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Family Equisetaceae
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.

Scientific names  Common names 
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf, Puted-puted (Ig.)
Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. ramosissimum Putod (Buk.)
Equisetum ramosissimum var. ramosissimum Puputod (Ig.) 
Hippochaete ramosissima (Desf.) Börner Pututud (Ig.)
  Sumbok (Buk.) 
  Branched scouring brush (Engl.) 
Quisumbing's compilation lists Equisetum debile (sumbak) and E. ramosissimum (putod) as separate species. Other compilations list them as specie synonyms.
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. is an accepted name .The Plant List

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Bibitungan, Rumput betung, Tropogan.
SPANISH: Cola de caballo, Equiseto.
THAILAND: Ya nguak, Ya thot bong, Ya hu nuak.
TURKEY: Kilitotu.
VIETNAM: C[or] d[oos]t.

Putod is a perennial herb, with jointed and branched rootstock. Roots are in whorls from the nodes.
Stem is hollow and noding, the length of the internode 2 to 6 centimeters with longitudinal striations at the surface. Leaves are obsolete, reduced to scales around the node. Cones (strobili) are oblong, green-yellow in color depending on maturity, terminal or spirally borne on the tip of the stem.

The species differs from Equisetum debile in that the fertile stems are much branched, and are grooved and rough.

- Widely distributed throughout the Philippines at medium to high altitudes (about 1,000 to 6,000 ft above sea level).
- Usually found along exposed stream embankments on sandy to stony soil.
- Easily overlooked because it blends with grassy landscape. Easily grown in ordinary garden soil.

- GC-MS analysis of aerial parts for chemical composition of essential oil yielded 37 compounds, composed mainly of terpenoids with monoterpenoids comprising 41.7% and sesquiterpenoids 36.4%. α-Bisabool oxide A (12.3%) and cuminaldeyde (9.8%) were identified as major constituents. (see study below) (8)
- Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, unsaturated steroid, deoxysugars, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols. (12)

- Sweet and slightly bitter tasting.
- Cleanses the liver and clears the eyesight.
- Diuretic and astringent.

- Studies have shown antioxidant, diuretic, CNS depressant, anti-melanogenesis properties.

Parts utilized
· Stem.
· Collected year round.
· Rinse, cut into pieces, and dry under the sun.

• In the Benguet Province, locals used a decoction of fresh leaves to treat difficulty in urination and other kidney troubles. Decoction of leaves and roots used to treat "pasma." (12)
• Used for hypertension, reddening and swelling pain in the eye, pterygium of the cornea.
• Used for diarrhea, jaunditic hepatitis, and renal lithiasis.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms of dried material in decoction.
• In China, decoction of whole plant used from wounds and ulcers. Also, used as antitussive and diuretic.
• In India, tribals of Melghat region, the entire plant as cooling medicine for gonorrhea.
• In India, plant paste applied to bone fracture; young cones used to treat kidney problems. (10)
• Used to improve fertility in women. In Africa, rhizome decoction used to facilitate fertilization in barren women.
• In Turkey, decoction used as diuretic and for removing kidney stones. (9)

Antioxidant: Study on scavenger activities of three equisetum species, including E ramosissimum, showed E telmatela to have the most scavenger and antioxidant activity. (1)
Diuretic / Toxicity / CNS Depressive Activity: An ethanol extract administered to Swiss albino mice showed moderate level of toxicity and central nervous depressive properties. The ethanol extract also exhibited an interesting diuretic activity in male Sprague-Dawley rats when administered orally and intraperitoneally. (4)
Protective Against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis: Study compared five extracts for inhibiting effects on three human malignant melanomas: A375.A375.S2 and A2058. The EA fraction discontinued or terminated free radical chain reactions. In human melanoma, EA and DM extracts affected the viabilities of melanoma cells and showed low toxicity in both normal human cells, HaCaT cells and fibroblasts. The EA extract inhibited cellular melanin production. Overall, biofunctional activities of EA extract in food and cosmetics protect against oxidation, melanoma and melanin production. (6)
Biochemical and Hematological Effects in Pregnancy: Study investigated the maternal toxicity of aerial parts of Equisetum ramosissimum on pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily gavage doses of ER extract produced significant differences in biochemical and hematological parameters in pregnant rats.   (7)
Essential Oil / Carvacrol / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts for chemical composition of essential oil yielded 37 compounds. α-Bisabool oxide A (12.3%) and cuminaldeyde (9.8%) were identified as major constituents. The high content of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids as well as the presence of carvacrol was unusual as compared to other Equisetum spp. Carvacrol has reported ovicidal effect on neonate larvae, and suggests further study on the question of toxicological effect of essential oil on reproductive health in animals. (8)
• Flavonoids / Hepatitis Treatment / Invention: Invention relates to Chinese materia medica preparation with total flavonoids of E. ramosissimum Desf. for the treatment of hepatic diseases, for example, viral hepatitis with jaundice. The preparation consists of total flavonoids of E. ramosissimum 0.3-85% of the extract as active ingredient and 15-99.7% of pharmaceutical adjuvants, in various preparations (injection, oral solid or liquid form, cream) where the active ingredient of E. ramosissimum is not less than 50%. Invention is believed to have antiviral efficacy in acute and chronic hepatitis, safe and free from toxicity, curative and convenient. (11)


Updated August 2018 / October 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Equisetum ramosissimum / Hippolyte Coste - Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France, de la Corse et des contrées limitrophes, 1901-1906 / Public Domain / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Equisetum ramosissimum4.JPG / 21 May 2007 / Petr Filippov Bibiloni / Zidenice, Czech Republic / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikimedia Commons / Or click on image to go to source page

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Free radical scavenging activity of three Equisetum species from Fruska gora mountain / Fitoterapia / 2006, vol. 77, no7-8, pp. 601-60

A Review on the Potential Uses of Ferns / M Mannar Mannan, M Maridass and B Victor / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 281-285. 2008.
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Toxicity and diuretic activity of an ethanol extract of Equisetum ramosissimum D. / E. Navarro / La Laguna University, Pharmacology 38071, Spain
Equisteum ramosissimum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Biofunctional Activities of Equisetum ramosissimum Extract: Protective Effects against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis / Pin-Hui Li, Yu-Pin Chiu, Chieh-Chih Shih, Zhi-Hong Wen, Laura Kaodichi Ibeto, Shu-Hung Huang, Chien Chih Chiu, Dik-Lung Ma, Chung-Hang Leung, Yaw-Nan Chang, and Hui-Min David Wang / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2016 (2016) /
ASSESSING EFFECTS OF EQUISETUM RAMOSISSIMUM EXTRACT ON HEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PREGNANT SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS / Hana Dawood Alebous, Arwa Ali Hudeb, Suzanne Ali Sober, Rosianna Gray, Margaret Dean Johnson / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, Vol 13, No 3 (2016)
Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Equisetum ramosissimum / Hana Alebous*, Mohammad Hudaib, Arwa Hudeb, Suzanne Sober, Rosianna Gray and Margaret Dean Johnson / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 13(2): 1-5 (2016)
Ethnomedicinal uses of pteridophytes of Vindhyan Region (M.P.) / Anamika Pathak, Asha Singh and A.P. Singh* / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 2(1): Jan 2011
Chinese medicine preparation containing Hippochaete ramosissimum total flavones and use for preparing medicament for treating hepatitis
/ CN Application: CN101322726A
Phytochemical Screening of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants of Tublay, Benguet Province, Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines / Doctor, T.R. and Manuel, J.F. / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, April 2014; Volume 4, Issue 4
Ethnomedicinal Uses of some Common Bryophytes and Pteridophytes Used by Tribals of Melghat Region (MS), India / R P Shirsat / Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2008; 12: pp 690-92

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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