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Family Euphobiaceae
Cleidion javanicum Blume
San tai hua

Scientific names Common names
Acalypha spicigera Klotzsch Agipos (Tag.)
Cleidion javanicum Blume Hantatampsi (C. Bis.)
Lasiostylis salicifolia C.Presl. Kayugkog (Tag.)
Macaranga tamiana K.Schum. Lapo-lapo (Ilk.)
Rottlera urandra Daizell Malagasaba (Tag.)
Tanarius tamianus (K.Schum.) Kuntze Malatuba (Bik.)
Tetraglossa indica Bedd. Saligao (Tag.)
Tragia filiformis Poir. Tayokan (Tag.)
Above scientific names are from The Plant List.
Cleidion javanicum Blume is an accepted name. The Plant List
Quisumbing's compilation lists Saligao with the following scientific names: Acalypha spiciflora Burm.f., Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm.f.) Merr., Cleidion javanicum Blume, Lasiostylis salicifolia C. Presl.
A revision of the Malesian species in the genus Cleidion is presented. Cleidion javanicum is shown to be the correct name for the widespread type species (instead of the name C. spiciflorum). (5)
The Plant List lists Cleidion spiciflorum as a synonym of Acalypha spiciflora Burm.f. (an unresolved name).
Some of the sources for studies below list C. javanicum and C. spiciflorum as synonyms.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Bang bing hua, San tai hua.
THAI: Di mee, Dimi, Kamlai, Kaadaao krachaai, Ma-dee-mee, Maj maduug.
VIETNAMESE: Phân loại khoa học, Mo chim, com gao.

Saligao is a large shrub or tree. Bark Is smooth to slightly fissured. Leaves are alternate or subopposite, oblong, about 12 centimeters long, and 5 centimeters wide. Flowers are solitary or few in a cluster, borne on the axils of the leaves. Fruit is somewhat rounded, about 3 centimeters in diameter.

- In forests at low and medium altitudes in most or all provinces from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India and Ceylon through Malaya to New Guinea.

- Essential oil of leaves yielded 10 constituents accounting for 92.60% of the total oil. Major constituents were ethyl linoleolate (32.12 %), hexadecanoic acid (26.77 %), trans-phytol (24.64 %) and iso- phytol (4.80 %). (See studies below) (4)
- Study of leaves of Cleidion spiciflorum isolated two flavone glycosides, acacetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (tilianin) and diosmetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, a lanostane triterpene, (24S)-24-methyl-5a-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3b-ol, a diterpene, trans-phytol, and a phenylpropanoid glycoside, p-propenylphenol-b-D-glucopyranoside. (8)
- Study of roots of Cleidion spiciflorum yielded a new clerodane diterpene, spiciflorin (1), a known clerodane columbin (2), besides 3, 3' 4-O-trimethyl ellagic acid (3), scopoletin (4), trans-4-propenylphenol glycoside (5), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (6). (9)

- Plant reported to be poisonous.
- Considered abortifacient, analgesic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, stomachic
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Bark, seeds, leaves.


- Decoction of leaves
reported to induce abortion.
- Stems used as analgesic, antipyretic, and diaphoretic.
- Decoction of bark, taken internally, used as stomachic.
- Seeds reported to be effective for constipation
- In the Solomon Islands, bark decoction used to bathe babies afflicted with scabies. Seeds are chewed with betel nut (Areca catechu) to relieve colds. (7)

Study of the leaves isolated two flavone glycosides, acacetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and diosmetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside, plus p-propenylphenol-b-D-glucopyranoside, a linear diterpene, trans-phytol, and a lanostane triterpene, (24S)-24-methyl-5a-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3b-ol. (1)
Clerodane: Study isolated a polyoxygenated clerodane, spiciflorin, and also a glucoside of anol (2), columbin, scopoletin, 3,3',4-O-trimethylellagic acid, acetylaleuritolic acid, common triterpenes and phenols.
Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Anticancer / Leaf Essential Oil: Essential oil from leaves yielded ten constituents accounting for 92.6% of the total oil. The oil showed non-cytotoxic effects against Vero cells. It exhibited anti-cancer activity against three human cancer cell lines (KB-oral cavity cancer, MCF7-Breast Cancer, and NCI-H187-Small Cell Lung Cancer. It showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also exhibited significant antioxidant activity. (see constituents above) (4)
Antioxidant / Anticancer / Leaves and Fruits: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of various extracts of leaves, stems, and fruits of Cleidion javanicum and Bridelia retusa. Methanol leaves extract of C. javanicum leaves showed high antioxidant activity. Hexane extract of fruits from C. javanicum showed significant anticancer activity against NCI-H 187-small cell lung cancer with IC50 of 29.11 µg/ml. All of the extracts of the two medicinal plants were non-cytotoxic to primate cell line (Vero cell). The methanol extract of C. javanicum leaves contained maximum flavonoid. (10)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated March 2021 / July 2018 / April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Cleidion javanicum / © Phongsak Phonsena/ click on image to go to source page / Non-Commercial Ude / Flora Malesiana / National Herbarium
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawings / Cleidion javanicum / © Joanna Porck 2004 / © Jan Van Os 2001 / Click on image to go to source page / Non-commercial use / Flora Malesiana / National Herbarium

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Constituents of Cleidion spiciflorum Leaves / Supotchana Menkham and Rutt Suttisri / The Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 27, Numbers 1-2, January - June 2003, Page 33-39
Clerodanes and other constituents of Cleidion spiciflorum / Waree Naengchomnong, Paulo M Pinho et al / Phytochemistry. 2006 May 19;: 16716368

Cleidion javanicum Blume (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Cleidion javanicum Bl /
Sanseera, D., Niwatananun, W., Liawruangrath, B., Liawruangrath, S., Baramee, A. & Pyne, S. G. / Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 2012; 15 (2): pp 186-194.
Revision of the genus Cleidion (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia / Kulju, Kristo K.M.; Van Welzen, Peter C. / Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, Volume 50, Number 1, April 2005 , pp. 197-219(23)
Cleidion javanicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Cleidion spiciflorum / PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia)
Phytochemical study of Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) Merr. leaves / Supotchana Menkham / Thesis: 2001 / Pharmaceutical Biology/ Chulalongkorn University
Spiciflorin: a novel clerodane from Cleidion spiciflorum (Euphorbiaceae) / A Kijjoa, W Naengchomnong, W Herz / Planta Med 2007; 73 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-987108
Determination of antioxidant and anticancer activities together with total phenol and flavonoid contents of Cleidon javanicum Bl. and Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss / Duangsuree Sanseera, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Stephen G Pyne, Saisunee Liawruangrath / Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 43(3): pp 534-545 / RIS ID 106444

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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