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Family Fabaceae
Pataning dagat
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.

BAY BEAN
Hai dao dou

Scientific names Common names
Canavalia apiculata Piper Lagaylai (Bis.)
Canavalia arenicola Piper Magtambokau (Bis.)
Canavalia baueriana Endl. Katang-katang (Tag.)
Canavalia emarginata (Jacq.) G.Don Pataning dagat (Tag.)
Canavalia maritima Thouars Beach bean (Engl.)
Canavalia miniata (Kunth) DC Bay bean (Engl.)
Canavalia moneta Welw. Jack bean (Engl.)
Canavalia obcordata Voigt  
Canavalia obcordata Voigt  
Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC.  
Canavalia podocarpa Dunn.  
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.  
Dolichos emarginatus Jacq.  
Dolichos litoralis Vell.  
Dolichos maritimus Aubl.  
Dolichos miniatus Kunth  
Dolichos obcordatus Roxb.  
Dolichos obovatus Schum. & Thonn.  
Dolichos obtusifolius Lam.  
Dolichos roseus Sw.  
Dolichos rotundifolius Vahl  
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hai dao dou.
FIJIAN: Dralawa, Dautolu.
GUAM: Akankang tasi.
HAWAIIAN: 'Awikiwiki, Puakauhi.
SPANISH: Friol de playa.

Botany
Pataning-dagat is a vigorous prostrate twining vine with sparsely puberulent stems. Leaves are alternate, compounded and long-petioled with 3 broad obovate leaflets, 2 to 15 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a long peduncled raceme with a few paired pink-purple pea type flowers about 4 centimeters long. Stamens are ten in number united into a tube covering the elongated ovary. The pods are rough, turgid, 8 to 12 centimeters long and 2 to 3 centimeters wide with fairly large seeds. New plants start vegetatively from runners.

Distribution
- Found along tidal streams, brackish swamps and muddy banks throughout the Philippines.
- The flowers are wind pollinated.
- Seeds are dispersed from the pods and transported by water to distant places.
- Found in most coastal tropical beaches, cliffs, and dunes.

Constituents
• Plant yields alkaloids, phenols, saponins. Leaves yield cyanogens.
• An active principle, L-betonicine has been isolated, with no conclusive hallucinogenic evidence.

• Assessment of biochemical and protein quality of thermally treated seeds showed protein and energy values surpassing common pulse crops. Fatty acids and carbohydrates in test seeds were superior to those of soybean; and essential amino acids phenylalanine and lysine of treated seeds were higher than WHO/FAO reference. (6)
• Proximate and mineral composition of seed flours on dry weight basis yielded in gms or mg per 100 gr: moisture 9.3 ± 0.13%, crude protein 34.1 ±0.52 g; crude lipid 1.7 ± 0.1 g; crude fiber 10.2 ± 0.18 g; ash 3.5 ± 0.18 g; crude carbohydrate 50.5 ±0.53 g; energy value 1586 ± 8 KJ; total protein 29.3 ± 0.6 g; sodium 47.96 ±0.73 mg; potassium 974.32 ± 5.99 mg; calcium 86.16 ± 4.27 mg; phosphorus 158 ± 2.28 mg; magnesium 23.13 ± 0.o2; zinc 13.08 ±1.2 mg; manganese 2.01 ± 0.21 mg. (6)
• Ethanol extract of grounded and air-dried leaves and stems yielded pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives elucidated as 2- hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2), medicarpin (3), 7-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxy isoflavan (4), 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisofalvone (5) 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6), 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone (7), and quercetin (8). (7)
• Screening of crude leaf extracts yielded tannins, phobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and phenolics. (see study below) (11)
• Study of aerial parts yielded a new acyclic guanidine alkaloid, canarosine, together with five known compounds: ß-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), daucosterol (3), epi-inositol 6-O-methyl ether (4), and rutin (5). (see study below) (3)
• Study of fatty acid composition of seed flour (g/100g lipid) yielded: (Saturated fatty acids) palmitic acid 2.18. stearic acid 20.9; (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) palmitoleic acid ND, oleic acid 63, linoleic acid 11.5, linolenic acid ND; and P/S (polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid) ratio of 3.22. (13)
• Study of Canavalia maritima seed flour for antinutritional components (mg/100 g dw basis) yielded total phenolics 1370±0.04, with +++ phytohemagglutinin activity, and absence of tannins and trypsin inhibitory activity. (13)

Properties
• Considered aphrodisiac.

• Studies suggest antibacterial, cytotoxic, antiplasmodial, antiviral properties.

Parts used
Leaves, shoots, roots.

Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
- Seeds are edible and serve as an important source of dietary protein in West Africa and Nigeria.
- Tender pods and seeds may be boiled or roasted.

- When mature, pods and seeds are soaked before being eaten to remove toxins.
Folkloric
- Juice from the petioles applied to puncture wounds by thorns or other sharp objects.
- Decoction of leaves used for rheumatism.
- Paste of leaves used for boils and sores.
- In Samoa, plant potion used during labor.
- Shoot decoction used to treat tuberculosis. Roots used for treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning, aches, pains, rheumatism, and leprosy. Leaf extracts used for burns, and as styptic.
(6)
- In Tonga, hot water infusion of leaves with other plants used to treat secondary amenorrhea and postpartum hemorrhage.
(7)
Others
Fodder: In Africa and Southeast Asia, used as fodder because of high protein content of leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. (6)
Entheogen: Dried leaves have been used as entheogen, a component to some ancient rituals.
• In ancient Peru, the fruit had ritual and magical significance.
• In South America, Africa and Gulf Coast of Mexico, beans of C. maritima are ingested or smoked with the dried leaves as marijuana.
• An increasing following for its use as a marijuana substitute.
• In ancient Peru, the fruit had ritual and magical significance.


Studies
Phytochemicals:
Albumins and globulins are the major storage proteins, constituting 90% of the total proteins in Canavalia seeds. Total phenolics were low, while tannins and trypsin inhibition were absent. As with other legumes, Canavalia seeds possess antinutritional factors such as phenolics and phytohemagglutinins. (2)
Canarosine / Dopamine D1Receptor Inhibition:
Study yielded a new acyclic alkaloid, canarosine, together with five known compounds. Canarosine, at concentration of 100 µg/ml, showed 91% inhibition of the dopamine D1 receptor binding with IC50 of 39.4±5.8 µM. (see constituents above)
(3)
Lectin / Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation:
Study of a lectin from Cm seeds and its relaxant activity on vascular smooth muscle showed that CM exerts a concentration-dependent relaxant action on isolated aortic rings probably via an interaction with a specific lectin-binding site on the endothelium, resulting in a release of nitric oxide.
(4)
ConM Lectin / Alteration of Biofilm Formation in Strep mutans: Study evaluated the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA) on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium primarily associated with dental caries. Results showed ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion , formation and regulation of biofilms. ConA did not alter the expression of genes studied.  (8)
Nutritional Evaluation of Tender Pods:
Study evaluated the nutritional, antinutritional and protein qualities of tender pods of C. maritima. Crude protein was comparable to many edible legumes. Cooking significantly elevated carbohydrates and calorific value of tender pod, while crude fiber was significantly decreased. Minerals did not drain too much on cooking; K, Mg, Zn and Mn in fresh or cooked pods were comparable or higher than the NRC-NAS recommended pattern. While cooking decreased the essential amino acids, threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine in cooked pods. levels were equivalent or higher than the FAO-WHO-UNU recommended pattern. Also, pressure cooking improved nutritional qualities by lowering the hemagglutinin activity. (9)
Anticancer / Cytotoxic on Cancer Cell Lines MCF-7 and HT-29:
Methanol extract of cooked (C. maritima) and fermented (C. cathartica) split beans showed better in vitro anticancer activities compared to the raw beans. Results suggest a potential for the extracts of cooked/fermented beans to control colon cancer by diet management. (10)
Antibacterial / Leaves:
Evaluation of various leaf extracts of Canavalia rosea showed high activity against microganisms B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. stearothemophilus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus faecalis. Gram negative bacteria were not as susceptible. (see constituents above) (11)
Canarosine / Antiplasmodial / Anti-Herpes Type 1 / Leaves:
Study of aerial parts isolated six compounds including a new guanidine alkaloids, canarosine, a flavonoid glycoside, rutin, epi-inositol 6-O-methyl ether, β-sitosterol glucoside, and a 2:1 mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Canarosine caused 95% inhibition of dopamine-1 receptor binding. The alkaloids was also active against P. falcifarum K1 strain, with moderate activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1. (12)

Availability
- Wildcrafted.
- Extracts in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated May 2017 / January 2016
December 2009


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Nutritional and microbiological features of little known legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars
and C. maritima Thouars of the southwest coast of India
/ S. Seena and K. R. Sridhar / Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, India
(2)
Coastal sand dune vegetation: a potential source of food, fodder and pharmaceuticals / K R Sridhar and B Bhagya
/ Livestock Research for Rural Development 19 (6) 2007
(3)
Canarosine: A new guanidine alkaloid from Canavalia rosea with inhibitory activity on dopamine D1 receptors / Duangpen Pattamadilok et al / DOI: 10.1080/10286020802181513 / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 10, Issue 10 October 2008 , pages 915 - 918

(4)
Native crystal structure of a nitric oxide-releasing lectin from the seeds of Canavalia maritima / Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha et al / Journal of Structural Biology • Volume 152, Issue 3, December 2005, Pages 185-194 / doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2005.07.012

(5)
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6)
Biological Flora of Coastal Dunes and Wetlands: Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC / Gabriela Mendoza-Gonza ́lez, M. Luisa Mart ́ınez, and Debora Lithgow / DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-13-00106.1
(7)
Pterocarpin and Isoflavan Derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou. / Xinping Huang∗, Bing Mu, Wenhan Lin and Yan Qiu / Rec. Nat. Prod. 6:2 (2012) 166-170
(8)
A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans / Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Victor Alves Carneiro, Cinara Carneiro Neves, Humberlânia de Sousa Duarte, Maria Gleiciane de Queiroz Martins, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos, Hélcio Silva dos Santos, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva Cunha, Benildo Sousa Cavada, Edson Holanda Teixeira / ABB, Vol.4 No.12, December 2013 / DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.412143
(9)
Nutritional evaluation of tender pods of Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes / Bhaskar Bhagya, Kandikere R. Sridhar, Sahadevan Seena, Chiu-Chung Young, Ananthapadmanabha B. Arun / Frontiers of Agriculture in China, December 2010, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 481-488
(10)
CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RAW, COOKED AND FERMENTED SPLIT BEANS OF CANAVALIA ON CANCER CELL LINES MCF-7 AND HT-29 / Vedavyas Ramakunja Niveditha, Divana Krishna Venkatramana, Kandikere Ramaiah Sridhar* / IIOABJ; Vol. 4: Issue 4; 2013: 20–23
(11)
Antibacterial activity and Preliminary phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. (Beach Bean) / S. Prabhu, L. Joelri Michael Raj, S. John Britto, S.R. Senthilkumar / Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. Vol-1, Issue-4, 428-434, 2010
(12)
Phytochemical study of Canavalia Rosea and Elateriospermum Tapos / Duangpen Pattamadilok / CUIE-Chulalongkorn University Intellectual Repository
(13)
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AN UNCONVENTIONAL LEGUME, Canavalia maritima OF COASTAL SAND DUNES OF INDIA / S. Seena, K.R. Sridhar* and B. Bhagya / Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5 (2005): 1 – 14

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