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Family Compositae
Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC.
Da feng ai

Scientific names  Common names
Baccharis balsamifera Stokes Alibum (P. Bis.) 
Baccharis gratissima Blume ex DC. Alimon (P. Bis.)
Baccharis sativa Lour. Alyabon (Pamp.)
Blumea appendiculata DC. Ayoban (Bis.)
Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC. Bukadkad (S. L. Bis.)
Blumea balsamifera var. balsamifera Bukodkud (Bis.)
Blumea grandis DC. Dalapot (C. Bis.)
Blumea zollingeriana (Turcz./Sch. Bip.) C.B.Clarke Gabon (Zamb.)
Conyza appendiculata Blume Gabuen (Bis.)
Conyza balsamifera L. Gintin-gintin (Bis.)
Conyza saxatilis Zoll. ex C.B.Clarke Hamlibon (Bis.)
Pulchea appendiculata (DC.) Zoll. & Mor. Kaliban (Tagb.)
Pulchea balsamifera (L.) Less. Kalibura (Tagb.)
  Kambibon (Bis.)
  Labulan (Sub.)
  Lakad-bulan (Bis., Sul.)
  Lalakdan (Bis.) 
  Lakdanbulan (Bis.)  
  Sambun (Sul.)  
  Sambong (Tag.) 
  Sob-sob (Ilk.)`
  Subusub (Ilk.) 
  Subsob (Ilk.) 
  Sobosob (Ig.)  
  Takamain (Bag.)  
  Blumea camphor (Engl.) 
  Buffalo-ear (Engl.)
  Ngai camphor (Engl.) 
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Poung-ma-theing
CHINESE: Da feng ai, Ai na xiang.
FRENCH: Camphrier
INDIA: Buarthau, Langthrei.
INDONESIAN: Capa, sembung utan
LAO: Phi ma 'sen
MALAY: Chapor
THAI: Naat yai
VIETNAMESE: C[aa]y t[uwf]bi-

Sambong is a half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4 meters high. Stems grow up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptic- to oblong-lanceolate, 7 to 20 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or appendaged. Flowering heads are stalked, yellow and numerous, 6 to 7 millimeters long, and borne on branches of a terminal, spreading or pyramidal leafy panicle. Discoid flowers are of two types: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Involucral bracts are green, narrow and hairy. Anther cells tailed at base. Fruits are achenes, dry, 1-seeded, 10-ribbed, hairy at top.

- Common in open fields, grasslands and waste areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Flowering from February to April.
- Propagation by cuttings and layering.

- Also occurs in China, Hainan, Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Volatile oil, 0.1 - 0.4% - l-borneol, 25%, l-camphor, 75%, limonene, saponins, sesquiterpene and limonene, tannins, sesquiterpene alcohol; palmitin; myristic acid.
- Yields flavonoids, terpenes (borneol, limonene, camphor, α-pinene,ß-pinene, 3-carene, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenes, and cryptomeridiol), lactones (blumealactone A, B, C).
- Fractionation of ethylacetate extract of leaves isolated nine flavonoids.
- Main essential oil components are 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), β-caryophyllene (10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%).
- Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters and nine known flavonoids. (see study below) (2)
- Studies have isolated more than 100 volatile or non-volatile constituents, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, flavonoids, organic acids, esters, alcohols, dihydroflavone, and sterols. (23)
- Study of volatile oil of B. balsamifera yielded 42 kinds of compounds. The volatile oil contains mainly sesquiterpenoids. (see study below) (24)
- Study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram. (30)
- Study has yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins with the absence of terpenoids and phlobotanins. (32)
- Study of aerial parts yielded twelve compounds identified as 3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (1), 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (2), chrysoeriol(3),3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (4), diosmetin (5), 3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (6), 3,5-dihydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone (7), chrysosplenol C (8), 3,3',5-trihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavanone (9), blumeatin (10), 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (11), and 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (12). (35)
- Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids. (see study below) (40)
- Study of leaves yielded five new guaiane sesquiterpenes, blumeaenes E1, E2, K, L and M and one new eudesmane sesquiterpene, samboginone (6), along with three known compounds, cryptomeridiol, 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone, and austroinulin. (42)
- Twenty-seven compounds were identified from 29 peaks of total flavonoids, including twenty-one flavonoid analogs, five CQA derivatives and one coumarin. (see study below) (46)
- Quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids on addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction showed average recoveries of pure flavonoids: dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE) 100.6%, blumeatin (BL) 100%, quercetin (QN) 97.4%, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE) 99.9%, and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME) 99.8%. (47)
- Phytochemical studies of the plant revealed four classes of flavonoids viz. flavonols, flavones, flavanones and dihydroflavonol derivatives. (see study below) (52)
- Leaves yield fatty acids including (11Z)-11-hexadecanoic acid, trans-2-undercenoic acid, 9-hexa-decenoic acid, capric acid, and palmitic acid. (53)
- Essential oil of leaves yield terpenoids: 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), ß-caryophyllene (10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%). (53)

- Considered anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue, expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary.

Parts utilized
- Leaves (fresh or dried) and young roots before flowering.
- Mature, healthy, fully expanded leaves are harvested while senescent leaves are discarded. Air-dry until they crumble when crushed with the fingers. Store in amber colored bottles in a cool, dry place.

- Leaves used a flavoring ingredient.
- Leaves as poultice for abscesses.
- Decoction of roots and leaves for fevers, kidney stones, and cystitis.
- Decoction of leaves used to induced diuresis for purpose of treating kidney stones.
- Sitz-bath of boiled leaves, 500 gms to a gallon of water, for rheumatic pains of waist and back.
- Used in upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis, influenza.
- Applied while hot over the sinuses. Used for wounds and cuts.
Fresh juice of leaves to wounds and cuts.
- Poultice of leaves applied to the forehead for relief of headaches.
- In Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, the Subanens use leaf infusion for the treatment of cough. (51)
- Tea is used for colds and as an expectorant; likewise, has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal benefits.
Postpartum baths.
- Tea leaves use as emmenagogue, for treatment of menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea. As such, folklore advise against use during pregnancy or for women who want to get pregnant.
- In Vietnam, decoction of fresh leaves used for cough and influenza or as inhalation of vapour from boiling of leaves. Poultices of pounded leaves applied to hemorrhoids; an alcoholic maceration used as liniment for rheumatism.
- 3% ethanol solution used to soothe itching.
- Leaves used for the treatment of urolithiasis.
- In Thailand, dried leaves are chopped, made into cigarettes and smoked for treating sinusitis.
- For fever, leaves boiled and when lukewarm used as sponge bath.
- Decoction of roots used for fever.
- Decoction of leaves, 50 gms to a pint of boiling water, 4 glasses daily, for stomach pains.
- In SE Asia widely used for various women problems. Postpartum, leaves are used in hot fomentation over the uterus to induce rapid involution. Also used for menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding and leucorrhea.
- Roots used for menorrhagia.
- Decoction of roots and leaves used for rheumatism and arthritis; also used for treatment of postpartum joint pains.
- Poultice of fresh leaves applied to affected joint.
- In Chinese and Thai medicine, leaves used for treatment of septic wounds and other infections.
- A sitz-bath of boiled leaves used in the treatment of lumbago and sciatica.
- In Chinese medicine, used as carminative, stimulant, vermifuge, expectorant, and sudorific.
- In Mizoram, India, decoction or infusion of leaves and bark taken orally as expectorant. (32)
- Dayak people in Central Kalimantan use the plant for antifertility effect. (39)
- In Malaysia, the Temuan tribe of Ayer Hitam use leaf decoction for cough, distended stomach, high blood pressure, and insomnia. Lotion applied to the whole body after childbirth; applied to the head for headache. (52)
- in northeast India, the Maring tribe of Manipur drink a paste of crushed leaves mixed in water for burning sensation of the stomach. Chewing leaves followed with water used for the same purpose. (53)
- Pesticide: Roots and leaves used as natural pesticides against storage pests and leaf hoppers in rice.
- Repellent: Used by Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga as repellent against hematophagous insects. Dry or fresh leaves and stems are burned or hung inside the house. (41)

New applications
As a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones.
- As a diuretic in hypertension and fluid retention. Also used for dissolution of kidney stones. Some clinical studies, including double blind/placebo randomized studies, have shown encouraging results for Sambong to be both safe and effective in the treatment of kidney stones and hypertension. The National Kidney and Transplant Institute has promoted the use of this herbal medicine for many renal patients to avert or delay the need for dialysis or organ transplantation.
- Being promoted by the Department of Health (DOH) as a diuretic and for dissolution of renal stones. One of a few herbs recently registered with the Bureau of Foods and Drugs as medicines.
Other benefits
- Possible benefits in use patients with elevated cholesterol and as an analgesic for postoperative dental pain.

Fever: decoction of roots; boil 2 - 4 handfuls of the leaves. Use the lukewarm decoction as a sponge bath.
Headaches: apply pounded leaves on the forehead and temples. Hold in place with a clean piece of cloth.
Gas distention: boil 2 tsp of the chopped leaves in 1 cup of water for 5 minutes. Drink the decoction while warm. Also used for upset stomach.
Postpartum, for mothers' bath after childbirth.
Boils: Apply pounded leaves as poultice daily.
Diuretic: Boil 2 tbsp chopped leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes. Take 1/2 of the decoction after every meal, 3 times a day.

Camphor cultivation
• Can be cultivated as a source of camphor. Experiments in China produced 50,000 kilos of leaves per hectare, with a possible borneol yield of 50-200 kilos per hectare. L-borneol is easily oxidized to camphor. source

Sesquiterpenoids and Plasmin-Inhibitory Flavonoids:
Study yielded two new sesquiterpenoid esters 1 and 2. Compound 2 showed to be weakly cytotoxic against Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells. Nine known flavonoids were also isolated, two of which showed plasmin-inhibitory activity. (2)
Anticancer / Hepatoma: Study of methanolic extract of Blumea balsamifera induced growth inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular cells without cytoxicity in rat hepatocytes used as cell model. suggest a possible therapeutic potential in hepatoma cancer patients and the depletion of cellular APRIL (proliferation related ligand) may be an important mechanism in the growth inhibitory effect of the extract. (1)
Anticancer / Growth Inhibitory Effect / Hepatoma: Study of B balsamifera extract induced growth-inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells without cytotoxicity. Findings suggest a possible therapeutic role for the B balsamifera methanol extract in treatment of hepatoma cancer patients. (6)
Chemolytic Effect / Urolithiasis / Calcium Stones: In vitro study shows sambong to be a promising chemolytic agent for calcium stones. Results showed statistically significant stone dissolution of a 1 cm stone sample. A 40 mg/day dose showed maximum therapeutic effects. (3)
Antispasmodic / Cryptomeridiol: Study isolated cryptomeridiol from the dried leaves. Results showed antispasmodic activity from various plant parts.
Antifungal / Antibacterial: Phytochemical study of leaves yielded icthyothereol acetate, cyptomeridiol, lutein and ß-carotene. Antimicrobial tests showed activity against A niger, T mentagrophytes and C albicans. Results also showed activity against P aeruginosa, S aureus, B subtilis and E coli. (7)
Dihydroflavonol / Abrogation of TRAIL Resistance in Leukemia Cells: Study shows combined treatment with a dihydroflavonol extracted from Blumea balsamifera exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and suggests a new strategy for cancer therapy. (8)
Antibacterial: Study of 12 crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts from 5 medicinal plants, including B balsamifera, showed potential antibacterial effect against S aureus.
Radical Scavenging: Study of Blumea balsamifera extracts and flavonoids showed the methanol extract exhibiting higher radical scavenging activity than the chloroform extract.

Leaf Volatile Oil Components: Analysis of leaf essential oil revealed 50 components contributing to 99.07 % of the oil: borneol (33.22%), caryophyllene (8.24%), ledol (7.12%), tetracyclo[6,3,2,0,(2.5).0(1,8) tridecan-9-ol, 4,4-dimethyl (5.18%), with phytol(4.63%), caryophyllene oxide(4.07%), guaiol (3.44%), thujopsene-13 (4.42%), dimethoxydurene (3.59%) and γ-eudesmol (3.18%). (11)
Antiplasmodial Activity: Study of roots and stem showed significant antiplasmodial activity.
Hepatoprotective Activity: Study isolated blumeatin (Blu, 5,3,5'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-dihydro-flavone and showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide. It also shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time in CCl4-intoxicated mice.
Antimicrobial Activity / Essential Oil: In a study of various extracts and essential oil for antibacterial and antifungal activities, results showed the essential oil to be most potent. The oil showed significant activity against B. cereus, S. aureus and C. albicans; a hexane extract, against E. cloacae and S aureus. Results showed B. balsamifera extracts have activity against various infections and toxin-producing microorganisms. (13)
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity / Aerial Parts / Leaves: Study of aerial parts yielded a new dihydroflavonol, (2R,3S)-(−)-4′-O-methyldihydroquercetin, together with seven known compounds. Most of the compounds showed significant concentration-dependent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 8 showed more potent inhibitory activity than control allopurinol. (14)
Urinary Stone Dissolution: Sambong used in-vitro showed dissolution of urinary stones, with a faster activity on uric acid stones. No significant effect was noted with struvite and calcium stones. (15)
Anti-Tyrosinase / Anti-Cancer Activities: An ethylacetate extract of leaves yielded nine flavonoids. The anti-tyrosinase activity of dihydroflavonols (1,2) and flavonols (5,6,7) were stronger than arbutin. In cytotoxicity evaluation, compounds 2,4 and 9 were active against KB cells. Compound 9 showed strong cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines and moderate toxicity against oral cavity (KB) cancer cell lines. (18)
Fumigant Compounds / Essential Oil: Essential oil was found to have fumigant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Essential oil components 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults, more toxic than camphor. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults. (19) - Essential oil of leaves yield terpenoidsL 1,8-cineole (20.98%), borneol (11.99%), ß-caryophyllene (10.38%), camphor (8.06%), 4-terpineol (6.49%), α-terpineol (5.91%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%). These compounds are largely used as fumigants or volatile agents to kill insect pests, nematodies, and other pests. (53)
Apigenin / Aldose Reductase (AR) Inhibitory Agent: Study evaluated fractions of Blumea balsamifera for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase activity in rat lenses. Apigenin, identified from the active EtOAc fraction, exhibited high AR inhibitory activity. Results suggest a useful natural source for a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications. (
Insect-Repellent Potential: Study evaluated 54 species of plants from 49 genera and 26 families for insect-repellent activity. Blumea balsamifera (UV=0.09) was one of 7 species with insect repellency based on their UVs (useful value). The leaves and stems, dried and burned, is said to drive insects away. (
Hepatoprotective / Blumeatin: Study showed oral blumeatin (5,3',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxydihydro-flavone)
exhibited significant protective activity against liver injury cause by paracetamol and prednisolone. (Xu, S.B.; Hu, Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Yang, Z.B. Study on protection of blumeatin against experimental liver injury and aggregation of platelet. Suppl. J. Sun Yatsen Univer. 1994, 48–53) (23)
Volatile Oil / Biologic Activities: Study of volatile oil from dried leaf powder yielded 42 kinds of compounds. Screening for biologic activity showed relatively strong antitumor activity and anti-plant pathogenic fungi and some antioxidation activity. (24)
External Application of Volatile Oil / Safety Study: Study of volatile oil yielded 41 components. Damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver was assessed. Results confirm the safety of short term BB oil consumption, although high oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and the response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. (25)
Anti-Arthritic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the effect of an ethyl acetate fraction of BB residue on rats with adjuvant arthritis immunized through Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Results showed high dose BBE could significantly ameliorate joint swelling and arthritis index, effectively inhibit synovial hyperplasia, down-regulate the levels of MDA, NO, OH, ALP, AST, ALT, NAG, SA, IL-1, IL-6, TNF and up-regulate serum levels of SOD and GSH. (26)
F- Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidative: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and in vivo antioxidant property of hydro-ethanolic extract of leaves of B. balsamifera in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose. There was also significant alteration in elevated lipid profile along with serum marker enzymes. Antioxidant potential was evidenced by significant increase in GSH and CAT measurements. (27)
• Wound Healing / Volatile Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the effectiveness of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera leaves on wound healing in mice. Results showed promotion of capillary regeneration, blood circulation, collagen deposition, granular tissue formation, epithelial deposition and wound contraction. Wound healing mechanism may be related to the induction of SP (neuropeptide substance P) secretion and the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. (28)
• Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization: Study showed B. balsamifera extract increased the crystallization rate of calcium. The increased crystallization rate would favor the formation of smaller crystals that are easily eliminated from the urinary system. (29) Study evaluated the effect of BB extract on morphology of calcium oxalate crystals. Results showed decreased crystal size, shifted crystal phase from COM to COD and prevention of aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals. (43)
• Quercetin / Leaves: Quantitation study of powdered dried leaves for quercetin collected from three different places (Cotobato, Nueva Ecija, and Leyte) in the Philippines yielded 0.2337 mg, 0.1350 mg, and 0.2940 mg per gram. The variations may be due to various factors such as cultivation conditions (soil, temperature, moisture and agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and pesticides). (30) Study measured the amount of quercetin in DCM fraction of ethanolic extract of B. balsamifera powdered leaves macerated with 95% ethanol and subjected to liquid-liquid partitioning. All fractions that tested positive for DPPH test were pooled. Final quercetin concentration in the pooled fractions of HPLC was 2.022 mg/ml and 2.25 mg/ml in TLC-bioactography method. (44)
• Sambong Tea as Therapeutic Drink / Calcium Oxalate Stones: Sambong tea is believed to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. Study evaluated the effect of Blumea balsamifera tea in the nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals. Results showed decrease in induction time associated with increase nucleation rate with the formation of large number of smaller stones that are easier to eliminate by urination. (31)
• ACE Inhibition Activity of Dried Sambong Tea: ACE inhibition has been proven to be an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Study evaluated the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity of sambong tea in a rabbit lung ACE-induced hydrolysis of FAPGG. Results showed sambong tea possess inhibitory activity on rabbit lung ACE. Activity was attributed to flavonoids and terpenoids. (34)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of B. balsamifera leaf decoction on wound healing in an experimental deep-wound mice model. Results showed wound healing ability. Betadine was used as positive control. The effect of sambong leaf decoction and betadine in the number of days, redness and swelling in mice was statistically insignificant. (36)
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition / Leaves: Xanthine oxidase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to form uric acid. Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed total flavonoid content of 72.7 mg/g dw, promising inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity with IC50 of 27.6 µg/mL, with a significant decrease in serum urate and reduced xanthine oxidase in the liver. (37)
• Extraction of (-)-Borneol, Camphor, and Isoborneol / Leaves: Study reports on an ultrasonic and microwave assisted GC-FID extraction of three target compounds (-) -borneol, camphor and isoborneol in leaves samples from 14 different harvest periods. Results showed (-)-borneol content was higher from mid-October to January. Study suggests a potential tool for quality assessment of leaves. (38)
• Antifertility Effect: Study evaluated extracts of B. balsamifera, C. tiglium, M. sagu, and F. racemosa for antifertility effects on Swiss Webster mice at dose of 0.26 mg/kbw for 8 days and mated with male SW mice. Results showed inhibition in estrous cycle, especially estrus and metestrus phases. Decrease in corpus luteum and fetuses suggests inhibition of folliculogenesis. Of the four extracts tested, B. balsamifera showed more potential antifertility activity. (39)
• Blumeaenes / Inhibitory Effect Against LPS-Induced NO Production: Study of ethanol extract of aerial parts isolated ten new sesquiterpenoid esters, blumeaenes A-J. with 13 known flavonoids. All sesquiterpenoid esters were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed slight inhibitory effect on NO production with IC50 values of 40.06, 46.35, and 57.80 µg/mL, respectively. (40)
• Anti-Candidal: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plants using 21 solvents extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol). Results showed the B. balsamifera, V. arborea and S. jamaicensis were the most active species to exhibit anticandidal activity with potential to be developed as natural anticandidal agents. (45)
• Effect of Total Flavonoids on Skin Wounds: Study evaluated the effects of total flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera on skin excisional wound on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats. Study postulates all the ingredients in the total flavonoid sample may exert a synergetic effect on wound curing and that the flavonoids were the main active constituents that contributed to the excisional wound healing. Mechanisms of wound healing were attributed to wound contraction, capillary regeneration, collagen depostion, and re-epithelialization. (see constituents above) (46)
• Gastroprotective / Herbal Combination: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of Sembung leaf (B. balsamifera), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Results showed marked protective effects as evidenced by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers, along with a smaller number of eosinophils and mast cells. (48)
• Wet Wipe Containing Blumea balsamifera Oil: Study/Invention reports of a utility model relating to a wet wipe containing B. balsamifera oil, comprised of two moisturizing layers and two medicinal layers. The wet wipe has the effects of resisting bacteria, relieving inflammation, stopping itching, accelerating wound healing, among others. The model has a simple preparation process, conveniences of use, with no report of skin damage with long-term use. (49)
• Effect of Climate Change: Study reports on the potential impact of climatic change on medicinal plants used in northern Thailand. Blumea balsamifera was one of eight plant species with forecasted future climatic change. It is also one of seven species listed as high extinction risk (critically endangered) due to the over 80% predicted loss of their suitable areas under AAA1B and A2 scenarios by 2080. (50)
• Accelerated Healing of Burn Injuries / Leaf Oil: Study evaluated the healing efficacy of leaf oil in deep second-degree burn model in rats. Results showed significantly reduced water content of tissue, scabs dropped time shortened, and healing accelerated after treatment with the oil. There was significantly increased expressions of growth factors and decreased levels of inflammatory factors on plasma. (51)
• Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory / Radical Scavenging / Flavonoids / Leaves: Study evaluated the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of various extracts and flavonoids from leaves. The methanol extract showed high XO inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9.111 mg/mL. IC50 values for scavenging of superoxide radicals decreased in the order of methanol > chloroform > pet ether. XO inhibitory activity of isolated flavonoids and reference compounds tested decreased in the order of allopurinol > luteolin > quercetin > tamarixetin 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone > rhamnetin > luteolin-7-methyl ether > blumeatin > dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether > dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether ?> L-ascorbic acid. Results suggested the flavone derivatives were more active than the flavonol derivatives. The higher flavonoid content of the extracts contributed to their higher XO inhibitory activity. (52)
• Anti-Obesity / Effect on Preadipocytes and Adipocytes: Study evaluated the anti-obesity effect of B. balsamifera extract on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes. Results showed suppression of lipid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity without affecting cell viability in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes. There was also significant attenuation of expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor (PPAR)y, CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBPs) and leptin. Results suggest BB may block adipogenesis, at least in part, by decreasing key adipogenic transcription factors in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and may have antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects through upregulation of adiponectin in 3T3--L1 adipocytes. (54)
• Prevention of UV-B Radiation Induced Skin Photoaging / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the anti-photoaging effects of Blumea balsamifera essential oils (BBEOs) and Magnolia sieboldii essential oils (MSEOs) . GC-MS analysis yielded 35 and 33 components from the EOs. Blumea balsamifera showed dominant constituents of caryophyllene (18.54%) and borneol (18.33%). The application of the EOs to mice could effectively inhibit skin photoaging by down-regulating the expression of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Both EOs showed potential as additives in cosmetics for anti-photoaging. (55)
• Potential Anti-Neuroinflammatory for AD / Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Constituents: Study in search for new nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory substances as anti-neuroinflammatory agents for AD isolated one new labdane diterpenoid and three new guaiane sesquiterpenoids, along with ten known compounds. All the compounds exhibited NO inhibitory effects. Molecular docking revealed interactions of the isolates with the iNOS protein, (56)
• Safety and Efficacy in Treatment of Urinary Tract Stones / A Review: Review evaluated the safety and efficacy of B. balsamifera for the treatment of urinary tract stones using online databases and unpublished clinical trials. Four of 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Patients who took sambong were 38.04 times more likely to pass stones compared to those who used placebo )p=0.0004). Patients taking sambong were 7.48 times more likely to have reduction or disappearance of signs and symptoms compared to placebo group (p=0.008). Review suggests sambong treatment is effective in treating patients with urolithiasis as evidenced by radiographic evidence, decrease in size and/or number of stones, passage of stone/s and/or disappearance or reduction of signs and symptoms with no serious adverse events. (57)

- Wild-crafted.
- Tablets and extracts in the cybermarket.
- Sambong tablet/capsules formulation for kidney stones.

Updated August 2021 / February 2018 / August 2017 / February 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Blumea balsamifera Blanco2.403.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Modifications by Carol Spears / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anticancer activities and mechanisms of Blumea balsamifera extract in hepatocellular carcinoma cells / Norikuraa T, Kojima-Yuasa A, Shimizu M, Huang X, Xu S, Kametani S, Rho SN, Kennedy DO, Matsui-Yuasa I / Am J Chin Med. 2008; 36(2): pp 411-424. /
DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X08005862
Sesquiterpenoids and Plasmin-Inhibitory Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera / OSAKI Naoto; KOYANO Takashi; KOWITHAYAKORN Thaworn; HAYASHI Masahiko; KOMIYAMA Kanki; ISHIBASHI Masami / Journal of natural products / 2005, 68(3): pp 447-449
Fernando Rico, M.D. / Philippine Journal of Urology, Jan-June 1992
Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Popularly Used in Taiwan / International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering . 2005; 3(3): pp 195-202 /
/ Chest of Books
Mechanism of Growth Inhibitory Effect of Blumea balsamifera Extract in Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Toshio Norikura et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry • Vol. 72 (2008) , No. 5 pp.1183-1189 /
Antifungal metabolites from Blumea balsamifera / Consolacion Ragasa et al / Natural Product Research, Volume 19, Issue 3 April 2005 , pages 231 - 237 / DOI: 10.1080/14786410410001709773
Dihydroflavonol BB-1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells / Hiroo Hasegawa et al / BLOOD, 15 JANUARY 2006  VOLUME 107, NUMBER 2
/ Metta Ongsakul et al / J Health Res 2009, 23(3): pp 153-156
Superoxide Radical Scavenging Properties of Extracts and Flavonoids Isolated from the Leaves of Blumea balsamifera / N Fazilatun et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 2005, Vol. 43, No. 1, Pages 15-20

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS IN VOLATILE OIL FROM BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC / Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan et al / Bangladesh J. Bot. 38(1): 107-109, 2009 (June)
Blumea balsamifera / GLOBinMED
Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil
/ Sakee U, Maneerat S, Cushnie TP, De-Eknamkul W. / Nat Prod Res. 2011 Nov;25(19):1849-56. Epub 2011 Jul 11.
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors from Vietnamese Blumea balsamifera L. / Mai Thanh Thi Nguyen*, Nhan Trung Nguyen / Phytotherapy Research / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3710
The use of Blumea balsamifera (Sambong) in the dissolution of urinary stone: An in-vitro study / Sunga, Paul Anthony L / Philippine Journal of Urology, 16(1), pp 6-10
Blumea balsamifera / Catalogue of Life, China .
Blumea balsamifera / AgroForestryTree Database
Anti-tyrosinase and anti-cancer activities of flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera DC / N. Saewan, S. Koysomboon and K. Chantrapromma / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(6), pp. 1018-1025, 18 March, 2011
Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) / Sha Sha Chu,1 Shu Shan Du,2 and Zhi Long Liu / Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 289874, 7 pages / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/289874
Analysis of apigenin in Blumea balsamifera Linn DC. and its inhibitory activity against aldose reductase in rat lens / Dong Gu Lee, So-Youn Mok, Changsun Choi, Eun Ju Cho, Hyun Young Kim, Sanghyun Lee* / Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Vol.1, No.1, 28-33, 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2012.11005
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Blumea balsamifera—A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review / Yuxin Pang*, Dan Wang, Zuowang Fan, Xiaolu Chen, Fulai Yu, Xuan Hu, Kai Wang and Lei Yuan / Molecules 2014, 19, 9453-9477 / doi:10.3390/molecules19079453
Phytochemical compositions of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera and their biological activities / Zhi-long Jiang, Yan Zhou, Wei-chen Ge, Ke Yuan / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2014, Vol 10, Issue 39, pp 346-352
External application of the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera may be safe for liver--a study on its chemical composition and hepatotoxicity. / Pang YX, Fan ZW, Wang D, Yabg Q, Wang K, Chen XL, Hu X, Yu FL, Chen ZX / Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 2014; 19(11): pp 18479-18492 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118479
Anti-arthritic and anti-oxidative effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Blumea balsamlfera residues in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. / Yan Xia, Jian Zuo, Xiang Li, Jian-Wei Chen / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Oct ;39(19):3819-23
In vivo Assessment of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Blumea balsamifera in Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats / Kalyan Roy, Shubhankar Saha, Subhasis Biswas, Wasif Ahmed and G. Mariappan / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 2013, Vol 7, Issue 1, Pp 48-57 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2013.48.57
Effect of volatile oil from Blumea Balsamifera (L.) DC. leaves on wound healing in mice / Yuxin Pang, Dan Wang, Xuan Hu, Hui Wang, Wanjin Fu, Zuowang Fan, Xiaolu Chen, Fulai Yu / Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 15 Dec 2014; Volume 34, Issue 6: pp 716-724 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6272(15)30087-X
Effect of Blumea Balsamifera Extract in the Kinetics of Calcium Oxalate Crystallisation / Charlimagne M. Montealegre*, Allieson C. Ilao, Raphael Victor T. Mendoza, Ray Paulo M. Carpio, Rizalinda L. de Leon / CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 56, 2017 / DOI: 10.3303/CET1756273
RP-HPLC Analysis of Quercetin in the Extract of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera (L) DC) Leaves / Joanna V Toralba, Noel S Quiming, Jocelyn S B Palacpac / SCIENCE DILIMAN (JANUARY-JUNE) 27:1, 48-63
Blumea Balsamifera (Sambong) Tea as a Therapeutic Drink for Calcium Oxalate Stones / Charlimagne M. Montealegre, Rizalinda L. De Leon / MATEC Web of Conferences 62, 02002 (2016) / DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20166202002
Ethnomedicinal Use and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants of Mizoram, India
/ Lalrinzuali K Vabeiryureilai M and Ganesh Chandra J / Trends in Green Chemistry
Sambong for Menstruation / Health Watch
ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) Inhibition Activity of Oven–Dried and Air–Dried Sambong Blumea balsamifera L.(dc.) Tea / See, Gerard Lee Lo*, Arce, Florencio Villester Jr., Deliman, Yolanda Chua / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2016; 8(7); 1132-1136
Study on Flavonoids Constituents of Blumea balsamifera / YAN Qi-xin,TAN Dao-peng, KANG Hui, FENG Han-lin, ZENG Wei-zhen / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae,  2012-05
INHIBITOR XANTHINE OXIDASE OF EXTRACT BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA L.(DC) LEAVES (ASTERACEAE) / Le Nguyen Tu Linh, Bui Dinh Thach, Tran Thi Linh Giang, Vũ Quang Dao, Trịnh Thi Ben, Nguyen Pham Ai Uyen, Diep Trung Cang, Nguyen Thanh Hu2, Ngo Ke Suong / European Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2017
Determination of (-)-Borneol, Camphor and Isoborneol in Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. Leaves by Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Microwave Assisted Extraction and Gas Chromatography / Y. WANG, A. WANG, H. TIAN, H. WANG,* and C. ZOU / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 26, No. 4 (2014), 997-1001
Anti-fertility Effect of Various Plants at Dayak Tribe to Swiss Webster Mice / Agus Haryono*, Yohanes Edy Gunawan, Suatma, Surisman Sumitro, Mohammad Rahmadur / THE JOURNAL OF TROPICAL LIFE SCIENCE, Vol 3, No 2, pp. 108–112, May 2013
Blumeaenes A–J, Sesquiterpenoid Esters from Blumea balsamiferawith NO Inhibitory Activity / Ming  Chen, Jiang-Jiang Qin, Jian-Jun Fu, Xiao-Jia Hu, Xiao-Hua Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Hui-Zi Jin / Planta Med 2010; 76(9): 897-902 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1240800
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, Vol 7, No 1 (2014)
Sesquiterpenes from Blumea balsamifera / Osamu Shirota, Jennifer M Oribello, Setsuko Sekita, and Motoyoshi Satake / J. Nat. Prod., 2011, 74 (3), pp 470–476 / DOI10.1021/np100646n
Effect of Blumea balsamifera extract on the phase and morphology of calcium oxalate crystals / Charlimagne M. Montealegre, Rizalinda L. De Leon / Asian Journal of Urology, 2017, 4(4): pp 201-207. / DOI: 10.1016/j.ajur.2016.08.009
Quantitative analysis of quercetin present in ethanolic leaf extract of Blumea balsamifera L. DC using TLC-bioautography and HPLC-PDA / Tolosa E, Go Jon, Kamantigue E, Versoza D and Toralba J / 10th Asia-Pacific Pharma Congress, May 8-10, 2017 Singapore / DOI: 10.4172/2376-0419-C1-020
Anticandidal Activity of Several Plants Used by Bentian Tribe in East Kalimantan, Indonesia / Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Nur Maulida Sari, Murdiyanto and Harlinda Kuspradini / AIP Conference Proceedings 1755, 040002 (2016) / https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4958477
Effects and Mechanisms of Total Flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. on Skin Wound in Rats. / Yuxin Pang, Yan Zhang, Luqi Huang, Luofeng Xu, Kai Wang, Dan Wang, Lingliang Guan, Yingbo Zhang, Fulai Yu, Zhenxia Chen, and Xiaoli Xie / Int J Mol Sci., Dec 2017; 18(12) / doi:  10.3390/ijms18122766
RP-HPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Naturally Occurring Flavonoids in Leaves of Blumea balsamifera DC / Fazilatun Nessa, Zhari Ismail, Sundram Karupiah, and Nornisah Mohamed* / Journal of Chromatographic Science, Vol 43, September 2005
Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats / Agung Endro Nugroho MSc Phd, Agustin Wijayanti MSc, Mytmainah Mutmainah MSc, Rina Susilowati MD Phd, Nuning Rahmawti MSc / Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587216637469
Wet wipe containing Blumea balsamifera oil  / CN203576962U / CN Grant
Potential impact of climatic change on medicinal plants used in the Karen women’s health care in northern Thailand / Kornkanok Tangjitman, Chusie Trisonthi, Chalobol Wongsawad*, Sarun Jitaree, and Jens-Christian Svenning / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 37 (3), 369-379, May-Jun. 2015
Medicinal Plants of the Subanens in Dumingag, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines / Lady James G. Morilla, Nanette Hope N Sumaya, Henry I Rivero, and Ma. Reina Suzette B Madamba / Int. Conf on Food, Biological and Medical Sciences 2014, Bangkok, Thailand / http://dx.do1.org/10.15242/IICBE.C0114577
The Use of Medicinal Plant Species by the Temuan Tribe of Ayer Hitam Forest, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia / I. FARIDAH HANUM and NURULHUDA HAMZAH / Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sc. 22(2): pp 85-94 (1999)
Indigenous Medicinal Plants Used by the Maring Tribe of Manipur, Northeast India
/ Cheithou Charles Yuhlung, Mini Bhattacharyya / Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 2(4); Jul-Aug 2016: pp 146-153
Blumea balsamifera Oil for the Acceleration of Healing of Burn Injuries / Zuo-Wang Fan,k Yu-Xin Pang, Kai Wang et al / Molecules, 2015; 20(9): pp 17166-17179 /DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200917166
Blumea balsamifera Oil for the Acceleration of Healing of Burn Injuries / Zuo-Wang Fan, Li-Fen Wu et al / Molecules, 2009; 20(9) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules200917166
Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts and flavonoids of the leaves of Blumea balsamifera / Fazilatun Neesa, Zhari Ismail and Nornisah Mhamed / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2010; 48(12) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.487281
Phytochemical composition and health properties of Sembung plant (Blumea balsamifera): A review / I GedeWidhiantara, I ade Jawi / Veterinary World, May 2021 / eISSN: 2231-0916
Anti-Obesity Effects of Blumea balsamifera Extract in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Adipocytes / Hiroaki Kubota, Akiko Kojima-Yuasa, Isao Matsui-Yuasa et al / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2009; 37(5): pp 843-854 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0912415X09007326
Chemical composition of Blumea balsamifera and Magnolia sieboldii essential oils and prevention of UV-B radiation-induced skin photoaging / Bing Zhang, Minghui Tang, Wenhuan Zhang, Xiaoxin Liang et al / Natural Product Research, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1809401
NO inhibitory constituents as potential anti-neuroinflammatory agents for AD frm Blumea balsamifera / Jun Ma, Quanhui Ran, Yuanqiang Guo et al / Bioorganic Chemistry, Feb 2018; Vol 76: pp 449-457 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.12.008
A Systematic Review on the Safety and Efficacy of Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC (NIRPROMP Tablet) for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Stones / Essel N Tolosa, Jade P Rodriguez, Eliotte ois F Malamug / ACTA MEDICA PHILIPPINA, 2020; 54(1)

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                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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