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Family Poaceae
Pulang puwit
Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link
Guang tou bai

Scientific names Common names
Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link         Dakayang (Ilokano)
Echinochloa crus-galli  subsp. colonum (L.) Honda         Guinga (Bisaya)
Milium colonum (L.) Moench         Pulang puwit (Tagalog)
Oplismenus colonum (L.) Kunth         Aynless barnyard grass (Aust)
Oplismenus crus-galli var. colonum (L.) Coss. & Durieu        Corn panic-grass (Engl.)
Panicum colonum L.         Deccan grass (Engl.)
Panicum crus-galli subsp. colonum (L.) K.Richt.         Jungle ricegrass (Engl.)
Panicum crus-galli var. minus Thwaites         Jungle-rice (Engl.)
  Samak rice (Engl.)
  Small barnyard grass (Engl.)
  Wild rice (Engl.)
Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Abu rokba, Abu rukbah, Bashaft, Difra, Diffre.
CHINESE: Guang tou bai, Guang tou bai zi, Can cao, Wang bai, Wang ji.
DANISH: Spinkel hanespore.
DUTCH: Zuidelijke hanepoot.
FINNISH: Kukonhirssi.
FRENCH: Blé du Dekkan, Pied de coq meridional.
GERMAN: Dekkangras, Schamahirse, Südliche Hühnerhirse.
HEBREW: Dochaneet hashaleen.
HINDI: Jangli jhangora, Jharwa, Jirio, Shama.
INDONESIAN: Rumput jajagoan kecil, Rumput bebek.
ITALIAN: Panico porporino, Giavone meridionale.
JAPANESE: Ko hime bie, Wase bie.
KANNADA: Kaadu haaraka, Kaadu haaraka hull.
LAOTIAN: Khauz nok.
MALAY: Padi burong, Rumput kekusa, Rumput kusa-kusa, Rumput bebek, Rumput kekuasa kecil, Tuton, Watuton.
MARATHI: Borur, Jiria, Pacushama, Sawank.
MYANMAR: Myet thi, Pazun sa myet.
NEPALI: Saamaa, Saamaa ghans.
PORTUGUESE: Capim-arroz, Capim da colonia, Capim-colonia, Capin-coloninho, Capim-jau, Jervao.
PUNJABI: Samak, Samaki, Savak, Suak, Sauk.
SPANISH: Arrocillo, Grama pintado, Hualcacho, Liendre de puerco, Paja de apto, Pata de gallina, Pasto colorado, Pasto del arroz, Pierna de gallo meridonal.
SUNDANESE: Jajagoan leutik.
SWEDISH: Kycklinghirs.
TAMIL: Camai.
TELUGU: Cama, Othagaddi.
THAI: Yaa bplong, Yaa nok khao, Ya nok sichom phu.
TURKISH: Tavshean otu.
VIETNAMESE: Co long vuc.

Gen info
- Echinochloa colona is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia. It was formerly classified as a species of Panicum. It is the wild ancestor of the cultivated cereal crop Echinochloa frumentacea, sawa millet. Some taxonomists consider the two taxa as one species. (4)

Echinochloa colona is a tufted annual grass with erect or ascending culms up to 1 m tall, often rooting at the lower nodes. Leaf-sheath 3-4 cm long, glabrous, often reddish; ligule absent; leaf-blade linear-acuminate, 5-30 cm × 2-8 mm, sometimes marked with purple bars. Inflorescence up to 15 cm long, composed of 3-10 short racemes up to 3 cm long; racemes neatly 4-rowed, simple, commonly half their length apart and appressed to the axis but sometimes subverticillate and spreading; spikelets numerous, ovate-elliptical to subglobose, 1.5-3 mm long, pubescent; lower floret male or barren, acute to cuspidate; upper lemma 2-3 mm long, sharply pointed. Caryopsis ellipsoid to subglobose. The absence of a ligule, the purplish-tinged leaves and the neatly 4-rowed racemes are characteristic of this species. Less constant are the awnless soft indumented spikelets - some forms tend to intergrade with E. crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. which has awned spikelets. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, etc. (
- The native range is Tropical and Subtropical Old World, in seasonally dry tropical biome. (1)
- In swampy places receiving 400 to 1200 mm rainfall per year, at altitudes from sea-level to 2000 m. (3)

- Phytoconstituent analysis yielded alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and MS isolated three compounds: ß-sitosterol, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-6-methyl benzoic acid, and ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate. Nutrient analysis yielded: protein 3-18% DM, high fiber content 25-45%, dry matter 26%, ash 14.5%, lignin 5.4%. Micronutrients include calcium 4.5 g/kg, phosphorus 2.2 g/kg, potassium 27.4 g/kg, sodium 2.2 g/kg, magnesium 2.8 g/kg, manganese 203 mg/kg, zinc 39 mg/kg, copper 8 mg/kg. (5)

- Jungle rice can present as a problem in rice fields as they closely resemble young rice plants.
- It is a fast-growing grass, germinating quickly with the onset of first rains, seeding abundantly, and can cover cultivated forages in the first few weeks. (3)
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, hepatoprotective, phytotoxic, herbicidal, antidiabetic, wound healing, antimicrobial properties.

Parts used
Tubers, seeds.


- Seeds eaten by humans during famine times. Seeds are roasted and mixed with roasted seeds of wheat and bhang. (5)
- In India, seeds of the grass are used to prepare the festival fasting food dish "khichadi". In Rajasthan the seeds are boiled in water and used as a substitute for rice. seeds are also ground into flour, sometimes mixed with maize or blackgram, and made into bread or porridge. (5)
- In Australia, panicles were used by aboriginals as food: seeds were pounded between stones, mixed with water, and made into bread. (4)
- In India, used in spleen and hemorrhage problems; also for nausea and constipation. Tuber considered anti-emetic and as sedative in dyspeptic disorders, especially in vomiting during pregnancy. (5)
- Caryopses (seeds) used for treatment of jaundice. (6)
- Fodder: Used as forage; grazed by all kinds of stock.
A palatable fodder for milking animals and water buffalo.
- Crafts: Stems used for weaving mats.

Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Caryopses:
Study evaluated the methanolic extract of caryopses (seeds) of E. colona for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol and ethanol intoxicated rats and antihepatotoxic activity against D-galactosamine. The extract exhibited ferrous ion reducing power, DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Extract exhibited significant (p<0.001) hepatoprotective activity, which was attributed to flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the extract. (6)
Phytotoxicity / Tricin / Bioherbicide for Weed Control: Study evaluated the phytotoxic potential of Echinochloa colona and its potential as a bioherbicide. A lettuce seed bioassay indicated that a dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) soluble fraction of MeOH extract has the most phytotoxic activity. The most phytotoxic compound of the fraction was identified as tricin, which was assessed on phytotoxicity on germination and seedling growth of ten weed species. Higher concentrations of the fraction (500,1000 mg L-1) and tricin (100, 200 µmol L-1) inhibited germination and seedling growth of most species. Results suggest potential for the fraction and tricin as bioherbicide for weed control in agriculture. (7)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of various fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) of ethanolic extract of E. colona using streptozotocin induced diabetic model in male Wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose level, total cholesterol and trigylceride levels. (8)
Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of various fractions of ethanolic extract of E. colona using invivo guinea pig punch wound model and invitro wound assay an chick chorioallantoic membrane model. Among the fractions, the chloroform showed enhanced wound healing activity in guinea pigs and promoted wound contraction and angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. (9)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia, Gram negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and A. niger. Most significant results were against S. aureus, with inhibition zones of 24 and 23 mm against S. aureus for methanolic and petroleum ether extracts, respectively. The methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant activity by ABTS, FRAP, metal chelating assay, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The ME showed TPC and TFC of 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml. (10)
Enhanced Phytoremediation with PSB / Pb-Contaminated Soil: Study evaluated the phytoremediating ability of E. colona for lead contaminated soil in combination with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as well as promoting growth of E. colona under Pb stress condition. Total 06 PSB (labeled from TB01 to TB06) were isolated. TB04 showed strongest phosphate-solubilizing activity. The TB04 strain was not affected by high Pb2+ concentration. TB04 strains was identified as Pseudomonas putida Trevisan. E. colona inoculated with TB04 strains significantly increased phytoremediation efficiency of Pb from Pb-contaminated soil and growth was enhanced. TB04 has potential as an inoculant in combination with Echinochloa colona for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. (11)


August 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link / ©  WIKTROP -  Weed Indentification and Knowledge in the Tropical and Mediterranean Areas / Non-commericla use / click on image or link to go to source page / WIKTROP
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link / ©  Rice Knowledge Bank / Non-commericla use / click on image or link to go to source page / KnowledgeBank.IRRI
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Echinochloa colonum branch /  Harry Rose / CC Attribution 2.0 Generic / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Echinochloa colonum / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Sorting Echinochloa names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997-2020: The University of Melbourne. Australia.

Echinochloa colona (PROSEA) / C Manidool / Pl@ntUse
Echinochloa colona / Wikipedia
Medicinal Potential of Weed Echinochloa colona (l.) Link: A Review / Singh Sumitra, Parul, Sharma Nidhi /  International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 2018; 10(3): pp 98-102 /
DOI: 10.25258/phyto.10.3.2 / ISSN: 0975-4873

Hepatoprotective studies on methanolic extract of caryopses of Echinochloa colona Link
/  Pallerla Praneetha, Vanapatla Swaroopa Rani, Bobbala Ravi Kumar et al / Pak J Pharm Sci., 2019; 32(5): pp 11949-1956 / PMID: 31813857 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1044-x
Phytotoxic effects of Echinochloa colona (L.) Link. (Poaceae) extracts on the germination and seedling growth of weeds / N H Gomaa, H R Abd Elgawad / SJAR: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2012; 10(2): pp 492-501 / DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2012102-194-11
Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Echinochloa colona plant extract /  V Borkar, G Sonwane, P Devhare, R Diwre, S Jain /  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research /
DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.12(8).4354-64
Evaluation of Wound Healing Potency of Echinochloa colona using In Vivo and In Vitro Methods.
/ Vijay S Borkar, Dr K Senthil Kumaran PhD, Dr K L Senthil Kumar PhD / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, 2015; 6(8) / ISSN: 0975-9492
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth / Ajaib M, KM Khan / Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 35(3): pp 961-966  / ISSN: 0253-5106
Enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Echinochloa colona (L.) Link for Pb-contaminated soil by phosphorus solubilizing bacteria / Quang Trung Do /  Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 2022; 118(3) /
DOI: 10.1720/aas.2022.118.3.2454

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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