HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Juncaceae
Piñgot
Juncus effusus Linn.
MATTING RUSH

Deng xin cao

Scientific names Common names
Juncus bogotensis Kunth Badili (Ig.)
Juncus communis E. Meyer [Illegitimate] Balili (Bon.)
Juncus effusus Linn. Piñgot (Bon.)
Juncus fistulosus Guss. Sudsud (Ig.)
Juncus lucens Burnham Matting rush (Engl.)
Juncus luxurians Colenso Common rush (Engl.)
Juncus zebrinus Andre Cork screw rush (Engl.)
  Lamp rush (Engl.)
  Rush pit (Engl.)
  Soft rush (Engl.)
Juncus effusus L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Deng xin cao, Den cao, Deng xin.
FRENCH: Jonc Diffus, Jonc à Lier, Jonc épars, Jonc pars.
GERMAN: Flatterbinse.
ITALIAN: Glunco comune.
PORTUGUESE: Junco.
SPANISH: Junquera.

Botany
Piñgot is a plant that usually forms circular, dense, matted tufts of finely striate stems, 30 to 90 centimeters high, soft and pithy. Base of the stalk is surrounded by short, sheathing leaves. Inflorescence is very variable, lax and pendulous, with slender branches and distant flowers, or globose and sessile with densely packed flowers. Sepals are lanceolate, exceeding the length of the obovoid brownish capsules. Seeds are minute, yellow, and very obtuse at each end.

Distribution
- In open, swampy places at all altitudes from 1,400 to 2,300 meters in Luzon (Benguet, Bontoc Subprovinces).
- Also occurs in warmer parts of both hemispheres, especially common in the north temperate zone.

Constituents
- Stems yield araban and xylan.
- Study isolated 13 compounds from the medullae - juncusyl ester A and B, 5-a spinasterol, B-sitosterol, effusol, p-coumaric acid, nobiletin, quercetin, rutinose, among others.
- Study isolated a new cycloartanelactone glucoside, Juncoside I.

- Dry stems yielded six phenolic constituents: 7-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene, 2,3-isopylidene-1-O-ferulic acid glyceride, (2S)-2, 3-isopylidene-1-0-p-coumaroyl glycer- ide, dehydroeffusal, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and luteolin- 5,3'-dimethyl ether.
- Study isolated 30 compounds. Six compounds were named 7-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene (1), 2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-pyrene (2), 7-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1-methyl-pyrene (5), 2,7-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-phenanthrene (7), effusenone A (10), 2,3-isopropylidene-1-O-ferulic acid glyceride. The other 15 known compounds were identified as: dehydroeffusal (3), 2,7-dihydroxy-1, 6-dimethyl-pyrene (5), dehydroeffusol (6), juncusol (8),2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (9),β-sitosterol (11), 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidiocyergosta-6E,22E-diene (12), 7-oxo-β-sitosterol (13), stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (14), (24R)-stigmast-4-ene-3-one (15), daucosterol (16), (2S)-2,3-isopropylidene-1-O-p-coumaroyl glyceride (18), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (19), 3-hydroxy-2,5-hexadione (20), luteolin-5,3′-dimethyl ether (21). (see study below) (17)

Properties
Traditionally considered antilithic, antiphlogistic, depurative, diuretic, descutient, febrifuge, pectoral and sedative.

Parts used
Pith.

Uses

Folkloric
- Pith is used for keeping open fistulous sores.
- Malays used the pith for urinary troubles.
- Decoction used as antilithic, pectoral and descutient.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used for painful urination, insomnia and sleep restlessness, sore throat, and ulcerations of the mouth and tongue. Used to eliminate excessive "heart-qi" and induce urination.
- Cherokees use the herb as an herbal constituent in emetic preparations; also, used as cathartic.
- In China and Japan, folk medicine for fever, insomnia, eclampsia, and fever sores.
- Charred juncus used as sedative.
Others
Basketry / Weaving: Stem piths used for basketry, weaving mats, and for making lamp wicks. Dried stems used for making rope.
Paper: Fiber from stems used for making paper.


Studies
Phenolic Contents:
Ethanolic extract of the dry stem of J effusus yielded six phenolic constituents. Compounds 5 and 6, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and luteolin-5-3'-dimethyl ester were reported for the first time. (2)
Effusenone A / Phenolic Compounds: Study yielded a novel diterpene, effusenone A, and three novel phenolic compounds from the stem of J. effusus.
Dihydrodibenzoxepin / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated a novel dihydrodibenzoxepin and preliminary bine shrimp lethality assay showed it to be cytotoxic. (3)
Sedative / Hypnotic Effect: Study of extracts of JE showed influences on autonomic activity and sleeping time with pentobarbital sodium. The ethyl acetate extract showed to be the effective sedative and hypnotic fraction.
(8)
Dehydroeffusol / Anxiolytic / Sedative: Study isolated a novel phenanthrene chemical, dehydroeffusol, which showed anxiolytic and sedative properties. (9)
Chemical Constituents / Antibacterial: Study isolated 30 compounds, six of which were new. Compound 6 (dehydroeffusol) showed antibacterial activity, with good inhibitory effect on four gram positive bacteria and Candida albicans. (12)
Protective Effects from Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis / Root Bark: Study reports on two Chinese medical herbal extracts from roots barks of J. effusus and Paeonia sufftuticosa that showed protective effect in NS-SV-Ac cells from cytotoxicity and apoptosis caused by CDDP (cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride). Results explained the potency of the extracts as novel candidates for xerostomia in patients undergoing chemotherapy. (15)
Anti-Inflammatory / Pith: Study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract from pith of J. effusus on anti-inflammatory activities of RAW 264.7 cells. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and by attenuating edema in mice. (16)
Antibacterial: Study isolated thirty-one compound. Compound 6, dehydroeffusol, tested against nine bacterial strains, showed good inhibitory effect on four gram + bacteria and Candida albicans. (see constituents above) (17)
Remediation of Contaminated Mines: Water draining from abandoned mines is often highly acidic and contaminated with toxic metals. Study evaluated the remediation capacity of natural wetlands in Wales, UK. Study showed plant life might be absorbing some of the toxic elements; concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper were found reducted. The three most common plants in the wetland were soft rush (Juncus effusus), common reed (P. australis) and common cottongrass (Eriophorum angustifolium). Of these, soft rush was found to absorb the highest level of the three metals. (18)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Powders, pellets and extracts in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update November 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Juncus effusus --Quarts Creek habit at Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui - Credit: Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii - Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, permitting sharing and adaptation with attribution. / click on image to go to source page AlterVISTA
MAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Closeup / Juncus effusus / Credit: Photo by Alfonso La Rosa. / AlterVISTA
MAGE SOURCE: Seeds / Juncus effusus / Common rush / Steve Hurst, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Juncus effusus - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 467. / AlterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Two p-coumaroyl glycerides from Juncus effusus / Jom Dong-Zhe et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 41, Issue 2, February 1996, Pages 545-547 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00648-6 |
(2)
Isolation and identification of phenolic constituents from Juncus effusus / Li H X, Deng T Z et al /
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Feb;42(2):174-8.
(3)
A bioactive dihydrodibenzoxepin from Juncus effusus / Marina Della Greca et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 34, Issue 4, November 1993, Pages 1182-1184 , The International Journal of Plant Biochemistry / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90742-8
(4)
Juncoside I, a New Cycloartanelactone Glucoside from Juncus effusus / Marina Della Greaca et al / Natural Product Research, Volume 4, Issue 3 June 1994 , pages 183 - 188
(5)
PLANTS USED AS CURATIVES BY CERTAIN SOUTHEASTERN TRIBES / Lyda Averill Taylor / BOTANICAL MUSEUM OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS / 1940
(6)
Soft Rush / Juncus effusus / Plants For A Future

(7)
Diterpenoid and Phenolic Compounds from Juncus effusus L. / Guang Zhong Yang, Hong Xia Li et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Vol 90, Issue 7, pages 1289–1295, July 2007 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200790129
(8)
Sedative fraction from Juncus effuses L. / WANG Yan-long, HUANG Jian-me et al / Journal of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2006-03 / DOI cnki:ISSN:1006-2157.0.2006-03-011
(9)
Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Dehydroeffusol from Juncus effusus in Mice / You-Jiao Liao, Hai-Feng Zhai et al / Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(5):416-20./ doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1250517. Epub 2010 Nov 23.
(10)
Juncus effusus L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(11)
Juncus effusus (Common Rush) / Vernacular names / ZipcodeZoo
(12)
Studies on the Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Juncus Effusus L. / Thesis / China Papers
(13)
In vitro antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of wetland medicinal plants in Taiwan / Yu-Ling HO, Shyh-Shyun HUANG, Jeng-Shyan DENG, Yaw-Huei LIN, Yuan-Shiun CHANG, and Guan-Jhong HUANG / Botanical Studies (2012) 53: 55-66
(14)
Juncus effusus / Synonyms / The Plant List
(15)
Root bark extracts of Juncus effusus and Paeonia suffruticosa protect salivary gland acinar cells from apoptotic cell death induced by cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride. / Mukudai Y1, Kondo S, Shiogama S, Koyama T, Li C, Yazawa K, Shintani S. / Oncol Rep. 2013 Dec;30(6):2665-71 / doi: 10.3892/or.2013.2744. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
(16)
Anti-inflammatory effects of Juncus effusus extract (JEE) on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and edema models. / Park NY, Kim SG, Park HH, Jeong KT, Lee YJ, Lee E. / Pharm Biol. 2015 Apr 17:1-8.
(17)
Studies on the Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Juncus Effusus L. / Master Thesis / China Papers
(18)
Acid mine drainage effectively remediated by natural wetlands / Science for Environment Policy / European Commision
(19)
Chinese Herb: Deng Xin Cao (Rush Pith, Juncus), Medulla Junci Effusi / Sacred Lotus-Chinese Medicine

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT