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Family Connaracerae
Connarus semidecandrus Jack

Scientific names Common names
Connarus amplifolius Pierre. Kamot (Pamp.)
Connarus balsahanensis Elmer Sandalino (Tag.)
Connarus borneensis Merr.  
Connarus floribundus Wall. ex Hook. f.  
Connarus furfuraceus Bl.  
Connarus gaudichaudii (DC.) Planch.  
Connarus gibbosus Wall. ex Planch.  
Connarus gracilis Bakh.f.  
Connarus griffithii Hook.f.  
Connarus jackianus Schelllenb.  
Connarus mekongensis Pierre  
Connarus moluccanus Zipp. ex Blume  
Connarus mutabilis Blume  
Connarus neurocalyx Planch.  
Connarus nigropunctua Gagnep.  
Connarus nitidus Hassk.  
Connarus obtusifolius Planch.  
Connarus pyrrhocarpus Miq.  
Connarus quocensis Pierre  
Connarus semidecandrus Jack  
Connarus wallichii Planch.  
Omphalobium gaudichaudii DC.  
Connarus neurocalyx Planch. is a synonym of Connarus semidecandrus Jack. The Plant List
Connarus semidecandrus Jack is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
MALAY: Akar kuaya, Akar tanga burong, Akar tukor nyamok, Akar tupai tupai, Abasambor pok
THAI: Thopthaep khruea, Torptaep kreua.
VIETNAMESE: Dây lốp bốp.

Connarus semidecandrus derives from the Greek word konaros (a spring tree) and from the Latin words semi (half), deka (ten) and andro (male).

Sandalino is a scandent, woody vine, reaching a height of 2 to 6 meters, smooth except for the inflorescence. Leaves are 25 to 30 centimeters long. Leaflets are 5 to 7, oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Panicles are borne in the upper axils, 10 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, yellowish-white, fragrant, and about 7 millimeters long. Pod is red, obovoid, 2 to 3 centimeters long, somewhat curved and compressed, and short stalked.

- In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon southward to Panay and Negros.
- Also found in Burma, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of tannin, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones in various plant parts. (7)

- Bergenin, an isocoumarin compound, and homorapanone, a quinone compound, have been isolated from the stem of C. semidecandrus. (8)
- In a study for antioxidant vitamins, young leaves of Connarus semidecandrus yielded vitamin C 87.64 ± 0.47, ß-carotene 5.54 ± 0.07, and vitamin E 0.45 ± 0.01. (see study below) (9)

Parts used

Parts used
Roots, leaves, stems.


- Decoction of fresh and dried roots taken internally for amenorrhea and as a uterine tonic
- Decoction of leaves used for constipation. (2)

- Root decoction used for colic. (3)
- In Thailand, roots used for tetanus and boils. (4) Leaf decoction used for chest pains; root used for fever; leaf and stem used as laxative and anthelmintic.
- In Malaysia, roots used to treat fever.
- In Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, root decoction used for colic. (8)

Antipyretic / Antinociceptive / Bergenin / Stem:
Study evaluated the methanol extract of stem of C. semidecandrus and its constituent, bergenin, for nociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin testing in mice and antipyretic activity in yeast induced fever in rats. Results showed dose dependent antinociceptive activity by acetic acid testing; bergenin produced a less pronounced effect than the extract. The extract also significant attenuated fever induced by yeast in rats. (5)
• High Antioxidant Vitamins: In an HPLC study of 30 edible indigenous Thai plants for antioxidant vitamins, the top five plants were Sauropus androgynus, Sesbania grandiflora, Moringa oleifera, Momordica charantia and Connarus semidecandrus. (see constituents above) (9)


Updated September 2018 / May 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Connarus cf. semidecandrus; infructescence / Copyright © 2014 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL89331] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Connarus semidecandrus Jack
/ Synonyms / The Plant List
Medicinal Plants in Tropical Rain Forest from Hua Khao Subdistrict, Singha Nakhon District, Songkhla Province, Thailand / Oratai Neamsuvan, Narumon Sengnon, Umad Haddee, Wittawat Mard-E and Warunyu Sae-Tang / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Survey of Ethno-medicinal Climbing plants in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Asutosh Ghosh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 5(7), July 2014: pp 3671-367
Medicinal Plants Used in the Loengnoktha District / Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy Vol. 9(2) Dec. 2002
Antipyretic activity of Connarus semidecandrus extract in rats / Wantana Reanmongkol, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, Kritawan Muneemonai, Kaesorn Nathong, Gomol Rangkla, Hiromitsu Takayama, / Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2000, 22(2): pp 191-198
Medicinal plants of the asia pacific - drugs for the future - c. wiart (world, 2006) ww /
Feb 10, 2014
Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of Bruguiera sexangula and Connarus semidecandrus extracts in Kung Krabaen Bay / Sasipawan Machana, Boonyadist Vongsak, E. Saifha, Bunlung Nuangsaeng / Planta Medica, Nov 2015; 81(16) / DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1565727
Survey of Ethno-medicinal Climbing plants in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Asutosh Ghosh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, July 2014; 5(7): pp 3671-3677
Analysis of antioxidant vitamins in 30 Thai vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatographic method / Bungorn Sripanidkulchai, Sudarat Homhual, Chotima Poeknapo / IJPS, July-December 2005; Vol 1, No2
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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