Family • Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis sativus L.
Scientific names Common names Cucumis exculentus Salisb. Kalabaga (Bis.) Cucumis hardwickii Royle Kasimun (Bon.) Cucumis muricatus Willd. Maras (Sul.) Cucumis rumphii Hassk. Madas (Sul.) Cucumis sativus L. Pepino (Span., Tag.) Cucumis setosus Cogn. Pipino (Tag., Ilk.) Cucumis sphaerocarpus Gabaev Cucumber (Engl.) Cucumis vilmorinii Spreng. Garden cucumber (Engl.) Cucumis sativus L. is an accepted name The Plant List
Other vernacular names ARABIC: Khiyar, Qathad, Jalmatha, Qitha shammi. CHINESE: Huang gua, wong gaw, Qing gua, Tseng kwa. CZECH: Okurka setá. DANISH: Agurk. DUTCH: Komkommer, Gurke. FINNISH: Kurkku. FRENCH: Concombre, Concombre commun, Concombre vert long, Concombre blanc long, Cornichon. GERMAN: Gurke. ITALIAN: Cetriolo HINDI: Kheera, Kakri, Kakdi, Tihu. INDONESIA: Ketimun JAPANESE: Kyu uri, Kyu uri, Moro kyu. KHMER: Trâsâk. KOREAN: Oh ee (oi). LAOTIAN: Tèèng. MALAYSIAN: Timun MYANMAR: Thakhwa. NEPALESE: Asare kankro, Airelu kankro, Kakro, Khira. PORTUGUESE: Pepino. SINHALESE: Pipinya (Pipingha), Pipingkai. SPANISH: Pepino, Cohombro, Pepinillo. SUNDANESE: Bonteng. THAI: Taeng kwaa , Taeng om (ChiangMai), Taeng raan (Northern Thailand). UNANI: Khayarain.
- Cucurbitaceae family consists of 130 genera and about 800 species.
- Cucumis sativus is a member of Cucurbitaceae with about 25 species in Asia. It is one of the oldest cultivated vegetable crops and is cultivated in nearly all countries of the temperate zones.
- The cucumber is mistakenly considered as vegetable but is in fact a fruit, specifically berry.
- Cucumber belongs to the same family as squashes, watermelons, and pumpkins.
Pipino is an annual, rather coarse, fleshy, prostrate or climbing vine. Leaves are ovate, 8 to 14 centimeters long, 5-angled or 5-lobed, the lobes or angles being pointed, and hispidious on both surfaces. Flowers are axillary, solitary, or fascicled, stalkless or short-stalked, and bell-shaped. Male and female flowers are similar in color and size, yellow, and about 2 centimeters long. Fruit is usually cylindric, 10 to 20 centimeters long, smooth, yellow when mature, and slightly tuberculated. A variety is smaller and greenish. Seeds are numerous, oblong, compressed, and smooth.
- Cultivated in the Philippines.
- Planted in all warm countries.
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, saponin, flavonoid, and tannin.
- Fruit contains dextrose (0.11 to 0.98%); saccharose (0.05 to 0.13%); fixed oil (0.11-0.98%).
- Seed contains fixed oil (Gurken oil) 25% consisting of oleic acid (58%), linoleic acid (3.7%), palmitic acid (6.8%), stearic acid (3.7%); phytine; and lecithine.
- Aerial parts contain a 14a-methyl D-phytosterol.
- Pulp yields shikimate dehydrogenase.
- Leaves contain urea and an alkaloid, hypoxanthine.
- Study yielded two new megastigmanes from the leaves of C sativus - cucumegastigmanes I and II with other known compounds.
- Study of seeds showed an abundance of phenolic compounds (93.5 ± 0.1 mg GAE g-1), flavonoids (57.4 ± 0.1 mg QE g-1), ß-carotene (19.46 ± 0.4 mg carotenoids per 100 g). (see study below) (28)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterol and steroids, protein and amino acids, tannins, triterpenoids, and saponins. (41)
- Nutrient analysis of raw cucumber with peel (per 100g) yielded: (Proximates) water 95.23 g, energy 15 kcal, protein 0.65 g, total lipid 0.11 g, carbohydrate (by difference) 3.63 g, total dietary fiber 0.5 g, total sugars 1.67 g; (Minerals) calcium 16 mg, iron 0.28 mg, magnesium 13 mg, phosphorus 24 mg, potassium 147 mg, sodium 2 mg, zinc 0.20 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 2.8 mg, thiamin 0.027 mg, riboflavin 0.033 mg, niacin 0.098 mg, vitamin B6 0.040 mg, folate 7 µg, vitamin B12 0, vitamin A 105 IU, vitamin E 0.03 mg, vitamin D 0, vitamin K 16.4 µg; (Lipids) total saturated fatty acids 0.037 g, total monosaturated FA 0.005 g, total polyunsaturated FA 0.032 g, total trans FA 0, cholesterol 0. (42)
- Qualitative phytochemical constituents of homogenate of C. sativus fruit yielded alkaloids++, glycosides +++, steroids+++, saponins++, tannins+, flavonoids++, terpenoids+++. resins+++. (61)P
- Quantitative phytochemical analysis of homogenate of C. sativus fruit revealed reducing sugars (574.36 mg/g), alkaloids (2.22 mg/g), and flavonoids (2.14 mg/g), while cyanogenic glycoside (0.21 mg/g) was lowest in quantity. Proximate analysis showed fiber (1.02%), moisture (94.2%), protein (3.01%), lipid (0.55%), carbohydrate (0.28%), and ash (0.94%) contents. (61)
- Seeds are anthelmintic; also, cooling, diuretic, and strengthening.
- Active ingredient of the essential oil is considered aphrodisiac in nature.
- Checkmate dehydrogenase from the pulp is considered a facial skin softener; also cooling and a natural sunscreen.
- Studies have shown anticancer, antidiabetic, antiurolithiatic, adsorbent, anthelmintic, skin whitening, antifungal, antibacterial, carminative, antidiarrheal, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective properties.
Fruit, seeds, leaves.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Peeled raw fruit is peeled, sliced thin, served with vinegar, sugar, salt, pepper and calamansi makes a good vegetable side dish.
- Common salad ingredient; also boiled in stew dishes.
- Seed kernel is edible.
- A variety is used for making pickles.
- In Malaya, young leaves are eaten raw or steamed.
- Good source of calcium and iron, vitamins B and C.
- Juice of leaves used as an emetic in acute indigestion in children.
- Ripe, raw cucumbers said to be good for sprue.
- Bruised root applied to swelling from the wound of hedgehog quill.
- Raw cucumbers used for dysentery.
- Cucumber salve used for scalds and burns.
- Seeds used as taeniacide (1 - 2 oz of seed thoroughly ground, with sugar, taken fasting, followed in 1-2 hours with a purge). Also used as an emetic with water.
- In Indo-China, immature fruit given to children for dysentery.
-In India, used as diuretic and for throat infections. Pulp considered healing and soothing, used to keep facial skin soft; is toning and soothing on damage skin and provides a natural sunscreen.
- In Bangladesh, fruit used with cumin seeds for throat infections.
- In Pakistan, fresh fruit is cut in small pieces and taken three times daily for jaundice and hepatitis. (56)
- In Unani medicine, seeds used for cystitis, diabetes, bronchitis, diarrhea, and renal diseases.
- Cosmetic: Fruit extracts incorporated in many beautification products and topical skin preparations. Fruit is excellent for rubbing over the skin for softness and whiteness, used for treating wrinkles, and for making facial packs and masks. Slices provide topical benefits for the eyes through hydrating properties. It is considered cooling, healing, and soothing to the skin irritated by the sun or raw from effects of eruptions. Used for treating broken capillaries.
- Used in the manufacture of cucumber soap.
- Cucumber scent, one of a few others, linked to female sexual arousal. source
• Phytochemicals / C-Glycosides: Study yielded the following C-glycosides from the leaves: isovitexin 2″-O-glucoside, isovitexin, isoorientin, 4′-X-O-diglucosides of isovitexin and swertiajaponin. Flowers yielded kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside and 3-O-glycosides of kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin was revealed.
• Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetes: In Mexico, one of the edible plants with hypoglycemic activity. (2) Antihyperglycemic effect of 12 edible plants was studied in healthy rabbits. Cucumis sativus significantly decreased the area under the glucose tolerance curve and the hyperglycemic peak. Study suggests the integration of a diet that includes edible plants with hypoglycemic activity. (6) Study evaluated the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of C. sativus fruits as a hypoglycemic agent on Sprague-Dawley rats. Efficacy was compared with intraperitoneal injection of insulin. Results showed highest hypoglycemic activity with treatment of C. sativus extract. Results suggest potential as alternative therapy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. (53)
• Anthelmintic: Ethanolic extract of C sativus exhibited a potent activity against tapeworms comparable to the effect of piperazine citrate. (3)
• Skin Whitening / Melanin Inhibition: Six plants parts of C sativus were studied for its inhibitory effect on melanogenesis. Leaves and stems showed inhibition of melanin production. Of 8 compounds isolated, lutein was a potentially skin whitening component. (4)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Studies have isolated isovitexin and isoorientin, two C-glycosylflavones. Isoorientin has exhibited hepatoprotective effect and isovitexin, an antioxidant effect. (7)
• Antifungal / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Stems: Study evaluated the ethanolic and chloroform extracts of leaves and stems for cytotoxicity, antifungal activities and phytoconstituents. In brine shrimp lethality assay, the ethanolic extracts showed LC50 of 35.48 µg/mL and LC90 of 141.25 µg/mL. The ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed moderate antifungal activities against all tested organisms with Aspergillus niger highest susceptibility. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycoside, steroid, saponin, flavonoid, and tannin. (11)
• Antacid / Carminative: Study evaluated the carminative and antacid properties of C. sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract. Result showed the extract significant results for neutralized acid and showed resistance against pH changes and also showed good carminative potential. (12)
• Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study of C. sativus seed extracts in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed no initial phase effects but showed blood glucose lowering and weight lost after 9 days of continued daily therapy. (13)
• Hepatoprotective: Study showed an aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus possessed hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) induced-cytotoxicity and ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation. (14)
• Delayed Cataractogenesis: Study in Sprague-Dawley rats investigated the anti-cataract properties of Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita pepo prior to induction of cataracts using galactose. Both C. sativus and C. pepo significantly delayed cataract formation. Results suggest regular low doses may be effective in delaying cataractogenesis. (15)
• Cosmetic Ingredients: Study evaluated the safety of six ingredients from various extracts of Cucumis sativus (fruit, juice, seed) used in cosmetics as skin conditioning agents. The extracts were found safe in present practices of use and concentration. (16)
• Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial: Analysis of for proximate principles showed cucumber to be high in all nutritional content, with considerable amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin C and crude fibers. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of cucumber with and without peel against Salmonella typhi showed an MIC of 100%. (17)
• Antacid and Carminative Properties / Fruit Pulp: Study of C. sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract showed significant carminative properties and antacid effect (p<0.05) at different doses, with results comparable to that of standard NaHCO3. (18)
• Amelioration of Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of fruit of Cucumis sativus in acetic acid induced colitis in wistar rats. Results showed potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in the animal model by inhibition of the inflammatory mediator. (19)
• Antiulcer Effect / Fruit Pulp: Study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of C. sativus fruit pulp aqueous extract in gastric ulcerated rats. Results showed gastroprotective properties with significant increase in pH, decrease in gastric juice volume, free and total acidity, and lipid peroxide levels. Polyphenols and flavonoids may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect. (20) Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp in gastric ulcerated rats. In indomethacin, ethanol and pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with the extract significant reduced ulcer index and free acidity. Extract showed significant (p<0.05) increase in pH with significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity. (33)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativus seed in Carrageenan paw edema model and xylene induced ear edema model using albino wistar rats. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, with inhibit on of carrageenan induced paw edema comparable to that produced by indomethacin. (21)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study investigated various extracts of leaves for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts exhibited almost the same antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial test strains, with moderate to good antifungal activity. Cytotoxic potentiality showed significant activity against A. salina. (22)
• Antifungal / Cytotoxicity / Reducing Power: Study of ethanol extracts of peels yielded the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. The extracts showed significant reducing power, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay. (23)
• Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study investigated the antidiarrheal activity of crude methanol extracts of leaves. Results showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhea., with a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test i mice. Effect was probably through an antisecretory mechanism. (24)
• Analgesic / Free Radical Scavenging / Fruit: Study evaluated an aqueous fruit extract of C. sativus for free radical scavenging and analgesic activity. Results showed maximum antioxidant and analgesic effect at 500 µg/ml and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The effects were attributed to the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extract. (26)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated acute toxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativus whole fruit homogenate in albino mice. Paw edema progressively decreased within 5.5 hours of CS. There were no adverse effects at concentration range of 0.5 mg/kbw to 5 mg/kbw. Results suggest anti-inflammatory activity with no dose-dependent side effects. (27)
• Phenolic Contents / Antioxidant / Food Preservation: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Cucumis sativus seeds and correlated the findings with mayonnaise enrichment and extension of its shelf life. Seeds showed abundance in phenolic compounds, flavonoids, ß-carotene, and high free radical scavenging activity. CSS (200 ppm) and butylated hydroxyanisole (200 ppm) were incorporated in mayonnaise and oxidative stability. Results suggest CSS has potential as a natural preservative against lipid oxidation or food enrichment while developing functional foods. (see constituents above) (28)
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant /Food Preservation: Study investigated the potential of fruit extract as antibacterial against six pathogenic bacteria and cytotoxic agent against human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Phosphate buffer extracts exhibited more significant antibacterial and cytotoxic activity compared to aqueous extracts. (29)
• Anticancer / Human Liver Cancer / Flowers: MTT assay showed a compound isolated from ethyl acetate fractions of Cucumis sativus flowers cytotoxicity against human liver cancer HepG2 cell line. Various concentrations were able to induce apoptosis. The CTC50 value of sample was 103.7 µg/ml against the cell line. (30)
• Adsorbent / Removal of Dyes / Seeds: Study reports on C. sativus seeds as an eco-friendly and economically feasible adsorbent for the removal of typical basic dyes, crystal violet and rhodamine B from aqueous solution. (31)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Photocatalytic / Antibacterial: Study reports on a novel single-step, eco-friendly biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Cucumis sativus. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed effective photocatalytic and antibacterial property (S. aureus, K. pneumonia, and E. coli) by degrading the dye and inhibiting bacterial growth, respectively. (32)
• Wound Healing / Fruit Formulation: Study investigated ameliorative effect of C. sativus fruit cream formulation on experimentally induced wounds in rats. Topical application showed no signs or symptoms of skin irritation. Results showed significant decrease in wound area (p<0.05), epithelization period (pp0.001), and scar width (p0.001), with a significant increase in wound contraction (p<0.001). Antioxidants and the presence of flavanoids may be responsible to wound contraction and increased rate of epithelization in the test animals. (34)
• Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel / Peel: Study showed Cucumis sativus peel extract can act as an inhibitor against the corrosion of carbon steel in the HCl medium. (35)
• Antihepatotoxic / CCl4 / Cucumis sativus and Pogostemon patchouli: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of Cucumis sativus and Pogostemon patchouli against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed a hepatoprotective role, both biochemically and histologically. (36)
• Adsorbent / Acid Black-7 / Peel: Study showed the pee of C. sativus has suitable adsorption capacity in the removal of Acid black-7 from aqueous solution, with adsorption that is dependent on contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. (37)
• ANO1 (TMEM16A) Activator / Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis and GI Disorders: Study purified a positive fraction from C. sativus and isolated compounds that activated ANO1, member of the CaCC family. Results showed the purified extract has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disorders like constipation via activation of ANO1 mediated Cl- secretion in epithelial cells. (38)
• Antiurolithiatic / Fruits: Study showed the preventive and curative potential of extract of fruits of Cucumis sativus in urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol in albino rats. (39) Study evaluated the lithotryptic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CS fruit on ethylene glycol-induced calculi in Wistar albino rats. Treatment with preventive and curative doses of HCS exerted dose dependent antiurolithiatic action. Increase urine volume indicated diuretic effect. Increased serum creatinine, BUN, uric acid were decrease towards normal levels in proportion to doses administered. (67)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study showed the antidiabetic property of aqueous leaf extract of Cucumis sativus in alloxan induced T2 diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. (40)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Fruit: Study evaluated the antidiabetic property of C. sativus ethanol extract of fruit powder. Extract dose of 400 mg/kbw exhibited the more significant antidiabetic activity. Extracts also significantly lowered cholesterol and LDL levels. (43)
• Blood Pressure Lowering Effect: Study evaluated the effect of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) juice on lowering blood pressure in a cohort of 20 elderly patients > 60 years old. Results showed a significant blood pressure lowering effect. (44)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Enhanced Wound Healing / Callus and Leaves: Study reports on the rapid method of synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles using callus and leaf extracts of Cucumis sativus. Topical application of an ointment prepared from the AgNPs enhanced wound healing activity in a Wistar albino rat model. (45)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity / Aspirin- and Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of C. sativus ethanolic extract in wistar albino rat model. Results showed significant antiulcer activity, possibly synergistically contributed to by phytoconstituents like alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. (46) Animals treated with aqueous extract of C. sativus showed significant (p<0.0001) dose dependent protection against aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. (48)
• Thrombolytic / Analgesic:Study evaluated the thrombolytic and analgesic activity of methanolic crude extract of Cucumis sativa in a mice model. Results showed moderate activity (45.15%) in clot lysis test. Extract also showed significant peripheral analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing method, 34.006% at 300 mg dose and 30.62% at 200 mg dose. It showed significant central analgesic activity with hot plate method. (47)
• Vitexin / Antiangiogenic Potential: Angiogenesis is the process of formation of microvessels from preexisting microvasculature and is responsible for the growth, malignancy, and metastasis of cancer. Study evaluated the potential of vitexin in targeting Hsp90 to restrain angiogenesis. Study showed Vitexin, a prominent glycosylated natural flavonoid, has promising inhibitory potential against Hsp90. Results showed prominent antiangiogenic potential surpassing different in silico parameters and could be a multi-targeted novel antiangiogenic lead. (49)
• No Effect on Glucose Absorption through Intestinal Mucosal Membrane:Study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. sativus on glucose absorption through the intestinal mucosal membrane of Wistar rats. Results showed no significant difference in absorption of control and treatment solution. (50)
• Amelioration of Cisplatin and Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity / Seeds:Study evaluated the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of CS against cisplatin and gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino Wistar rats. Treatment with both curative and prophylactic regimens of the extract significantly attenuated the elevated levels of biochemical parameters. Histopathology studies also substantiated the nephroprotective effect. (51)
• Hypolipidemic / Seeds / Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effect of seed extract of C. sativus on serum lipid profile in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia. Consumption of C. sativus seed extract at daily dose of 500 mg resulted in desirable effects on the serum lipid profile. Results suggest cucumber seed could be considered a food supplement for the treatment of dyslipidemia. (52)
• Purification of Antimicrobial Proteins / Seeds: Antimicrobial peptides extracted from seeds were assayed for antibacterial activity against four pathogenic bacterial strains known to cause foodborne infections and spoilage of food and herbal drugs. Highest concentration was seen with elute fractions1 and 3. Among four selected bacterial strains, E. coli was most sensitive. Results suggest potential for the seed extracts as antimicrobial agents. (54)
• Amelioration of Arsenic Induced Toxicity: Arsenic is considered a category 1 carcinogen. Study evaluated the ameliorating effect of C. sativus on toxicological effects of arsenic toxicity in mice. Results showed significant amelioration of the renal and hepatic biochemical parameters as evidenced by normalization of enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities. (55)
• Effect on Blood Glucose and Blood Pressure of Healthy Individuals / Dose Related Response: Study evaluated the effect of C. sativus on plasma glucose and blood pressure measurements of 50 apparently healthy individuals aged 18-29. Results revealed cucumber has hypoglycemia and anti-diabetic effects since an intake of increased dose at concentration of 400g caused a significant change in blood glucose concentration. There was also a significant effect on blood pressure if taken in higher quantity for a considerable period of time. (57)
• Amelioration of Muscular Spasm-Induced Asthma and Diarrhea / Seeds: Study evaluated the multi-targeted mechanisms of C. sativus seeds extract against asthma and diarrhea. LC-ESI-MS/MS study for bioactive compounds identified kaempferol in EtOH in higher concentration (783.02 µg/g), followed by quercetin (693.83 µg/g) and luteolin (617.17 µg/g). In silico studies showed the bioactive compounds interfered with asthma and diarrhea-associated target genes, which are members of calcium-mediated signaling to exert a calcium channel blocker activity. The seed extract exerted a concentration-dependent spasmolytic response on isolated jejunum, trachea, and urinary bladder preparations and caused relaxation of spastic contraction of K+ (80 mM) with suppressed calcium concentration-response curves at dose of 0.3 and 1 mg/mL. It also showed antiperistalsis, antidiarrheal, and antisecretory activity in animal models. Results showed effects by regulating the contractile response through calcium-mediated signaling pathway. (58)
• Efficacy of Q-Actin™ vs Glucosamine-Chondroitin in Osteoarthritis / Clinical Trial: Randomized double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of Q-Actin™, an aqueous extract of C. sativus against GC (glucosamine-chondroitin) in the management of moderate OA of the knees. Results showed the use of 10 mg CSE twice daily was effective in reducing pain related to moderate knee OA and has potential for use in the management of knee pain, stiffness, and physical functions related to OA. (59)
• Antibacterial / Anticancer / Leaves: Study evaluated the anticancer potential of methanol (CSME) and acetone (CSAE) leaf extracts of C. sativus. Results showed CSME is rich in bioactive compounds with anticancer activity against cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa with IC50s of 15.6 and 28.2, respectively. The extracts were potentially powerful in inhibiting the microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria viz. K. pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E. coli. (60)
• Diuretic / Effect on Potassium / Flesh, Rind, Seed: Cucumber is known for lowering blood pressure, and studies have suggested a similar mechanism with loop diuretic, exceeding sodium and potassium excretion. Study evaluated the different diuretic potential among parts of cucumber in male Mus musculus. Results showed the flesh and rind part of cucumber shower similar results with furosemide as diuretic. The whole fruit (flesh, rind and seed) showed natriuretic effect. Even low concentrations of the cucumber whole fruit extract exhibited potential natriuretic and kaliuretic diuretic effects. Results suggest potential benefit for patients with chronic kidney disease to prevent hyperkalemia. (63)
• Shelf-Life Extension: Study evaluated the benefits, such as oxidative stability and quality retention of the enrichment of cucumber with natural phenolic compounds through immersion into a variety of herbal infusions. During immersion, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiradical activity significantly increased irrespective of type of herbal infusion. TPC varied greatly from 1.41 to 748.14 mg GAE/kg cucumber. Highest TPCs were found in cucumber treated with Origanum vulgare infusion, followed by Jasminum officinale and Mentha spicata infusions. Osmo-treated slices were highly appreciated by the sensory panel. Osmo-treated samples demonstrated superior quality retention with shelf life extension ranging from two- to almost four-fold compared to untreated tissue. (64)
• Hemostatic / Procoagulant Serine Glycoprotease Effect on Human Fibrinogen and Fibrin Clot / Wound Healing: Study reports on purified cucumis protease (CPro), which was identified as a glycoprotein and serine protease. CPro reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma, prothrombin time and aPTT of plasma. CPro is neither hemorrhagic nor edema-inducing, thus considered a non-toxic protease. It showed primary and secondary hemostatic activities as it cleaved both fibrinogens and fibrin. Its hemostatic activity suggests potential for wound healing. (65)
• Anti-Wrinkle / Anti-Hyaluronidase / Anti-Elastase / Fruit: Study evaluated the antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase activity of lyophilized juice of Cucumis sativus fruit. The CSLJ exhibited DPPH-free radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity (IC50 14.73 and 35.29 µg/mL), strong anti-hyaluronidase ((c) p<0.001), and anti-elastase ((c) p<0.001) activity with IC50s of 20.98 and 6.14 µg/mL, respectively. CSLJ is a rich source of ascorbic acid and has potential as an anti-wrinkle agent in cosmetic products. (66)
• Antimicrobial / Flowers: A compound isolated from ethyl acetate fractions of Cucumis sativus flowers showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria (S. typhi, E. coli, E. faecalis, B cereus) and fungi (C. albicans and C. lunata). The antibacterial activity was almost comparable to Chloramphenicol and the antifungal activity was almost comparable to standard Fluconazole. (68)
• Iminosugar idoBR1 / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruits: idoBR1 (2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxypiperidine-2-carboxylic acid, is an iminosugar amino acid isolated from fruits of C. sativus. It has anti-inflammatory activity reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in THP-1 cells and ex vivo human blood. It exhibited selective inhibition of human α-L-iduronidase and sialidases from bacteria (Tannerella forsythia) and human THP-1 cells. idoBR1 and cucumber extract reducing binding of hyaluronic acid (HA) to CD44 in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and may function as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting induced sialidase involved in the production of HA adhesive CD44. (69)
• Antisolar / Fruits: Many sun-screen lotions contain titanium dioxide and zinc dioxide, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals, which may be responsible for photo-carcinogenesis and skin aging. Study evaluated fruit extract of Cucumis sativus as an antisolar agent. Cucumber contains antioxidants like ß-carotene and α-carotene, vitamin C and A, zea-xanthin and lutein. Results showed the cucumber extract exhibited protective activity against UC radiation particularly in the UV-C region. Results suggests a source of a natural sun-screen lotion as an alternative to harmful chemicals. (70)
• Nephroprotective / Alloxan Induced Kidney Toxicity / Pulp: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of C. sativus pulp (EECSP) on alloxan induced renotoxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Treatment with EECSP caused dose dependent ameliorative effect on alloxan induced diabetic nephropathy with restoration of kidney architecture and renal functions when compared to untreated group. (71)
• Effect on Menopausal Hypertension / Juice: Study evaluated the effectiveness of cucumber suri juice on blood pressure in hypertensive menopausal women. Results showed a significant effect of cucumber juice on blood pressure in the intervention group and suggests an alternative treatment for menopausal women with hypertension. (72)
- Small or large scale commercial production.
Updated November 2022 / December 2019 / November 2017 / June 2016
PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:114 Cucumis sativus L.jpg / ATLAS DES PLANTES DE FRANCE / 1891 / A. Mascief / Public Domain / Wikipedia OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: How to use your dinner leftovers for DIY beauty / SheKnows
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Cucumis sativus flower / Rasbak / CC by SA 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Demonstration of Activity of -Galactosidase Secreted by Cucumis sativus L. Cells / J Stano et al / Acta Biotechnologica / Volume 21 Issue 1, Pages 83 - 87 / DOI 10.1002/1521-3846(200102)21:1<83::AID-ABIO83>3.0.CO;2-7
Studies on Hypoglycemic Activity of Mexican Medicinal Plants / Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 45: 118-124 (2002)
The Anthelmintic Activity of Some Iraqi Plants of the Cucurbitaceae / Pharmaceutical Biology / 1987, Vol. 25, No. 3, Pages 153-157
Inhibitory Effect of Cucumis sativus on Melanin Production in Melanoma B16 Cells by Downregulation of Tyrosinase Expression / Planta Med 2008; 74: 1785-1788 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088338
Preparative separation of isovitexin and isoorientin from Patrinia villosa Juss by high-speed counter-current chromatography / Journal of Chromatography A, 1074 (2005) 111–115
Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants / R Roman-Ramos et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 48, Issue 1, 11 August 1995, Pages 25-32 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01279-M
Flavonoids from some species of the genus Cucumis / Miros awa Krauze-Baranowska and Wojciech Cisowski / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 29, Issue 3, March 2001, Pages 321-324 / doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(00)00053-3
Two New Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Cucumis sativus / Hisahiro Kai, Masaki Baba, and Toru Okuyama / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, Vol. 55 (2007) , No. 1 133
Cucumis sativus L / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Cucumis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
Cytotoxicity and Antifungal Activities of Ethanolic and Chloroform Extracts of Cucumis sativus Linn (Cucurbitaceae) Leaves and Stems / Joysree Das, Anusua Chowdhury, Subrata Kumar Biswas, Utpal Kumar Karmakar, Syeda Ridita Sharif, Sheikh Zahir Raihan and Md Abdul Muhit / Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 6: 25-30. / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2012.25.30
Evaluation of antacid and carminative properties of Cucumis sativus under simulated conditions / Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi and Sarvesh Paliwal / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (1):234-239
Effect of Hydroalcoholic and Buthanolic Extract of Cucumis sativus Seeds on Blood Glucose Level of Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats / Mohsen Minaiyan, Behzad Zolfaghari, Amin Kamal / Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences Vol. 14, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2011, 436-442
Hepatoprotective activity of Cucumis sativus against cumene hydroperoxide induced-oxidative stress / H. Heidari, M. Kamalinejad, M.R. Eskandari / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012;7(5)
The effect of Cucumis sativus L. and Cucumbit pepo L (Cucurbitaceae) aqueous preparations on galactose-induced cataract in Sprague-Dawley rats / Clement Afari, George Asumeng Koffuer, Precious Duah / International Research Journ of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol 2(78) pp 174-180, July 2012
Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) -Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics: Tentative Safety Assessment / March 16, 2012 / © Cosmetic Ingredient Review / email@example.com
Biochemical, Anti-Microbial and Organoleptic Studies of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) / Jyoti D. Vora, Lakshmi Rane, Swetha Ashok Kumar / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) , Vol 3, Issue 3, March 2014
Evaluation of antacid and carminative properties of Cucumis sativus under simulated conditions / *Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi and Sarvesh Paliwal / Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (1):234-239
Effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit in ulcerative colitis in laboratory animals / Mithun Vishwanath K Patil, Amit D Kandhare, Sucheta D Bhise / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, (2012)S962-S969
Cytoprotection mediated antiulcer effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Cucumis sativus / Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi, Meenakshi Agrawal and Sarvesh Paliwal / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S61-S67
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS SEED IN CARRAGEENAN AND XYLENE INDUCED EDEMA MODEL USING ALBINO WISTAR RATS / Vetriselvan S*, Subasini U, Velmurugan C, Muthuramu T, Shankar Jothi, Revathy / International Journal of Biopharmaceutics. 2013; 4(1): 34-37.
ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE, CHLOROFORM AND N- HEXANE EXTRACTS OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS LEAVES. / Fatema Nasrin et al, / The Experiment, 2014, Vol. 21(3), 1480-1486
Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Reducing Power, Cytotoxicity and Anti-Fungal Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cucumis sativus / Jony Mallik*, Roksana Akhter / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(3):555-560
Antidiarhoeal activity of Cucumis sativus leaves. / Fatema Nasrin, Laizuman Nahar / IJPDA, 2(2): pp 106-110
Cucumis sativus / Synonyms / The Plant List
Free Radical Scavenging and Analgesic Activities of Cucumis sativus L. Fruit Extract / D Kumar, S Kumar, J Singh, Narender, Rashmi, BD Vashistha, and N Singh / J Young Pharm., 2010 Oct-Dec; 2(4): pp 365–368.
/ doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.71627 / PMID: 21264095
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Cucumis sativus L. / Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria Agatemor*, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo and Chioma Assumpta Anosike / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8, Issue 2 (2015) / DOI : 10.9734/BJPR/2015/19700
Polyphenolic and phytochemical content of Cucumis sativus seeds and study on mechanism of preservation of nutritional and quality outcomes in enriched mayonnaise / Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana Babu, Basheer Vajiha Aafrin, Ganesan Archana, Kalleary Sabina, Kasirajan Sudharsan, Kesavan Radha Krishnan, Srinivasan Babuskin, Meenatchisundaram Sivarajan andMuthusamy Sukumar* / International Journal of Food Science & Technology, Vol 51, Issue 6, pages 1417–1424, June 2016 / DOI: 10.1111/ijfs.13109
BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.) EXTRACTS / Fiona How Ni Foong*, Aqeelah Mohammad, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan / Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol 19 No 6 (2015): 1218 - 1222
Anti-cancer Activity of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) Flowers Against Human Liver Cancer / N Muruganantham, S.Solomon, M.M.Senthamilselvi / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2016; 8(1): pp 39-41 / ISSN: 0975-1556
Cucumis sativus used as adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution / T. Smitha, T. Santhi, Ashly Leena Prasad, S. Manonmani / Arabian Journal of Chemistry / doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.07.030
SINGLE-STEP NOVEL BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING CUCUMIS SATIVUS FRUIT EXTRACT AND STUDY OF ITS PHOTCATALYTIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY / K. ROY, C.K. SARKAR, C.K. GHOSH / Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures Vol. 10, No. 1, January - March 2015, p. 107 - 115
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC FRUIT PULP EXTRACT OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS / Satish Narra, K. S. Nisha and H. S. Nagesh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH (2012) / DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(11).4712-20
Pharmacological evaluation of ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus L. fruit formulation on wound healing in Wistar rats / Mithun Vishwanath K Patil, Amit D Kandhare, Sucheta D Bhise / Chronicles of Young Scientists (2011) Vol 2, Issue 4: pp 207-213 / DOI: 10.4103/2229-5186.93026
Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in acidic chloride medium by Cucumis Sativus (cucumber) Peel Extract / Ghadah M. Al-Senani / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 11 (2016) 291 - 302
Antihepatotoxic Potential of Cucumis sativus and Pogostemon patchouli against Carbon tetrachloride induced Hepatotoxicity / S. R. Dhande*, P. P. Dongare, P. R. Shah, Dr Y. M. Joshi, V.J. Kadam. / IAJPR. 2013; 3(11): 9213-9221
Adsorption of acid black-7 from synthetic aqueous solution onto Cucumis sativus peel / T. Smitha, T. Santhi and M. Makeswari / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):1617-1625
Identification of ANO1 (TMEM16A) activator purified from Cucumis sativus: Its role for treatment of cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disorders / Mirajul Hoque Kazi, Tultul Saha, Owen M Woodward and William B Guggino / FASEB Journal, April 2016, Vol. 30, No. 1, Supplement
ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS / Krishnaveni Janapareddi, Rajkiran Ellandala, Manjula Pulluru, Sudheer K Dundigalla / Vol 3 / International Journal of Pharmacological Screening Methods, 2013; Issue 2: pp 46-52.
Antidiabetic Property of Cucumis Sativus Aqueous Leaf Extracts in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats /
Iswar Hazarika, Folitartha Roy, Ruhul Amin Haque / Research & Reviews: A Journal of Pharmacognosy, Vol 2, No 3 (2015)
PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS LINN LEAVES / S. Gomathi* , M. Vijayabaskaran, P. Vaijayanthimala, R. Shanmuga Sundaram, S. Seetaram Swamy, R. Sambathkumar / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (2016), 3(4): 378-381
Cucumber with peel: Nutrient Analysis / USDA National Nutrient Database
Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effect of Cucumis Sativus Fruit in Streptozotocin-Induced-Diabetic Rats / T. Karthiyayini*, Rajesh Kumar, K. L. Senthil Kumar, Ram Kumar Sahu and Amit Roy / Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal (2009); 2(2)
EFFECT OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) JUICE ON LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN ELDERLY / Sumirah Budi Pertami, Dian Yuniar Syanti Rahayu, Budiono Budiono / Public Health of Indonesia, Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Phytofabrication of Bioactive Molecules Encapsulated Metallic Silver Nanoparticles from Cucumis sativusL. and Its Enhanced Wound Healing Potential in Rat Model / Perumal Venkatachalam,1 Palanivel Sangeetha, Natesan Geetha, and Shivendra Vikram Sahi / Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/753193
Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cucumis sativus L. against NSAID (Aspirin) induced Gastric Ulcer in wistar albino rats. / D. Pradhan, P. Biswasroy, G. Singh, K.A. Suri / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2013; 1 (3): 115-119
Thrombolytic (in vitro) and analgesic (in vivo) effect of methanolic extract of Cucumis sativus / Maknoon Siddika, Rabiul Hasnat and Entaz Bahar / The Pharma Innovation Journal 2015; 3(12): 01-07
Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Cucumis sativus in rats / Babu Rao B and Rama Narsimha Reddy A / Current Research in Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 (5) September-October 2015
Elucidation of Antiangiogenic Potential of Vitexin Obtained from Cucumis sativus Targeting Hsp90 Protein: A Novel Multipathway Targeted Approach to Restrain Angiogenic Phenomena / Neba Sharma, Salman Akhtar, Qazi M S Jamal, Mohammad A Kamal, Mohammad K A Khan, Mohammad H Siddiqui, Usman Sayeed / Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 13, Issue 3 (2017) / DOI : 10.2174/1573406413666161111152720
Effect of Cucumis sativus L on Glucose Absorption through Intestinal Mucosal Membrane of Wistar Rat Models / Fitri Amalia, Samsudin Surialaga, Sylvia Rachmayati / Althea Medical Journal, Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
AMELIORATION OF CISPLATIN AND GENTAMICIN -INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY BY SEEDS OF CUCUMIS SATIVUS / DOPPALAPUDI PRASANTHI*, SREEDEVI ADIKAY / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2016 Oct; 7(4): pp 245 - 253
Evaluation of the Effects of Cucumis sativus Seed Extract on Serum Lipids in Adult Hyperlipidemic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. / Soltani, Rasool and Hashemi, Mohammad and Farazmand, Alimohammad and Asghari, Gholamreza and Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan and Kharazmkia, Ali and Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa / JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE Jan 2017; 82(1): pp. 214-218 / https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13569
Hypoglycemic Activity of Cucumis sativus Extract on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Sprague–Dawley Rats: A Pilot Study / Antido, Jhon Wilson A., Gatil, Ysa Lorren B. and Rabajante, Noel Armaknop L. / Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) – St. Cabrini College of Allied Medicine Research. March 2017; 2(2)" pp 12-28
Purification and MIC analysis of antimicrobial proteins from Cucumis sativus L. seeds / Raid Al Akeel, Ayesha Mateen, Khalid K. Alharbi et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; 18: Article 121
Ameliorating Effect of Cucumis sativus (Cucumbers) against Arsenic Induced Toxicity in Mice / Naaz Fatima, Nahid Fatmi, M.. Shahzada, Shivdhar Sharma, Ranjit Kumar, Mohammad Ali, Arun Kumar / Open Journal of Pathology, 2018; 8: pp 78-84 / http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpathology
Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis based on socio-economic documentation / Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Mir Ajah Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad et al / African Journal of Biotechnology. 20 April 2009; 8(8): pp 1643-1650
The Effect of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) on blood glucose concentration and blood pressue of apparently healthy individuals in Port Harcourt / Ebirien Agana Samuel Bartimaeus et al / European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016; 3(12)
Cucumis sativus L. Seeds Ameliorate Muscular Spasm-Induced Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Disorders by Simultaneously Inhibiting Calcium Mediated Signaling Pathway / Muqeet Wahid, Fatima Saqib, Hanadi Talal Ahmedah et al / Pharmaceuticals, 14(11) / DOI: 10.3390/ph14111197
Effectiveness of Cucumis sativus extract versus glucosamine-chondroitin in the management of moderate osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial / Nash RJ, Azantsa BKG, Sharp H, Shanmugham V / Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2018; Vol 2018: 13: pp 2119-2126 / DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S173227
Phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial and anticancer activities of the aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus / Ammar Adnan Tuama, Arif Ahmed Mohammed et al / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 2019; 26(3): pp 600-604 / DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.07.012
Phytochemical and proximate composition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from Nsukka, Nigeria / Uzuazokaro Mark-Maria Agatemor, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, Chioma Assumpta Anosike / African Journal of Biotechnology, 2018; 17(38): pp 1215-1219 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB2018.16410 / ISSN: 1684-5315 / Article No D0F282A58745
Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500-1300 CE: Two routes to Europe / Harry S Paris, Marie-Christine Daunay, Jules Janick / Annals of Botany, 2012; 109(1): pp 117-126 /
The effect of cucumber consumption on the level of sodium potassium in Mus Muscullus's urine production / Vincensa Elicia, Bambang Wasito Tjipto, Bernadette Dian Novita / Fol Med Indoes, 2021; 57(3): pp 210-213 / DOI: 10.20473/fmi.v57i3.17697 / pISSN: 2355-8393 / eISSN: 2599-056x
Shelf Life Extension and Quaity Improvement of Cucumber Slices Impregnated in Infusions of Edible Herbs / Maria Giannakourou, Irini F Strati et al / Analytical Letters, 2019; 52(17): pp 2677-2691 /
Procoagulant serine glycoprotease from Cucumis sativus .: action on human fibrinogen and fibin clot / Zohara Nafeesa, B R Shivalingu, K N Neema, S Nanjunda Swamy et al / Biotech. 2017; 7(2) /
DOI: 10.1007/s13205-017-0686-9 / PMID: 28555432
Cucumis sativus fruit-potential antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase agent / Neelesh K Nema, Niladri Maity, B Sarkar, Pulok K Mukherjee / Arch Dermatol Res., 2011; 303(4): pp 247-252 /
Evaluation of Antiurolithiatic Potentials of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cucumis sativus L. / Shriram Ramesh Pethakari, Pramod Jayadevappa Hurkadale, Ravindra Durdundayya Hiremath / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2017; 51(4s) / DOI: 10.5530/ijper.51.4s.89
Antimicrobial Activity of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) Flowers / N Muruganantham, S Solomon, M M Senthamilselvi / Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res., 2016; 36(1) Art 16: pp 97-100 / ISSN: 0976-044X
Iminosugar idoBR1 Isolated from Cucumber Cucumis sativus Reduces Inflammatory Activity / Robert J Nash, Barbara Bartholomew, Yana B Penkova, George W J Fleet et al / ACS Omega, 2020; 5(26): pp 16263-16271 / DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c02092
A Pilot Study on Evaluation of Cucumis sativus L as a Natural Antisolar Agent / Ambar Gangale, Sandeep Ambore, Mukesh Gavit, Sunita Lokhande / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016; 9(3) /
Ameliorative Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) Pulp on Alloxan Induced Kidney Toxicity in Male Adult Wistar Rats / Uzozie Chikere Ofoego, Elizabeth Obioma Nweke, Obgonna Mishael Nzube / Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2019; 9(4) / DOI: 10.7176/JNSR / eISSN: 2225-0921 /
The Effectiveness of Cucumber Suri Juice (Cucumis sativus) on Blood Pressure in Menopausal Hypertension / Reni Hariyanti, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Sri Sumarni, Erna Widyastuti / STRADA Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan, 2020; 9(2): pp 1771-1778 / DOI: 10.30994/sjik.v9i2.532 / eISSN: 2614-350X / pISSN: 2252-3847
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List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants •