at succulent stage are washed and whole root and 1-2 centimeters of stems and fed fresh to ailing animals. (29)

Inhibition of Airway Inflammatory Processes:
C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation: Study may justify the popular use of EI against airway inflammatory disorders. (3)
Apoptotic Induction Activity:
Study of grass extracts of D. aegyptium and Eleusine indica showed selective inhibitory growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.
The activity was probably mediated through induction of apoptosis. (5)
Antiplasmodial / Antidiabetic / Leaves:
Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of E. indica as antidiabetic and malarial remedy. Results showed significant (p<0.01-0.001) schizonticidal activity during early and established infections with significant mean survival time. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats a leaf extract caused significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in acute and prolonged treatment study. (6)
Nutritional Potential / Fodder:
Study showed the dry matter content to be 35.8%, crude protein 12.4%. Forage was found to be fairly palatable when fed to goats, with no adverse effect. E. indica presents a potential alternative for the problem of green roughage scarcity. (
Hepatoprotective/ Antioxidant:
Study evaluated an aqueous extract of E. indica against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Results showed hepatoprotective effects which may be attributable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property. The extract reduced the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. (see constituents above) (
11) Study concluded E. indica and T. latifolia could be used as hepatoprotective agents with the potential for treatment or prevention of degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. (16)
Antibacterial/ Antioxidant:
Study evaluated various extracts of Eleusine indica for antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects. A MeTH extract showed the highest total phenolic contents and scavenging activity on DPPH assay. An ethyl acetate extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria except B. subtilis, while a hexane extract showed remarkable activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. Study failed to show cytotoxicity against tested cancer cell lines. (
Fodder / Nutrition Analysis:
Study showed a dry matter content of 35.8% and crude protein content of 12.4%. The forage was found fairly palatable with no adverse effects when fed to goats and suggests a potential source for green roughage during periods of scarcity. (
EDTA-Assisted Heavy Metal Phytoremediation:
Study showed the possibility of using the grass E. indica for phytoremediation especially phytostabilization of Cu, Cr and possible phytoextraction of Pb.     (
Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity / Obesity Treatment Potential:
Study evaluated the lipase inhibitory activities of methanolic extracts of thirty two selected medicinal plants in Malaysia for potential use in the treatment of obesity. Eleusine indica showed the highest pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 31.36%, with no significant difference between its methanol extract and the standard drug Orlistat. (
Antiplasmodial / Antidiabetic / Leaves:
Study an ethanolic leaf extract of Eleusine indica for antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei infected mice and antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.01-0.001) schizonticidal activity during early and established infection, comparable to standard drug chloroquine. Leaf extract showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in FBS of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (
Mineral Analysis:
In a study of 10 grasses for mineral analysis, Eragrostis amabilis and Eleusine indica showed large amounts of major and minor elements which suggest potential for cultivation to fulfill mineral deficiency in livestock feeding. (see constituents above) (
Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil:
Study evaluated the potential of two weed plants (Eleusine indica and Panicum maximum) and a crop plant (Pennisetum glaucum) in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil. Of the three, P. glaucum showed greatest potential to remediate. E. indica had greatest impact on soil with 2%, 3%, and 4% levels of crude oil. (
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Antileishmanial / Leaves:
Study evaluated an ethanol leaf extract of Eleusine indica for cytotoxicity activity against HeLa cells, antioxidative burst activity, and antileishmanial activity. The extract showed moderate cytostatic activity, significantly inhibited oxidative burst activity and also exhibited moderate antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major inn vitro. (
• Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type-Activity: Study evaluated the antiviral activity of methanol extract of E. indica whole plant in relation to mode of action, attachment, penetration or virucidal activity. Results suggest E. indica is safe with an antiviral and prophylactic potential via inhibition of viral attachment, penetration, and virucidal effect. (25) MTT screening against Vero of crude extract showed the crude extract and hexane fraction showed non-cytotoxicity with CC50 values of 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml, respectively. The antiviral activity towards HSV-1 for the ME and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2, respectively. (27)
• Crude Oil Remediating Potential: Study compared the crude oil-remediating potential of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica in a completely randomized experimental screen-house design. Results showed E. indica has a higher crude oil pollutant remediating potential on soil than C. dactylon. (28)
• Lipid-Lowering Effects on High-Fat-Diet Hyperlipidemic Rats: Study investigated the lipid-lowering effects of various extracts of E. indica using both in vitro and in vivo models. Hexane extract exhibited strong potential in the inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (27.01±5.68%). Acute oral toxicity on animal models was Category 5 (low hazard) on the Globally Harmonized System with no observed mortality, clinical toxicity symptoms, and pathologic changes. The HE also significantly reduced body weight, improved serum lipid profile, with reduction in TC, LDL, triglycerides and increase in HDL. (
• Antimicrobial / Antidiarrheal / Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of E. indica on selected pathogens usually associated with diarrhea i.e., S. dysenteriae, E. coli, S. typhi, S. aureus, S. faecalis and L. lactis. Results showed concentration dependent antimicrobial activity with the aqueous extract showing highest susceptibility. Plant also showed marked anthelmintic activity against Strongyloides stercoralis. (31)
• Growth Inhibition and Pro-Apoptotic Action: Study evaluated the possible mutagenicity and/or cytotoxicity activity of E. indica using the Allium test to investigate root growth, mitotic index and micronuclei formation. Results strongly suggest the plant possess cytotoxic compounds with microtubule affinity interaction without mutagenicity activity. (33)
• Anticonvulsant: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant potential of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica in albino Wistar mice. Results showed dose-dependent statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions. The protection provided against mortality was similar to standard drug diazepam. (34)
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated the in-vitro antimicrobial potentials of whole plant extracts of E indica against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis and one fungi, C. albicans. The ethyl acetate extract showed the widest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and also showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and B. subtilis. None of the extracts showed activity against Candida albicans. Activity was attributed to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins in the extracts. (35)

• Diuretic / Toxicity Study:
Study evaluated the diuretic potential and secondary metabolic profile of crude alcoholic extract and fractions of Eleusine indica. The crude alcoholic extract was non toxic at 1000 µg/mL on brine shrimp assay and 2,500 mg/kbw in mice. An aqueous ethanolic fraction was found to possess the highest diuretic activity, significantly higher than standard furosemide. (36)
• Lipid Lowering and Anti-Obesity Effects:
Study evaluated the lipid-lowering effects of fractionated crude methanolic extracts of E. indica in both in-vitro and in-vivo models in Sprague-Dawley rats. A hexane fraction demonstrated marked inhibition in development of obesity and hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Study also demonstrated anti-obesity properties suggesting a potential role as an anti-obesity agent from natural sources. (37)
• Antiurolithiatic / Roots: Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic potential of different concentrations of Eleusine indica root extract on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in Rattus novergicus (albino rats). Results showed antiurolithiatic effect. The concentration of 500 mg/ml showed best results with reduction of serum creatinine, BUN, and uric acid, with prevention of nitrituria, proteinuria and oxaluria among the treatment groups. (38)
• Toxicological Assessment: Study evaluated the toxicological effects of E. indica extract in adult albino Wistar rats. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Extract was administered at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg on alternate days for 28 days. While organ weights were not affected, animal weights increased significantly (p<0.01-0.0010). At high doses, the spleen and lungs showed moderate inflammation. The lungs also showed moderate interstitial fibrosis. Study suggests its use as herbal remedy should be for short periods at a time. (39)
• Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition / Antihypertensive / Leaves:
Study evaluated solvent fractions and decoction of E. indica leaves for ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an important component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system critical in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. An ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the highest antihypertensive action with 51.51% inhibition. (40)
• Ascaricidal / Leaves and Stems:
Study evaluated an alcohol extract from fresh leaves and stem of Eleusine indica and decoction of fresh samples against hog Ascaris lumbricoides. Of all solutions tested, the 20% water solution of alcohol free extract concentrate exhibited the highest ascaricidal effect. (42)
Inhibition of 5-LOX and COX Enzyme Systems / Aerial Shoot: Recent studies supported use of E. indica in inflammatory processes as evidenced by reduction of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of E. indica in dual inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) / cyclooxygenase (COX). Preliminary screening of crude methanolic extract and fractions showed significant dual 5-LOX.COX inhibition. Results suggest E. indica elicits its anti-inflammatory activity by targeting arachidonic acid metabolic pathyways. (49)
Safety Study on Heavy Metal Risks: Study evaluated the concentration of three heavy metals i.e., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in paragis grass concoction from three towns along Laguna Bay. Samples were prepared with 20 g of paragis grass in 1L of water boiled for 15 min. For non-carcinogenic risks associated with consumption of the samples, estimated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for the three samples (Pb, Cd, Cr) did not exceed the limit (THQ>1). The computed Hazard Index (HI) was less than one, thus no adverse health effects are expected from exposure to the metals, and risk of getting disease from sample exposure is low. (50)
Nephroprotective / L-NAME Induced Toxicity / Entire Plant: Study evaluated preventive effects of Eleusine indica aqueous extract (EIAE) against L-NAME induced renal damage in rats. Intraperitoneal L-NAME induced a significant increase in blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and a significant reduction in HDL, with significant increase in creatinine, urea, and K, and reduction in GFR. Eleusine indica given simultaneously with L-NAME prevented the rise of blood pressure, improved lipid profile, kidney function and antioxidant defenses. Results showed nephroprotective effects and antioxidant capacities against kidney damage. (51)
Anticancer Potential / Independent of Ras and Wnt Pathways / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer potential of E. indica methanolic leaf extract (EMLE) by focusing on two cancer-related pathways, Ras and Wnt pathways. using wild type and transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strans. The EMLE did not affect the number of eggs laid and did not reduce Ras-mutant population demonstrating multi-vulva. Results suggest the anticancer potential may be independent of Ras and Wnt signaling pathways. (52)
Anti-Trypanosomal / Leaves: Study evaluated 24 medicinal plant extracts for antiprotozoal activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Antitrypanosomal assay showed ten extracts were active against T. brucei, with Eleusine indica displaying the most significant activity (IC50 and IC90 of 8.26 and 10.14 µg/mL). Study suggested bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of antitrypanosomal constituents.     (54)
Antiproliferative Against Cancer Cell Lines / Mechanisms / Roots: Study evaluated the anticancer effects of root fraction of E. indica (R-S5-C1-H1) on H1299, MCF-7, and SK-HEP-1 cell lines. Cell metabolic activity assays showed significantly reduced cell viability of the three cancer cell lines following treated with R-S5-C1-H1, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 12.95, 15.99m and 13.69 µg/mL at 72h, respectively. Treated cells underwent apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis induction probably occurred through modulation of phospholipid synthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. The metabolomic profiling provides insights into the anticancer mechanisms of E. indica and elucidation of the molecular events following therapeutic interventions. (55)
Antihypertensive / Whole Plant: Study evaluated evaluated the anti-hypertensive activity of powdered material of whole plant using in-vivo tail-cuff method in an adrenalin-induced hypertensive rat model. Hypertension was significantly inhibited by ethanol extract, and weakly inhibited by a chloroform extract. Previous studies have suggest that the antihypertensive effects could be due to flavonoids, glycoside, and phenolic compounds. (56)
Cytotoxicity / Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the potential cytotoxic properties of whole plant extracts (decoction, absolute ethanol, 50%water:50% ethanol) of Eleusine indica against brine shrimp nauplii. Best extraction method was 50:50 ethanol:water mixture, with LC50 of 153.99 ppm after 6 h exposure. Results suggest E. indica possesses cytotoxic behavior. Cytotoxicity was attributed to the secondary metabolites in the extract i.e., alkaloids,  terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, and cardiac glycosides. (57)
Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reported on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eleusine indica methanol extract of leaves as reducing agent. The AgNPs has predicted bactericidal activity according to ratio of MBC to MIC values against selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (58)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated February 2023 / August 2018 / September 2017
January 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Public Domain / Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 229. AlterVISTA
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Eleusine indica / Plants For A Future: Database Search Results
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. POACEAE / Plants For Use
C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation
Planta medica ISSN 0032-0943 CODEN PLMEAA / 2005, vol. 71, no4, pp. 362-363

A Review on Medicinal uses of Weeds in Sri Lanka / E.R.H.S.S. Ediriweera / Tropical Agricultural Research & Extension 10, 2007
Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) P.B. and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines / Pintusorn Hansakul, Chatri Ngamkitidechakul et al / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 31 (3), 273-279, May - Jun. 2009

ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF ELEUSINE INDICA / Okokon J E, Odomena C S et al / International Journal of Drug Development & Research, July-Sept 2010 | Vol. 2 | Issue 3
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Eleusine names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana
/ Deborah A. Lachman-White, C. Dennis Adams, Ulric O'D Trotz / Google Books
Re-growth and Nutritional Potentials of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (Goose Grass) / P.R. Regmi, N.R. Devkota, J. Timsina / Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Vol 25 (2004)
Eleusine indica L. possesses antioxidant activity and precludes carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated oxidative hepatic damage in rats. / Iqbal M, Gnanaraj C. / Environ Health Prev Med. 2012 Jul;17(4):307-15. / doi: 10.1007/s12199-011-0255-5. Epub 2011 Dec 30.
Eleusine indica / GLOBinMED
Eleucine indica Possesses Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties / Adel S. Al-Zubairi, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Chew Yuan Peng, Syam Mohan, and Manal Mohamed Elhassan / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 ; Article ID 965370 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep091
Re-growth and Nutritional Potentials of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (Goose Grass) / P.R. Regmi, N.R. Devkota, J. Timsina / Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Vol 25 (2004)
Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Eleusine indica L. Gearth / Garba, Shuaibu Tela*, Osemeahon, Akuewanbhor Sunday, Maina, Humphrey Manji and Barminas, Jeffry Tsaware / Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol. 4(5), pp. 103-109, 2 March, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JECE11.078
Liver Protective Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia: Chemopreventive and Antioxidative Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia / Mohammad Iqbal, Charles Gnanaraj / Liver Protective Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia—LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (October 25, 2011)
Screening of Some Plants Used in the Cameroonian Folk Medicine for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases / Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku / International Journal of Biology Vol. 3, No. 4; October 2011
Eleusine indica / Synonyms / The Plant List
Studies on Mineral Analysis of Grasses of Poaceae / R. Hari Babu* and N. Savithramma / International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014): 526-531
Evaluation of the Potentials of Three Grass Plants to Remediate Crude Oil Polluted Soil
/ Njoku, K.L., Akinola, M.O., Nkemdilim, C.M., Ibrahim, P.M., Olatunbosun, A.S. / Current Advances in Environmental Science CAES
ANTIOXIDATIVE BURST, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITIES OF ELEUSCINE INDICA / Jude E. Okokon, Anwanga E. Udoh, Ette O. Etebong, Azare B.A / International Journal of Pharmacology Research, Vol 4, Issue 3 (2014) pp 165-168.
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, Vol 7.No 1 (2014)
Anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 activity of Eleusine indica methanol extract / Rashidah Iberahim, Adibah Ahamad Bahtiar, Nazlina Ibrahim / Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 12, Issue 6 (2016)
Chemical Investigation and Hypotensive Activity Study on Some Myanmar Indigenous Medicinal Plants used in the Treatment of Hypertension / Myatt Hla Wai, Kyaw Naing, Daw Hla Ngwe, Nu Nu Aye, Myint U, Maung Maung Htay / Jour. Myan. Acad. Arts & Sc. 2005 Vol. III. No. 1
Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau) / Rashidah Iberahim, Wan Ahmad Yaacob, and Nazlina Ibrahim / AIP Conference Proceedings 1678, 030013 (2015) / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931234
A comparative assessment of the crude oil-remediating potential of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica/ Stephen Oyedeji*, Idris Olawale Raimi, Anthony Ifechukwude Odiwe / Environmental and Experimental Biology (2013) 11: 145–150
USE OF ELEUSINE INDICA (L.) GAERTN. (KECHILA GHAS) AS AN ANTIPYRETIC MEDICINE OF HERBIVORES / Shibabrata Pattanayak, Debabrata Maity* / Explor Anim Med Res, 2017; Vol 7, Issue 1: pp 94-96
Potential Lipid-Lowering Effects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats. / Ong SL, Nalamolu KR, Lai HY / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 01 Jan 2017, 13 (Suppl 1): S1-S9 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.203986
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ELEUSINE INDICA / Frank Morah, M E Otuk / Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, Vol 1, No 4 (2015)
Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Four Adjoining Villages of Narail and Jessore Districts, Bangladesh / Kakoli Rani Biswas, Tania Khan, Mirza Nipa Monalisa, Auditi Swarna, Tasneema Ishika, Mehreen Rahman, Mohammed Rahmatullah / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5(1): 23-33, 2011
Growth Inhibition and Pro-apoptotic Action of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn Extracts in Allium test / Amanda A. de Oliveira* and Natália Faria Romão / European Journal of Medicinal Plants 8(3): 121-127, 2015
Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica / Ette Okon Ettebong*, Edidiong Etukakpan, Augustine Bassey / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(12): 965-968 965 / https://doi.org/10.12980/jclm.4.2016J6-196
In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of whole-plant extracts of Eleucine indica / Ette Okon Ettebong and Augustine I Bassey / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2017; 5(4): 99-102
Diuretic potential and characterization of some secondary metabolites from Eleusine indica
/ Drexel Hilongos Camacho / Thesis: 1996 / De La Salle University / DOST Union Catalog
Potential Lipid‐Lowering E ects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High‐Fat‐Diet‐Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats / Siew Ling Ong, Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, How Yee Lai / Pharmacognosy Magazine (2017)
Antiurolithiatic Potential of Eleusine indica Linn. (GOOSE GRASS) Root Extract on Ethylene Glycol Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rattus norvegicus (ALBINO RATS) / Daniel Opoku Amoah, Maritan Bringas Joson, Marlon Cartera Pareja / Biomedical Sciences 2017; 3(5): 99-108 / doi: 10.11648/j.bs.20170305.13
The toxicological assessment of ethanolic whole-plant extract of Eleucine indica in Wistar albino rats / Ette Okon Ettebong*, Paul Alozie Nwafor, Peace Edwin Ubulom, John Akpan Udobang / J Herbmed Pharmacol., 2017; 6(2): pp 49-54
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition of Fractions from Eleusine indica Leaf Extracts / Jasmin T Tutor, Christine L Chichioco-Hernandez / Pharmacogn J., 2018; 10(1): pp 25-28
Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Residents in Northern Surigao del Sur, Philippines / Gemma A Gruyal, Romeo del Roasario and Nenita D Palmes / Natural Products Chemistry & Research, 2014; 2:140 / doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000140
The ascaricidal activity of aqueous solutions of Eleusine indica, linn. (Bila-bila) leaves and stem / Jenny Lind B Acebo / School of Health Care Profession - University of San Carlos / Thesis/Dissertation-Oct 1995
Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment / Manali Sughosh Upasani, Sughosh Vishweshwar Upasani, Vishal Gokul Beldar, Chetana Gokul Beldar, Pranjal P. Gujarathi / Integr. Med. Res, 2018; 7: pp 9-26
Eleusine indica / NP Flora & Fauna Web
Ethnomedicinal Plants in Bayabas, Sablan, Benguet Province, Luzon, Philippines
/ Teodora D Balangcod*, Kryssa D Balangcod / Electronic Journal of Biology, 2015; 11(3): pp 63-73
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / Bangladesh Ethnobotany Online Database
Eleusine indica / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Isolates from Eleusine indica (Poaceae) Aerial Shoot Fraction Dually Inhibits 5-LOX and COX Enzyme Systems / Adrien Kyle M Jacinto, Noel S Quiming et al / Philippine Journal of Science, 2022; 151(6B): pp 2365-2384 / ISSN: 0031-7683
Heavy Metal and Health Risk Assessment of Paragis (Eleusine indica) Grass Concoction from Different Parts of Laguna Near the Laguna Lake Shore Line / Mariero H Gawat, Danielle Theo L Martinez /  Journal of Human Ecology, Jan-Dec 2019, Issue 8
Preventive effects of aqueous extract of whole plant of Eleusine indica (Linn.) Gaertn. (Poaceae) against L-NAME induced nephrotoxicity in rat / Tchoupou Tchinda Huguette, Ngo Lemba Esther Tom, Dimo Theophile et al / The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2019; 8(1): pp 28-32 / ISSN: 2320-480X
Evaluation of anticancer potential of Eleusine indica methanolic leaf extract through Ras- and Wnt-related pathways using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains / John Nas, Sheryl Dangeros, Fatima Hamja et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 2020; 11(1)
Ethnobotanical survel of medicinal plants used by the Mamanwa tribe of Surigao del Norte and Agusan del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines / Olga M Nuneza, Biverly C Rodriguez, Juliet Grace M Nasiad / BIODIVERSITAS, 2021; 22(6): pp 3284-3296 / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220634 / pISSN: 1412-033X / eISSN: 2085-4722
Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of twenty-four Nigerian medicinal plant extracts
/ O O Ogbole, P A Segun, P S Fasinu et al / South African Journal of Botany, 2018; Vol 117: pp 240-246 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2018.05.028
High-throughput metabolomics reveal dysregulation of hydrophobic metabolomes in cancer cell lines by Eleusine indica / Perng Yang Puah, Dexter Jiunn Herng Lee, Yee Soon Ling, Siat Yee Fong et al / Scientific Reports, 2022; 12: Article No 9347 / eISSN: 2045-2322 / DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-13575-6
Phytochemical Investigation of Eleusine indica for In-Vivo Antihypertensive Activity / A V Desai, V M Patil, S S Patil, V A Kangralkar / International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 2017; 2(6): pp 405-416 / ISSN: 2456-2165
Brine shrimp lethality assay of whole plant extracts of Eleusine indica / Mae A Responte, Maria R B Dacar, Olga M Nuñeza, Mylene M Uy / Advances in Agriculture & Botanics - International Journal of the Bioflux Society, 2015; 7(2)
Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eleusine indica extract and its antibacterial properties
/ Ropisah Me, Muhammad Hafiz Istamam, Noor Hidayah Pungot, Nazlima Ibrahim, Alice shanthi / Malasian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 2022; 26(1): pp 29-38
Species Eleusine indica / casabio

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                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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