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Family Moraceae
Rimas
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg

BREADFRUIT
Luo mi shu

Scientific names  Common names
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg Rimas (Tag.) 
Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. Breadfruit (Engl.) 
Artocarpus incisus (Thunb) L.f.  
Artocarpus laevis Hassk.  
Artocarpus rima Blanco  
Sitodium altile Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn  
Dr. Quisumbing's Medicinal Plants of the Philippines' compilation lists Artocarpus camansi as Kamansi and Artocarpus altilis (Artocarpus incisa) as Rimas or Breadfruit. Kamansi differs from rimas in that the fruit is seeded and the male inflorescence is club-shaped and the leaves have more divisions. The folkloric uses are similar.
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Mian bao guo, Mian bao shu, Mian bao guo shu, Luo mi shu.
DANISH: Brødfrugt, Brødfrugttrae.
DUTCH: Broodboom, Broodvrucht.
FRENCH: Brotfrucht, Brotfruchtbaum, Echter brotfruchtbaum.
HINDI: Kathal, Khanun.
ITALIAN: Artocarpo, Albero del pane.
JAPANESE: Pannoki.
MALAY: Kelur, Kulor (Indonesia), Kulur (Indonesia), Sukun (Indonesia, Bali), Timbul (Indonesia, Bali).
PORTUGUESE: Fruta-pão, Pão de mas.
SPANISH: Arbol del pan, Castaña de Malabar, Fruta de pan, Marure, Mazapán, Pana de pepitas, Pan de año, Pan de ñame, Pan de pobre, Pan de todo el año.
SWEDISH: Brödfruktträd.
THAI: Saake (sa ke).

Botany
Rimas is a large tree with milky sap, growing to 15 meters tall. Leaves are alternate, large, coriaceous, ovate to oblong, up to 50 centimeters long, deeply pinnate, and acuminate. Stipules are large and deciduous. Fruit is globose to ellipsoid, up to 12 to 20 centimeters in wide, 12 to 16 centimeters long, the rind green, yellowish-green or pale yellow. seedless, with the surface marked with polygonal faces.

Distribution
- Common plant in and around towns in the Philippines.
- Usually cultivated for its edible fruits.
- Occasionally planted as an ornamental in parks and gardens.

- Occurs from the Malay Peninsula to Malaysia.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves, fruit.

Constituents
- Study has yielded papayotin, enzyme and artocarpin.
- Nutritional composition of 100 g edible portion of seeds yield: (8)
     - Water 47.7% (cooked), 61.9% (fresh)
     - Protein 8.1g (c), 7.9 g (f)
     - Carbohydrate 38.2 g (C), 26.6 (f)
     - Fat 4.9 g (c), 2.5 g (f)
     - Calcium 46.6 mg (c), 48.3 mg (f)
     - Phosphorus 186 mg (c), 189 mg (f)
     - Iron 2.3 mg (c,f)
     - Niacin 2.1 mg (c), 1.8 mg (f)
     - Thiamine 0.33 to 1.3
     - Vitamin C 1.9 to 22.6
- Breadfruit nutritive value per 100 g yielded: (Principle) energy 103 Kcal, carbohydrate 27.12 g, protein 1.07 g, total fat 0.20 g, cholesterol 0, dietary fiber 4.9 g; (Vitamins) folates 14 µg, niacin 0.90 mg, pyridoxine 0.100 mg, riboflavin 0.30 mg, thiamin 0.11 mg, vitamin A 0 IU, vitamin C 29 mg, vitamin E 0.16 mg, vitamin K 0.5 µg; (Electrolytes) sodium 2 mg, potassium 490 mg; (Minerals) calcium 17 mg, copper 0.084 mg, iron 0.54 mg, magnesium 25, manganese 0.060 mg, phosphorus 30 mg, selenium 0.6 µg, zinc 0.12 mg; (Phytonutrients) carotene-ß 0 ug, crypto-xanthin-ß 0 mg, lutein-zeaxanthin 22 µg. (24)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins, phenolics, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones in cold and hot leaf extracts. (10)
- Starch isolated from breadfruit yielded and moisture 10.83%, crude protein 0.53%, fat 0.39%, amylose 22.52%, amylopectin 77.48%, and ash 1.77% contents. (See study below) (15)
- Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded ß-sitosterol (1), unsaturated triglycerides (2), squalene (3), polyprenol (4), lutein (5), and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). (20)
- Twigs yielded terpenoids, saponins, phenolic group, flavonoids, glycoside, steroids and tannins. Screening was negative for alkaloids. (see study below) (21)

Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
- Crop considered a carbohydrate food source.
- Fruit can be fried, boiled, candied or cooked as a vegetable.
- High in starch, it is also high in Vitamin B, with fair amounts of B and C.

- In the Caribbean, prepared boiled, steam or roasted, used with salt-cured meats, coconut milk, and dasheen leaves, in the creation of regional dishes. (8)
- In the Philippines, eaten boiled, sliced with coconut and sugar as a sweet, or as candied breadfruit. (8)
- In West Africa, seeds from ripe fruits and boiled or roasted with salt, sometimes made into a puree.
Folkloric
• Decoction of the bark used as vulnerary (wound healing). In the Visayas, decoction of the bark used in dysentery.
• Used as emollient.
• In the Caribbean, leaves are used to relieve pain and inflammation.
• In Jamaican folk medicine, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• Latex is massaged into skin to treat broken bones and sprains; bandaged on the spine to relieve sciatica. Used to treat skin ailments and thrush. Diluted latex used internally for diarrhea, stomach aches and dysentery. Latex and juice from crushed leaves used for ear infections. Bark used to treat headaches in several Pacific Islands.
(8)
• In the West Indies decoction of yellowing leaf is used to treat hypertension. Tea is also used to control diabetes. (8)
Others
Insect repellent: Male inflorescences are dried and used as mosquito repellent. Latex is mixed with coconut oil for trapping houseflies in Kosrae. (8)
Caulk: Gum used to caulk canoes to make them watertight. and to prepare wooden surfaces for painting. (8)


Studies
Phytochemical: (1) Study concluded that the starch of Artocarpus altilis showed a high degree of purity. Physiochemical and rheological characteristics suggest the starch could be useful in products that require long heating process, with an excellent digestibility that might be advantageous for medical and food use. (2) Study showed percent recoveries of amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate content showed 72.5%, 68.2% and 81.4%. The starch content is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.
Cytoprotective: Study yielded cytoprotective components - ß-sitosterol and six flavonoids with good potential for medicinal applications.

Phenolic Compounds / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated isoprenylated flavonoids - morusin, artonin E, cycloartobiloxanthone and artonol B - that showed high toxicity against Artemia salina. Result of cytotoxicity test showed the presence of an isoprenyl moiety in the C-3 position in the flavone skeleton, an important factor for its activity.
Negative Inotropic Effect: Leaf extract study exerted a weak, negative chronotropic and inotropic effect in vivo in the rat. The mechanism of action of the inotropic agent was not cholinergic and may involve decoupling of excitation and contraction. (6)
Antihypertensive: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for possible antihypertensive mechanisms and effect on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities on Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed negative chronotropic and hypotensive effects through α-adrenoreceptor and Ca+- channel antagonism. Drug adversity are unlikely if the extract if consumed with other medications reliant on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolism.(9)
ACE-Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the effect of A. altilis leaf extracts on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. An ethanol extract showed potent ACE-inhibitory activity, supporting its use in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. (10)
New Prenylated Aurone / Radical Scavenging Activity: Study isolated a new prenylated aurone, artocarpaurone, together with 8 known compounds. Artocarpaurone showed moderate nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, white two prenylated chalcones showed radical moderate scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. (11)
Anti-Cancer / Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells: Study evaluated Sukun wood extract in human T47D breast cancer cells. Results showed the extract decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 phase formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting a potential as an anti-cancer agent. (12)
Antitubercular / Antimalarial / Anticancer: Study of root extracts yielded nine prenylated flavones: Cycloartocarpin, artocarpin, and chaplashin from root stems, and morusin, cudraflavone B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C and artobiloxanthone from the root barks. The isolated compounds exhibited antitubercular and antiplasmodial activities, with moderate cytotoxicity against KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) and BC (human breast cancer) cell lines.
(13)
Toxicity Studies / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the acute toxicity of A. altilis leaf and bark extracts, administering various doses of extracts up to 2000 mg/kbw for 14 days. No mortality or toxic reactions were seen, with no histopathological changes. Results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses. (14)
Functional and Pasting Properties of Breadfruit Starch: Study showed breadfruit starch has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate use in many areas where properties of other starches are acceptable. (15)
Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation: Study showed the functional properties (bulk density, least gelation concentration and peak viscosity) of A. altilis pulp flour can be enhanced through fermentation and hence their incorporation into food systems. (16)
Antihyperglycemic Activity / Leaves, Bark, and Fruits: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potential of leaves, bark, and fruit parts in invivo and invitro testing of glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion retardation index, inhibition of enteric enzymes,
α-amylase, α-glucosidase and sucrase, and effect of samples on glucose uptake using a yeast cell model. Results suggest a hypoglycemic effect possibly through effects on glucose adsorption, inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, and facilitation of glucose diffusion through cell membrane. (18)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of A. altilis leaf extract using a carrageenan-induced paw edema mice model. The extract significantly reduced paw edema. In vitro enzymatic assays showed the AAE has lower IC50 against COX-2 compared to COX-1, suggesting a higher selectivity for COX-2. Also, there was dose-dependent reduction of COX-2 expression in hind paws. (19)
Antioxidant / Twigs: Study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of twigs of Artocarpus altilis. A dichlormethane extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 0.015 mg/ml compared with standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). (see constituents above)
(21)
Antimicrobial / Twigs: Study
evaluated the antimicrobial, MIC, and MBC/MFC activities of A. altilis twigs. Hexane and DCM extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity (14.6±0.2mm) against Bacillus cereus. The least MIC of 250 µg/ml was seen with DCM extract against S. aureus and Candida albicans and C. neoformans. Results showed promising potential against bacterial and fungi. (22)
Anti-Atherogenic / Anti-Hypercholesterolemic: Study
evaluated the methanol extract of A. altilis on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular systems of rats fed with dietary cholesterol. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of organs and lipid parameters, with beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. Results suggest protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. (23)

Availability
- Wildcrafted.

- Tea, dried leaves, and products in the cybermarket.


Last Updated June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Physicochemical properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis) starch from Margarita island, Venezuela
/ ALAN v.54 n.4 Caracas dic. 2004 /
(2)
Bioassay-guided isolation of antiatherosclerotic phytochemicals from Artocarpus altilis / Phytotherapy Research Vol 20 Issue 12, Pages 1052 - 1055
(3)
Investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of leaves of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) / Singh, Paul D et al / West Indian med. j;50(Suppl 5):15, Nov. 2001.
(4)
Some Phenolic Compounds from Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosb./ International Seminar on the Role of Chemistry in Industry and Enviroment, Andalas University, Padang, August, 30-31, 2000
(5)
Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) / Golden KD, Williams OJ./ J Chromatogr Sci. 2001 Jun;39(6):243-50.
(6)
An extract of the leaves of the breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (parkinson) fosberg exerts a negative inotropic effect on rat myocardium / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 7 Issue 2, Pages 190 - 193 / Published Online: 1 Feb 2006

(7)
Sorting Artocarpus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(8)
Breadfruit / Artocarpus altilis / Diane Ragone / Biodiversity International
(9)
Possible mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaves in producing hypotension in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. / Nwokocha CR, Owu DU, McLaren M, Murray J, Delgoda R, Thaxter K, McCalla G, Young L. / Pharm Biol. 2012 Sep;50(9):1096-102. / doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.658113.
(10)
Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Artocarpus altilis leaf. / Siddesha JM, Angaswamy N, Vishwanath BS. / Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1931-40./ doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.497962
(11)
A new prenylated aurone from Artocarpus altilis. / Huong TT, Cuong NX, Tram le H, Quang TT, Duong le V, Nam NH, Dat NT, Huong PT, Diep CN, Kiem PV, Minh CV ./ J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(9):923-8. doi: 10.1080/10286020.2012.702758
(12)
Anti-Cancer Properties of Diethylether Extract of Wood from Sukun (Artocarpus altilis) in Human Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells / Enos Tangke Arung, Britanto Dani Wicaksono, Yohana Ayupriyanti Handoko, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Dina Yulia, and Ferry Sandra* / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, August 2009; 8 (4): 317-324
(13)
Antitubercular and Antiplasmodial Prenylated Flavones from the Roots of Artocarpus altilis / Surat Boonphong, Apiwat Baramee, Prasat Kittakoop , and Pakawan Puangsombat / Chiang Mai Journal of Science, Vol 34, No 3, Sept 2007.
(14)
Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats / Sudha Sairam and Asna Urooj / Journal of Toxicology, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/980404
(15)
Functional and pasting properties of a tropical breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria / *Akanbi T.O., Nazamid, S. and Adebowale, A.A / International Food Research Journal 16: 151-157 (2009)
(16)
Functional properties of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour as affected by fermentation / F. Appiah., I. Oduro and W. O. Ellis / AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA 2011/ doi:10.5251/abjna.2011.2.5.773.779
(17)
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A,Zorn) Fosberg / Synonyms / The Plant List
(18)
ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS – MODE OF ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY: ELUCIDATION BY SUITABLE IN-VITRO AND EX-VIVO TECHNIQUES / Sudha Sairam and Asna Urooj* / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH / IJPSR / (2012): 3.72; (2013): 2.61; (2014): 1.54 ,ICV 2012: 5.50
(19)
Study on the Antiinflammatory Activity of Artocarpus altilis Leaves Extract in Mice / Fakhrudin, N*, Hastuti, S, Andriani, A, Widyarini, S, Nurrochmad, A / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2015; 7(6); 1080-1085
(20)
Chemical constituents of Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus odoratissimus
/ Consolacion Ragasa, Vincent Antonio Santos Ng, Park JH, Chien-Chang Shen / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 5(4):1081-1087 · January 2014
(21)
Investigation of antioxidant activity and phytochemical constituents of Artocarpus altilis
/ Tara Kamal, Ahmad Muzammil, Abdullateff Raji, Muhammad N Omar / Journal of medicinal plant research, 6(26):4354-4357: July 2012 /
(22)
Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Artocarpus altilis on pathogenic microorganisms
/ Tara Kamal, Ahmad Muzammil and Muhammad Nor Omar / Science Series Data Report Vol 4, No. 9;Sep 2012
(23)
Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats / Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye and Olubukola Oyebimpe Akanni / Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, Volume 2014 (2014) / vhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/605425
(24)
Breadfruit nutrition facts / Nutrition-and-You

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