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Family Rubiaceae
Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.

Shuang hua er cao

Scientific names Common names
Gonotheca biflora (L.) Masam. Dalumpang (Sub.)
Hedyotis alsinifolia Zipp. ex Span. Kaddok-na-kalinga (Ibn.)
Hedyotis biflora (L.) Lam. Palarapdap (S. L. Bis.)
Hedyotis biflora var. uniflora Kurz Pisek (Iv.)
Hedyotis blumeana Steud. Coastal vine weed (Engl.)
Hedyotis burmanniana Schult. & Schult.f. Two flower mille graines (Engl.)
Hedyotis debilis Roem. & Schult.  
Hedyotis dichotoma Cav.  
Hedyotis gracilis DC.  
Hedyotis hermanniana R.M.Dutta  
Hedyotis media Cav.  
Hedyotis multiflora Cav.  
Hedyotis paniculata Rottler ex Wight & Arn.  
Hedyotis ramossisima Blume  
Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.  
Oldenlandia biflora Linn.  
Oldenlandia brachypoda Zoll. ex Miq.  
Oldenlandia dichotoma (Cav.) Willd. ex Cham. & Schltdl.  
Oldenlandia multiflora (Cav.) DC.  
Oldenlandia radicans Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.  
Thecagonum biflorum (L.) Babu  
Oldenlandia biflora L. is a synonym of Leptopetalum biflorum (L.) Neupane & N.Wikstr.
Leptopetalum biflorum is an accepted soecies. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shuang hua er cao
COOK ISLANDS: Pokea teatea.
INDIA: Damanpapra.
JAPANESE: Sonare mugura, Motukuwa.

Gen info
- Oldenlandia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae, pantropical in distribution with about 240 species.
- The genus was named by Linnaeus in 1753 in Species Plantarum
- The genus name Oldenlandia honors the Danish botanist Henrik Bernard Oldenland (c, 1663-1697).
- Some botanists have not recognized Oldenlandia, and have placed some or all of the species in the broadly defined Hedyotis. More recently, a circumscription of Hedyotis no longer includes Oldenlandia.

Pisek is an annual, smooth herb. Branches are somewhat angled, ascending, and up to 30 centimeters in length. Leaves are shortly stalked, oblong, oblong, elliptical to narrowly elliptical, up to 5 centimeters long. Cymes with 3 to 7 flowers occur in the upper axils, somewhat paniculate, and with slender pedicels. Calyx is green. Corolla is white and small. Capsules are cup-shaped or ovoid, about 3 millimeters long, crowned by four small calyx teeth.

Stems: Erect, angled to subterete, glabrous. Leaves: Lamina elliptic-oblong, elliptic-ovate,vobovate or elliptic, 1−4 × 0.3 cm, apex obtuse or acute, base attenuate to obtuse, papery, glabrous, secondary veins obscure; subsessile or with petioles 2−10 mm long. Inflorescences: Terminal or in axils of uppermost leaves, cymose to compound-cymose, 2−many flowered, glabrous, pedunculate; bracts triangular to lanceolate, 0.5−3 mm. Flowers: Homostylous, subsessile or pedicels 0.5−1 mm long and slender; hypanthium ovoid or turbinate, 0.5−1 mm long, calyx lobes ovate-lanceolate or triangular, 0.5−1 mm long; corolla white. Seeds: Many, globose or subglobose, 0.3−0.5 mm, exotesta foveolate. (9)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Common weed in waste places, cultivated soil, etc., at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also native to
Bangladesh, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niue, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is. (5)

- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids. Saponins and steroids were absent. (see study below) (4)
- Study of Hedyotis biflora roots isolated two novel cyclotides: hedyotide B10 (HB10) and HB11, besides known HB1 and HB9. (see study below) (6)

- Considered a bitter tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic, alterative, anti-dysenteric, anti-ulcer.
- Studies have shown cytotoxic, antiproliferative, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Whole plant, leaves.


- In the Philippines, plant is pounded and applied to wounds.
- Used for fever and gastric ulcers.
- Decoction given internally for diarrhea and dysentery.
- In India, leaves used for remittent fevers, gastric irritation and nervous depression.
- In Hindi medicine, used in prescriptions for fever, diarrhea, skin diseases. Decoction of plant used in bilious fever, stomach irritability, and delirium.
- In Vietnam, used for treatment of snake bites.

Furocoumarins / Cytotoxic Compounds:
Study of methanol extract isolated three new 6-oxygenated 8,9-dihydrofurocoumarin-type compounds, hedyotiscones A, B and C, together with 7 known compounds. Compounds 1-3 showed marginal cytotoxicity against Hep G2 cells (human liver cancer cells). (2)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of Oldenlandia biflora and Pegularia daemia for phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas epidermis, E. coli, S. dysenteriae and S. typhi) bacteria. Oldenlandia biflora extracts showed better activity than P. daemia extracts. The ethyl acetate extracts of both plants exhibited greater antibacterial activity compared to petroleum ether and aqueous extracts. (4)
• Novel Cyclotides / Bactericidal / Roots: Study of Hedyotis biflora roots isolated two novel cyclotides: hedyotide B10 (HB10) and HB11, besides known HB1 and HB9. Both cyclotides showed bactericidal activity on E. coli and Streptococcus salivarius. Results showed potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and bacterial drug resistance. (6)
• Cytotoxic Cyclotides / Inhibition of Proliferation and Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells / Leaves and Roots: Recent studies yielded two cytotoxic cyclotides. In this study, another five novel cyclotides, hedyotides B5 (HB5) to HB9, were isolated from leaves and roots, along with known HB1 and HB2. In vitro MTT assay showed all the hedyotides exhibited significant cytotoxicity on four kinds of pancreatic cancer cell lines, especially HB7. HB7 inhibited the cell migration and invasion of capan2 cells. HB7 could significantly inhibit tumor weight and size compared to placebo control. (7)

- Wild-crafted.
- Plants in the cybermarket.

Updated May 2024 / December 2018 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Oldenlandia biflora / Habit of flowering plant / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL26922] / Non-commercial use ; Click on image or link to go to source page / PhytoImages.siu.edu /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leptopetalum biflorum / Leaves and flowers / Copyright © Dr N Sasidharan: Keral Forest Research Inst., Peechi /Click on image or link to go to source page / eFloraOfIndia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Nat. Order. Rubiaceae. Oldenlandia Herbacea, Dc. Oldenlandia biflora. Roxb / Health and Healing / The Materia Medica Of The Hindus
New Cytotoxic 6-Oxygenated 8,9-Dihydrofurocoumarins, Hedyotiscone A-C, from Hedyotis biflora / Yung-Husan Chen, Fang-Rong Chang et al / Letter / Planta Med 2006;72:75-78
Hedyotis biflora / Catalogue of Life, China /
Antibacterial and Phytochemical Evaluation of Oldenlandia Biflora L. and Pergularia Daemia
/ N. Sridhar*, N. V. S. Pradeep Kumar, D. Sasidhar, A. Kiran Venkatesh, L. K. Kanthal / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., April-June 2012; 4(2): pp 148-152
Oldenlandia biflora / Synonyms / KEW: PLants of the World Online
Novel cyclotides from Hedyotis biflora has potent bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria and E. coli drug resistance / Dongguo Wang, Jiayu Chen, Jianfeng Zhu, Yonghua Mou / Int J Clin Exp Med, 2016; 9(6): pp 9521-9526
Novel cyclotides from Hedyotis biflora inhibit proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cell in vitro and in vivo / Xiangmin Ding, Dousheng Bai, Jianjun Qian / Medicinal Chemistry Research, 2014; 23(3): pp 1406-1413 / DOI: 10.1007/s00044-013-0746-6
Oldenlandia / Wikipedia
Two flower mille graines / SOCFINDO CONSERVATION


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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