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Family Connaraceae
Connarus semidecandrus Jack

Scientific names Common names
Connarus amplifolius Pierre Kamot (Pamp.)
Connarus asiaticus Wiilld. Polipog (Bis.)
Connarus balsahanensis Elmer Sandalino (Tag.)
Connarus borneensis Merr.  
Connarus ellipticus G.Schellenb.  
Connarus floribundus Wall. ex Hook. f.  
Connarus furfuraceus Blume  
Connarus gaudichaudii (DC.) Planch.  
Connarus gibbosus Wall. ex Hook.f.  
Connarus gracilis Bakh.f.  
Connarus griffithii Hook.f.  
Connarus jackianus G.Schelllenb.  
Connarus mekongensis Pierre  
Connarus moluccanus Zipp. ex Blume  
Connarus mutabilis Blume  
Connarus neurocalyx Planch.  
Connarus nigropunctua Gagnep.  
Connarus obtusifolius Planch.  
Connarus pinnatus Lam.  
Connarus pyrrhocarpus Miq.  
Connarus quocensis Pierre  
Connarus semidecandrus Jack  
Connarus semidecandrus var. gaudichaudii (DC.) Fosberg  
Connarus wallichii Planch.  
Omphalobium gaudichaudii DC.  
Omphalobium indicum Gaertn.  
Omphalobium pinnatum DC.  
Connarus neurocalyx Planch. is a synonym of Connarus semidecandrus Jack.
Connarus semidecandrus Jack is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIAN: Am pous, Loum puos, Loum pouh.
INDONESIAN: Akar kalat, Simbo krah, Kunit wawakas imbolay, Akar sariawan.
LAOTIAN: Houn hai, 'Sop 'sep.
MALAY: Akar kuaya, Akar tanga burong, Akar tukor nyamok, Akar tupai tupai, Akar membur.
THAI: Thopthaep khruea, Torptaep kreua, Khaang daeng, Maak song.
VIETNAMESE: Dây lốp bốp.

Gen info
- Connarus is a genus of plants in the family Connaraceae. Species are usually woody climbers, occasionally shrubs or tress. Flowers are bisexual and fragrant. Fruits are pod-like. (12)
- Etymology: Connarus semidecandrus derives from the Greek word konaros, meaning
a "spring tree", and from the Latin words semi (half), deka (ten) and andro (male).

Sandalino is a scandent, woody vine, reaching a height of 2 to 6 meters, smooth except for the inflorescence. Leaves are 25 to 30 centimeters long. Leaflets are 5 to 7, oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Panicles are borne in the upper axils, 10 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, yellowish-white, fragrant, and about 7 millimeters long. Pod is red, obovoid, 2 to 3 centimeters long, somewhat curved and compressed, and short stalked.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon southward to Panay and Negros.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of tannin, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and anthraquinones in various plant parts. (7)

- Bergenin, an isocoumarin compound, and homorapanone, a quinone compound, have been isolated from the stem of C. semidecandrus. (8)
- In a study for antioxidant vitamins, young leaves of Connarus semidecandrus yielded vitamin C 87.64 ± 0.47, ß-carotene 5.54 ± 0.07, and vitamin E 0.45 ± 0.01. (see study below) (9)
- Phytochemical screening of polipog leaves, barks, and roots decoction for secondary metabolities yielded triterpene and flavonoid (∞-benzopyrene), with absence of alkaloids. (13)

- Studies have suggested antipyretic, antinociceptive, anti-alopecia properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, stems.


- In Indo-China and the Moluccas, young shoots eaten as vegetable.

- In the Philippines, decoction of fresh and dried roots taken internally for amenorrhea and as a uterine tonic.
- Used for treatment of diabetes.
- In Cambodia, roots used for treatment of bubonic plague.
- Decoction of leaves used for constipation. (2)

- Root decoction used for colic. (3)
- In Thailand, roots used for tetanus and boils.  (4) Leaf decoction used for chest pains; root used for fever; leaf and stem used as laxative and anthelmintic.
- In Malaysia, roots used to treat fever.
- In India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, root decoction used for colic. (8)
- In Indonesia, used as thrush remedy.
- Tying: Stems used for binding.

Antipyretic / Antinociceptive / Bergenin / Stem:
Study evaluated the methanol extract of stem of C. semidecandrus and its constituent, bergenin, for antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin testing in mice and antipyretic activity in yeast induced fever in rats. Results showed dose dependent antinociceptive activity by acetic acid testing; bergenin produced a less pronounced effect than the extract. The extract also significant attenuated fever induced by yeast in rats. (5)
• High Antioxidant Vitamins: In an HPLC study of 30 edible indigenous Thai plants for antioxidant vitamins, the top five plants were Sauropus androgynus, Sesbania grandiflora, Moringa oleifera, Momordica charantia and Connarus semidecandrus. (see constituents above) (9)
Anti-Androgenic Alopecia Effect: Study demonstrated the anti-alopecia effect of an ethanol extract of Connarus semidecandrus in a testosterone-induced androgenic alopecia (AGA) model, in measures of hair-skin ratio, hair type frequency, and hair thickness. Results showed hair growth-promoting effect of Cs-EE evidenced by area of restored hair growth and thickened hair population. Histological data suggest Cs-EE could reduce hair loss and upregulate hair proliferation in mouse skin by shifting hair follicles from catagen phase to anagen phase. Western blotting indicated Cs-EE reduced expression of the androgenic receptor. Extract treatment also inhibited programmed cell death by upregulating Bcl-2 expression at mRNA and protein levels. The Cs-EE had suppressive effects on 5-α reductase activity and a proliferative effect on human hair-follicle dermal papilla (HDP) cells. Apoptotic pathways in HDP cells were downregulated by CsEE treatment. Results suggest potential for AGA treatment. (10)


Updated August 2023 / September 2018 / May 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Connarus cf. semidecandrus / infructescence / Copyright © 2014 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL89331] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Connarus semidecandrus / Fruits / Copyright © 2014 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL89259] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / click on link or image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Connarus semidecandrus / Abaxial view of leaflet / Copyright © 2014 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL89280] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / click on link or image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Connarus semidecandrus Jack
/ Synonyms / Kew: Plants of the World Online
Medicinal Plants in Tropical Rain Forest from Hua Khao Subdistrict, Singha Nakhon District, Songkhla Province, Thailand / Oratai Neamsuvan, Narumon Sengnon, Umad Haddee, Wittawat Mard-E and Warunyu Sae-Tang / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Survey of Ethno-medicinal Climbing plants in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Asutosh Ghosh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 5(7), July 2014: pp 3671-367
Medicinal Plants Used in the Loengnoktha District / Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy Vol. 9(2) Dec. 2002
Antipyretic activity of Connarus semidecandrus extract in rats / Wantana Reanmongkol, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, Kritawan Muneemonai, Kaesorn Nathong, Gomol Rangkla, Hiromitsu Takayama, / Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2000, 22(2): pp 191-198
Medicinal plants of the asia pacific - drugs for the future - c. wiart (world, 2006) ww /
Feb 10, 2014
Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of Bruguiera sexangula and Connarus semidecandrus extracts in Kung Krabaen Bay / Sasipawan Machana, Boonyadist Vongsak, E. Saifha, Bunlung Nuangsaeng / Planta Medica, Nov 2015; 81(16) / DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1565727
Survey of Ethno-medicinal Climbing plants in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India / Asutosh Ghosh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, July 2014; 5(7): pp 3671-3677
Analysis of antioxidant vitamins in 30 Thai vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatographic method / Bungorn Sripanidkulchai, Sudarat Homhual, Chotima Poeknapo / IJPS, July-December 2005; Vol 1, No 2
Connarus semidecandrus Jack Exerts Anti-Alopecia Effects by Targeting 5α-Reductase Activity and an Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway / Won Young Jang, Dong Seon Kim, Sang Hee Park, Jongsung Lee et al / Molecules, 2022; 27(13): 4086 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules27134086
Connarus semidecandrus (PROSEA) / Wardah / Pl@ntUse
Connarus / Wikipedia
PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CONNARUS SEMIDECANDRUS JACK (POLIPOG) LEAVES, BARKS AND ROOTS / Engr Charito B Viscayno-Mollejon / Global Scientific Journals, 2019; 7(1) / eISSN: 2320-9186

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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