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Family Euphorbiaceae
Pintado
Euphorbia heterophylla Linn.
PAINTED EUPHORBIA

Bai bao xing xing cao

Scientific names Common names
Agaloma angustifolia Raf. Pintado (Tag.)
Cyathophora ciliata Raf. Mexican fireplant (Engl.)
Cyathophora heterophylla (L.) Raf. Painted euphorbia (Engl.)
Cyathophora picta Raf. Painted leaf (Engl.)
Euphorbia calyciflora Sessé & Moc. Painted spurge (Engl.)
Euphorbia ellptica Lam. Spurge weed (Engl.)
Euphorbia geniculata Ortega Wild poinsettia (Engl.)
Euphorbia heterophylla Linn.  
Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke  
Poinsettia morisoniana (L.) Klotz. & Garcke  
Poinsettia heterophylla (Klotzsch) & Garcke  
Tithymalus heterophyllus (L.) Haw.  
Tithymalus prunifolius (Jacq.) Haw.  
Euphorbia heterophylla L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC : Laban el-homara, Labeinah.
CHINESE: Bai bao xing xing cao.
FRENCH: Caca de poule
GERMAN: Poinsettien-Wolfsmilch.
JAPANESE: Shoujou sou, Kusa shoujou.
PORTUGUESE : Adeus-Brasil, Amendoim-bravo, Café-do-diabo, Flor-do-poeta, Leiteira.
SPANISH : Golondrina, Hierba de leche, Lechosa, Pascuilla.
TAMIL : Aṇdavāayu keeṟai, Siru pālpeṟukki.


Botany
Pintado is an erect, branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.5 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are alternate and extremely variable in shape, most often oblong-ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, the lower ones usually entire, the upper ones variously lobed, sinuate, dentate, or subentire, and the uppermost ones blotched with red at the base, similar to the bracts. Bracts are leaflike, much smaller than the leaves; the lower part is red and the upper, green. Involucres are clustered at the ends of the branches, about 3 millimeters long, green, with one sinus bearing an unappendaged gland. Capsules are nodding, about 5 millimeters wide.

Distribution
- Introduced species.
- Ornamental cultivation in Manila and larger towns.
- Occasionally, astray in waste places.
- Native of tropical America.

Constituents
- Leaves contain a red coloring matter, porcetin.
- Study yielded tannins, phlobatannin, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids.
- Study yielded terpenoids, quinones, alkaloids, sterol, coumarin, starch, and protein.
- Fresh leaves yielded carbohydrates, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids. (11)
- Plant is a high source of energy and water, moderate in protein and fiber contents. Nutrient composition on the basis of percentage magnitude is fat < ash < fiber < protein < moisture < carbohydrate. (11)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded
tannins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols. (see study below) (13)
- Aqueous extract of plant yielded secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, sterol, quinone, lignin and coumarin. Carbohydrate (10.29 mg/g) and proteins (7.43 mg/g) were present in measurable amount. Phenol yield was (3.26 mg/g) and ascorbic acid (1.14%). (see study below) (14)

Properties
- Laxative, purgative, lactogenic.
- Studies have suggest wound healing, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anthelmintic properties.

Parts used
Roots, bark, leaves, stem.

Uses
Folkloric
- Used for constipation, bronchitis and asthma.
- In Kedah, decoction of roots and bark used for ague.
- In Yucatan, juice of stem used for erysipelas.
- In Nigeria, used for erysipelas, cough, bronchial paroxysmal asthma, hay fever and catarrh; latex used for insect bites.
- Also, used as purgative.
- Leaves and roots used for traumatic injury.
- Decoction of leaves used as lactogenic, drinking the decoction or massaging the breast with the poultice to induce milk flow.
Also used for gonorrhea, and as laxative. (10)
- In Nigeria, used as herbal laxative.


Studies
Wound Healing:
Leaf extracts of E. heterophylla was evaluated for wound healing potential in wistar albino rats in an ointment formulation in an excision wound model. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cyanide, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. Results showed healing and sealing characteristics of Euphorbia heterophylla leaf gel in rats following topical administration. (2)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of the aqueous extract of E heterophylla showed significant anti-inflammatory activity which was not dose-dependent. (3)
Superoxide Scavenging / Phytochemicals: Study isolated for the first time four chemical constituents - carboxylic acids, 4-hydroxycarboxylic acid, steroidal components - stigmasterol and stigmasterol glucoside. The isolated compounds revealed superoxide scavenging properties, most active with stigmasterol glucoside. (4)
Anticoagulant / Oxytocic / Laxative: Study of aqueous extract of leaves showed (1) laxative effect as a result of increased peristaltic movements (2) muscaric activity blocked by atropine (3) oxytocic effect from binding to oxytocic receptors, and (4) anticoagulant effect probably from the rich saponin content. (5)
Antimicrobial: Study of leaf extracts showed good antimicrobial activity against B subtilis, E coli, S aureus, P aeruginosa, C albicans, K pneumonia. (6)
Antinociceptive: Used as an analgesic in traditional medicine, a study of evaluating the hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of E. heterophylla showed significant analgesic effects at doses of 150-300 mg/kg i.p.
(7)
Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study of ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity especially against Proteus vulgaris and Staph aureus. An alcoholic extract showed significant in-vitro cytotoxic activity on EAC (Erhlich ascites carcinoma) cell lines. (8)
Toxicity Testing / Assessment on Hepatocytes of Rats: Study of aqueous extract showed no significant effect on biochemical parameters. Results showed no hepatotoxic potential while showing several bioactive compounds, and suggests further testing for medicinal and food purposes use for humans and grazing animals. (11)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated E. heterophylla leaves for antibacterial activity and phytochemical components. The plant extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against both pathogenic bacteria (N. gonorrhea, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, S. pneumonia and B. subtilis) and fungi (A. niger, A. tamari, C. albicans, and F. oxysporium) with the water extract showing highest activity. (see constituents above) (13)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated E. heterophylla for in vitro antioxidant potential by DPPH, NO, H2O2, superoxidant scavenging and reducing power assay. Results showed the aqueous extract of EH exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Activity was attributed to phenol and ascorbic acid content. (see constituents above) (14)
Anti-Diabetic: Study of an aqueous extract of EH on alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. (15)
Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous leaf extract on some vital organ functions in rabbits. Results showed a loose watery laxative effect, with significant dose dependent increases in AST, ALP, and GGT. Results indicate the extreme weakness and fatalities associated with the use of E. heterophylla as laxative may be due to dehydration and the toxic effect of the herb on some vital organs. The LD50 of the extract was 208 mg/kg. Author suggests traditional admonition for caution in the use of the herbal laxative. (16)
Anthelmintic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and water extracts of aerial whole plant parts of E. heterophylla against Ascaris suum. Results showed anthelmintic activity with the water extract showing more potent than the ethanolic extract. (17)
Toxicity Study / Aerial Parts / Concerns: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of aerial parts in female wistar rats. Acute toxicity study did not result in any death at dose of 4000 mg/kbw. In prolonged administration of the aqueous extract, results sowed boosting of immunity hypochloremia and anemia in rats. Results advise caution in the use of this plant material for food or therapeutic purposes. (18)
Antimicrobial Against ESBL Producing Klebsiella Pneumonia: Study suggests E. heterophylla and Acalypha indica has the potential of drug production for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. (19)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update September 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Euphorbia heterophylla / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 477 / Public Domain / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Painted Euphorbia Euphorbia heterophylla in Hyderabad , India. / File:Euphorbia heterophylla (Painted Euphorbia) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9720.jpg / J M Garg / 14.09.08 / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants / H.O. Edeoga, D. E. Okwu and B.O Mbaebie / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 685-688 July 2005
(2)
PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, BIOACTIVITY AND WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF EUPHORBIAHETEROPHYLLA (Euphorbiaceae) LEAF EXTRACT / Omale James and Emmanuel .T / International Journal on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical ResearchVol. 1(1), 2010, 54-63
(3)
Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory evaluation of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn (Euphorbiaceae) / Falodun A, Okunrobo L O and Uzoamaka N / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (6), pp. 529-xxx, 15 March 2006
(4)
Phytochemical and biological investigation of chloroform and ethylacetate fractions of Euphorbia heterophylla leaf (Euphorbiaceae) / Abiodun Falodun, Sajjad Ali, Irfan Mohammed Quadir and Iqbal M. I Choudhary / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 2(12), pp. 365-369, December, 2008
(5)
Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of Euphorbia Heterophylla / PC Unekwe, PO Ughachukwu, JO Ogamba / Tropical Journal of Medical Research Vol. 10 (2) 2006: pp. 1-5
(6)
Antimicrobial Activities of Some Euphorbiaceae Plants Used in the Traditional Medicine of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria / Uduak, A Essiett, Kola, K Ajibesin / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14: 654-64. 2010.
(7)
Antinociceptive activity of Euphorbia heterophylla roots
/ I. Vamsidhara, A.Habeeb Mohammed, B. Nataraj et al / Fitoterapia, Vol 71, Issue 5, 1 Sept 2000, Pages 562-563 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00208-2 |
(8)
Antimicrobial and Anticancer Studies on Euphorbia heterophylla / M.Meenakshi Sundaram, K.Karthikeyan, D.Sudarsanam, and P. Brindha / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 3, No 9 (2010)
(9)
Sorting Euphorbia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(10)
Euphorbia heterophylla (Leiteiro) / Flora de Santa Catarina
(11)
Biochemical Assessment of the Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Euphorbia Heterophylla Linn on Hepatocytes of Rats / Apiamu Augustine, Evuen Uduenevwo Francis , Ajaja Uche Ivy / IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology, Volume 3, Issue 5 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 37-41
(12)
Euphorbia heterophylla L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Euphorbia heterophylla (Linn.) / Senjobi Comfort Titilayomi / Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products, August 25-27, 2014
(14)
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EUPHORBIA HETEROPHYLLA L / Keerthana Kesavan, A. Deepa, G. Shobana, G. Jothi, G. Sridharan / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 8, 2014.
(15)
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA HETEROPHYLLA ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS OF ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / A. Annapurna and Ketan Hatware / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY, 2014, 4(3), pp 669-672
(16)
Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Euphorbia heterophylla on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreatic Functions and Plasma Electrolytes in Rabbits / Okolie Ngozi Paulinus et al / JPSI, 4(2), Mar-Apr 2015
(17)
In vitro anthelmintic potential and phytochemical composition of ethanolic and water crude extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. / Nalule, AS; Mbaria, JM; Kimenju, JW / Univerisity of Nairobi, Digital Repository / http://hdl.handle.net/11295/66252
(18)
Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of Aerial Parts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)
/ B. I Adaikpoh, M. A. Adaikpoh٭ and D. N. Onwukaeme / African Scientist Vol. 12, No. 4, December 31, 2011
(19)
IN VITRO-STUDY OF EFFECT OF HERBAL SYRUP OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST ESBL PRODUCING KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA CAUSING UTI INFECTION / V. Singh*, Sandip Patil, Shakti Pal and P. K. Chauhan / IJBAR (2012) 03(03)

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