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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Salita
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm.
LEUCAS
Xian ye bai rong cao

Scientific names Common names
Hetrepta lavandulifolia (Sm.) Raf. Karukansoli (Tag.)
Leonorus indicus L. Kaskasumba (Ilk.)
Leucas brownii Briq. Lañga-lañga (Bik.)
Leucas indica (L.) Vatke [Illegitimate] Pansi-pansi (Bik., Tag.)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. Paysi-paysi (Bis.)
Leucas linifolia Spreng. Salita (Tag.)
Leucas malabarica W.Theob. Solasolasihan (Tag.)
Phlomis linifolia Roth. Leucas (Engl.)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Chhoto Halkusha, Gaochia, Donkolos, Droton, Dronpuspi, Pai Sung Sa, Pai Tung Sa (Marma), Sasaneo (Bwam).
CHINESE: Xian ye bai rong cao.
HINDI: Chhota-halkusa, Gopha, Gumi, Gumma.
INDONESIA: Paci-paci.
JAVANESE: Lenglengan, Linkgo-lingkoan, Nlenglenglan, Plengan.
KANNADA: Thumbe.
MALAYALAM: Thumba, Tumpa, Rudraspushpam.
MALAYSIA: Katumbak, Ketumbit.
SUNDANESE: Pachi-pachi.
TAMIL: Kadar kumbam, Sudarpoo tonri.
TELUGU: Tella tummi.

Botany
Salita is an annual, erect, branched herb, 40 to 80 centimeters high, more or less covered with short hairs. Leaves are linear to linear-lanceolate, 5 to 9 centimeters long, 8 to 13 millimeters wide, pointed at both ends and somewhat toothed at the margins. Whorls of many flowers are axillary and terminal. Calyx is about 1 centimeter long, green, very oblique, and sharply toothed. Corolla is white and 1.5 centimeters long; the central lobe of the lower lip is obovate, truncate and 8 millimeters wide.



Distribution
- Very common weed in open, waste places at low and medium altitudes.
- Found from Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Polilo, Mindoro and Mindanao (Surigao).
- Introduced.

- Also occurs in Indian to southern China, the Mascarene Islands, and Malaya.

Constituents
- Chloroform extract yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol.
- An ethanolic extract yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, essential oil, fatty alcohol, saponins, tannins. (4)
- Study yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol, linifoliside, linifoliol, chrysoeriol-6"(OAc)-4-ß-glucoside, lupeol and taraxerone.
- Aerial parts reported to yield a glycoside, linifoliside, an essential oil, and fatty alcohol.
- Study of essential oil of the SPME head space sample yielded main compounds of ß-caryophyllene (20.5%), linalool (19.8%) , 1-octen-3-ol (12%), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.6%) trans-2-hexen-1-ol (3.5%) hexanol (3.3%), 3-octanol (2.5%) and trans-2-octen-3-ol (2.3%). (14)

Properties
- Studies have shown anthelmintic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antitussive, diaphoretic, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, stimulant, stomachic and wound healing properties.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, poultice of fresh leaves applied on wounds, especially those with inflammation.
- Decoction of leaves used as stomachic.
- Crush leaves applied to areas of dermatoses.
- In India, leaves, raw or roasted and eaten with salt, have febrifugal properties.
- In India, plant used to alleviate abdominal discomforts such as stomach ulcerations and used to counteract abdominal and liver diseases. (9)
- In India, leaves are used as expectorant, laxative, stomachic, and tonic; used for piles and sore eyes. Juice of fresh leaves applied for colds and chronic headaches. In Assam, paste of young leaves used to stop nose bleeds. (14)
- Leaves are used for roundworms.
- Decoction or poultice of leaves used for old sores.
- Decoction of leaves used as anthelmintic.
- Decoction or poultice used for ulcers, skin disorders and leprosy.
- Used for rheumatism and snake bites.
- To remove mucus, juice used as eye drops, sniffed up the nostrils, or as gargle.

Studies
Anti-Ulcer:
Study on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats showed the L lavandulifolia extract exhibited ulcer protection activity in a dose-dependent manner. (1)
Anti-Diabetes: Study of methanol extract of Leucas lavandulaefolia on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction of blood glucose. (2)
Hepatoprotective: Study of chloroform extract of aerial parts of L. lavandulifolia on D(+)galactosamine-induced hepatic injury in a rat model showed significant decreases in hepatic enzymes, total cholesterol and total bilirubin. Results suggest a hepatoprotective effect in rats.
Wound Healing: Study showed that L. lavandulifolia extract either in ointment or injection form produced a significant respond in both excision and incision wound models. The wound healing property was attributed to the presence of glycosides or terpenoids in the essential oil of the plant. (4)
Antitussive: Study in mice animal model showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of cough similar to the standard of codeine phosphate. (4)
Antidiarrheal: Study of the ethanolic extract of aerial parts showed reduction of diarrhea through inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and PGE-2-induced enteropooling.
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera on the Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma model. Dose dependent activity was noted with both methanolic and aqueous extracts. L. lavandulifolia methanol extract exhibited better activity than the other extracts, although not better than the reference drug Albendazole. (5)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera using earthworm Pheretima posthuma. A methanolic extract of L. lavandulifolia showed the dose-dependent activity better than the other extracts but not better than the reference drug albendazole. (8)
Analgesic / Hepatoprotective: Study of a methanolic extract of leaves in albino rats showed potent analgesic activity with significant reduction of pain threshold and increase latency period in thermal stimulation. In carbon tetrachloride induced damage, it showed antihepatotoxic activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes with no apparent disruptions of normal hepatic histological structure. (10)
Hypoglycemic / Flowers: Study of a chloroform extract of flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of in blood glucose and HbA1c, with an increase in total hemoglobin.
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study of ethyl acetate extract of aerial arts of L. lavadulalifolia showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in rats. (12)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study of evaluated the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extracts of whole plant of L. indica var lavadulifolia and L. indica var. nagalapuramiana. Results showed both extract to be a potential source of valuable antioxidant products. (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update March 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Leucas lavandulifolia / Leaves and flowers . Photo by Jim Space, U.S. Forest Service / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) / PIER

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA ON MUCOSAL LESION IN RAT / Jeetendra Kumar Gupta et al / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol.3 Issue 2, April-June 2010
(2)
Hypoglycaemic activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Kakali Saha et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 11 Issue 6, Pages 463 - 466
(3)
Leucas lavandulifolia Smith / GlobeInMed
(4)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Leucas lavandulaefolia: A review / I K Makhija, K S Chandrashekar et al / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5: 500-507 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2011.500.507
(5)
Investigation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera / Jeetendra Kr. Gupta*, Krishn Kr. Agrawal, Anju Verma, Kishan Singh / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 5, No 1 (2012)
(6)
LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA Sm. / Vernacular names / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
(7)
Leucas lavandulifolia Smith / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(8)
nvestigation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera
/ Gupta, Jeetendra Kr.; Agrawal, Krishn Kr.; Verma, Anju; Singh, Kishan / Journal of Pharmacy Research; 2012, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p 212
(9)
Medicinal Plants as Anti-Ulcer Agents / T Lakshmi Srinivas, S Mohana Lakshmi, S Neelufar Shama, G Koteswara Reddy, K R Prasanna / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013; 2 (4): 91-97
(10)
Analgesic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) / Friday O. Uhegbu, Ifeanyi Elekwa, Emmanuel I. Akubugwo, Godwin C. Chinyere and Emeka E.J. Iweala /
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 6: 108-115. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2012.108.115
(11)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damage In Rats / K.S. Chandrashekar*, K.S. Prasanna / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) Vol.1 (2), 2010, 101-103
(13)
Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana / Ramalingam Ramani, Sushruthi Sudini, Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli, Ravinder Nath Anisetti / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 2, Issue 3, Supplement, 2012, Pages S1637–S1642
(14)
ANALYSIS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL VOLATILES OF LEUCAS INDICA USING GC-FDD, GC-MS AND OLFACTOMETRY / Rosamma MK / Thesis 2002


 


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