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Family Plumbaginaceae
Sangdikit
Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
LEAD WORT

Bai hua dan

Scientific names  Common names
Findlaya alba Bowdich   Bambang (Ilk.)
Molubda scandens (L.) Raf.   Bangbang (Ilk.) 
Plumbagidium scandens (L.) Spach   Sandikit (Tag.)
Plumbago scandens L.   Sangdikit (Tag.) 
Plumbago viscosa Blanco  Talankau (Ilk.)
Plumbago zeylanica Linn.  Talankaw (Ilk.) 
Thela alba Lour.   Ceylon lead wort (Engl.)
  Whilte leadwort (Engl.)
  Wild leadwort (Engl.)
  Wild plumbago (Engl.)
Plumbago zeylanica L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRICAN: Ensain, Enkin, Osuhure, Mzura, Matsisa, Sanza, Mosikomabe.
BENGALI: Safaid-sitarak.
CHINESE: Bai hua dan.
GERMAN: Bleiwurz, Zahnkraut.
HAWAIIAN: Hiliee, Iliee, Ilihee, Lauhihi.
HINDI: Chitrak.
INDONESIAN: Ceraka, Daun encok, Ki encok, Gadong encok, Poksor, Kareka, Bama, Oporie.
KANNADA: Chitramulika.
MALAYALAM: Vellakoduveli.
MALAYSIA: Celaka, Celaka bukit, Celaka putih, Ceraka.
NEPAL: Chitu.
TIBET: Tsi tra ka.

Botany
Sangdikit is a spreading or somewhat climbing, half-woody plant, 1 to 2 meters high, and smooth except for glandular calyces. Leaves are oblong-ovate, 4 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, the base of the stalk dilated and clasping the stem. Spikes are 5 to 25 centimeters long. Calyx is green, about 1 centimeter long and covered with long-stalked glandular hairs. Corolla is white or very pale blue, about 1.5 centimeter in diameter, with a slender tube, about 2 centimeters long, and spreading limb.

Distribution
- In thickets and along roadsides at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Batangas, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Palawan.
- Probably introduced.
- Occurs in the Old World Tropics.

Constituents
- Roots contain plumbagin.
- Leaves and stems contain a little plumbagin, fixed oil and volatile oil.
- Fresh roots yield a greater proportion of plumbagin than stored roots.
- Phytochemical screening with various extracts yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, and tannin.

Properties

- Considered anti-rheumatic, carminative, antiphlogistic.
- Leaves minty, pungent, toxic.
- Roots, bitter tasting
; considered anti-atherogenic, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective. -
- Studies have shown antibacterial, antitumor, antifertility, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic, antiatheroslcerotic, anti-H. pylori, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antifungal, analgesic, wound healing, properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves and stems.

Uses
Folkloric
- Promotes appetite, helps digestion.
- Used for dyspepsia, piles, and skin diseases.
- Roots have been used as abortifacient in some indigenous practices, internally or as an irritant to the os uteri.
- Pounded roots for blistering; antiscabies; ecbolic.
- Rheumatic bone pains and gouty arthritis: decoction of dried roots.
- Snake bites and boils: 3 - 4 leaves, pounded with other herbs, and applied as poultice for 15 minutes only to avoid blistering. Not to use in pregnant women.
- In some parts of India, root is considered abortifacient. Also used for diarrhea, dysentery, piles and peptic ulcers, as expectorant and diuretic, for abscesses, anemia, ascites, liver ailments, coryza, hoarseness and sore throat. In India, paste of fresh roots applied to filarial legs. Paste made from roots of P. zeylanica and stem barks of Erythroxylon monogymum and M. olifera ground in cow's milk used as external application of leg edema.
-
In India, paste of root of PZ, Nerium oleander and stem bark of S. anacardium and H. integrifolia with pigeon excreta is applied to abscesses to induce maturation, facilitate rupture and healing. Root paste prepared with curd or butter used to relieve piles.
- Paste from fresh roots soaked in cow's urine used for scabies.
- Used for wound healing.
- Fine root paste instilled into the vagina to the ostium uteri to induce abortion.
- In Ethiopia, used for a variety of skin diseases.

- In Nigeria, used for parasitic diseases, scabies, and ulcers.

Studies
Prolonged Bleeding Time by Decreased Platelet Adhesiveness:
Study showed chronic administration of PZ extract prolongs bleeding time through alteration of platelet adhesiveness and coagulation. (1)
Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity:
In a Taiwan study of 50 medicinal plants, Plumbago zeylanica showed to have the highest inhibitory effect against H pylori.
This study evaluated various extracts and solvents for anti-H. pylori activity. An ethyl acetate extract exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five H. pylori strains. (3)
Anthelmintic / Leaves / Roots:
A polyherbal anthelmintic preparation of P zeylanica leaves, Hyoscyamus niger roots and Abultion indicum leaves showed the ethanolic superior to the aqueous extracts and concluded that the herb mixture preparation is an effective and better anthelmintic preparation. (
4
) Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of various extracts of roots of P. zeylanica. A methanolic extract showed higher activity than the water extract. Piperazine citrate was the reference standard drug. (29) Study of PZ for anthelmintic activity showed both root crude extract and fractions of PZ paralyze and kill worms in less time than controls at almost all concentrations. (31)
Antiviral activity:
Study showed PZ to have inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B3, with an weak anti-influenza A virus activity. (
5)
Analgesic /
Anti-Inflammatory: Study yielded plumbagin, zeylanone among other napthaquinone derivatives, confirmed the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the extract probably through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.
(
6)
Dermatotoxicity Study: Study on dermatotoxicity showed showed limited toxic effects as a moderate irritant, without overt signs of toxicity. (
7)
Antioxidant / Plumbagin:
Study showed the extracts of P
zeylanica and its active ingredient Plumbagin have significant antioxidant abilities which may explain some of its many reported therapeutic effects. (8)
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals:
Study of alcoholic extract of Pz exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all test bacteria (S paratyphi, S aureus, E coli, Shigella dysenteriae). Phytochemical study of the crude extract yielded flavonoids, saponins and naphthoquinone.
(
9)
Alleviation of Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity:
Study showed extract alleviated delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice, an effect attributable to the inhibition of proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes as well as anti-inflammatory activities.
(
10)
Hepatoprotective:
Study of methanol extract of aerial parts of Pz showed significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. Histopathologic studies confirmed the hepatoprotective nature of the extract.
(
11)
Antifertility :
Study showed the acetone extract to be the most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of rats., with a prolongation of the diestrous stage of the estrous cycle and consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. Results indicated antifertility activity of Pz stem extract in female Wistar rats.
(
12)
Hyperglycemic Effect : Ethanolic root extract was investigated for induction of hyperglycemia. Results of enzyme activities suggest a possible increase in liver gluconeogenesis while the excessive accumulation of glycogen indicates the presence of active principles that reduced glycogen phosphorylase activity in the liver. An inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity, consequent decrease in glycolytic flux, glucose uptake and utilization of the glycolytic pathway probably contribute to the observed hyperglycemia.
(
13)
Antiplasmodial / Antimalarial Effect : Study of 80 ethanol extracts from 47 species or antiplasmodial properties showed Pz as one of five species of interest for further antimalarial studies.
(
14)
Antimutagenicity : Study of four ayurvedic medicinal plants all showed varying levels of antimutagenicity, Pz showing fourth in the study. The total phenolic content did not correlate with the mutagenic activity.
(
15)
Toxicity Studies / Protective Effect : Study of selected doses of PZ extract were not toxic but potent enough to significantly reduce the toxic effects induced by ethinylestradiol in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (
17)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Liver Toxicity: Study of showed a petroleum ether root extract of Plumbago zeylanica exhibited significant protection against paracetamol-induced hepatocellular injury. (
18)
Analgesic : Study of an ethanol extract of root and callus exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity. A root extract showed significant analgesic activity compared to the callus extract.
Wound Healing : Study of a methanol root extract of PZ showed significant wound healing activity in an excision wound model in rats. Alkaloids and terpenoids may play a major role in the wound healing process. (
19)
Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of roots of a methanol exhibited inhibition of acute inflammation in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. (20)
Anti-Inflammatory / Roots:
A saline extract of roots was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. The extract exhibited a biphasic response—reduced enzymatic activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases and stimulation of adenosine triphosphatase activity—suggesting anti-inflammatory action. (23)
Antibacterial / Roots:
Study evaluated various extracts of roots for antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Methanol and ethanol extracts showed moderate antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and saponin. (24)
Hepatoprotective / Roots:
Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of methanol extracts of root on paracetamol, CCl4 and alcohol induced hepatic injuries in rats. Results showed marked dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential against experimentally induced liver toxicity. (25)
Benefits on Learning and Memory / Roots:
Study investigated the effect of PZ roots on learning and memory of mice. Results showed promising memory enhancing effect in mice. There was also significant reversal of amnesia produced by scopolamine, probably due to facilitation of cholinergic transmission in mice brain. The antioxidant, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties may also contribute to the memory enhancing effect. (26)
Cardioprotective / Roots:
Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of PZ in isoproterenol ( ß-adrenergic agonist) induced myocardial injury. The hydroalcoholic extract showed significant cardioprotective effect and antioxidant activities, with better cardiac protection when compared to standard propranolol. The cardioprotective effect may be due to stabilization of the myocardial membrane. (27)
Antifungal:
Study evaluated various solvent extracts of Plumbago zeylanica for anti-Trichosporon activity. Yeast Trichosporom asahii was found to be most sensitive to methanol extract of PZ compared to ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts. (
30)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Supplements in the cybermarket.


Last Update August 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Flower Macro / GNU Free Documentation License / File:Plumbago zeylanica in Anantgiri, AP W2 IMG 8883.jpg / J M Garg / 24.8.08 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Plumbago zeylanica action on blood coagulation profile with and without blood volume reduction / R Vijayakumar et al / doi:10.1016/j.vph.2006.02.001 / Vascular Pharmacology Vol 45, Issue 2, August 2006, Pages 86-90
(2)
Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. Penelope Ody MNIMH. A Dorling Kindersley Publication
(3)
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Plumbago zeylanica L. / Yuan-Chuen Wang / FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005 Mar 1;43(3):407-12.
(4)}
Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Anthelmintic Preparation / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 329-31. 2009.
(5)
Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders
(6)
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Plumbago zeylanica / PHCOG MAG.: Research Article / Pharmacognosy Magazine ISSN: 0973-1296
(7)
Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Plumbago zeylanica used in Ethiopian traditional medicine / Teshome Kefale et al / Journal of ethnopharmacolog • 2008, vol. 117, no2, pp. 236-248
(8)
Antioxidant properties of Plumbago zeylanica, an Indian medicinal plant and its active ingredient, plumbagin / Jai C. Tilak et al / Redox Report, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2004 , pp. 219-227(9) / DOI: 10.1179/135100004225005976
(9)
Effect of Plumbago zeylanica extract and certain curing agents on multidrug resistant bacteria of clinical origin / Arina Z Beg and Iqbal Ahmad /World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology • Volume 16, Numbers 8-9 / September, 2000 / DOI 10.1023/A:1008991724288
(10)
Ethanol Extract of Plumbago zeylanica. Stems Alleviates Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in Mice / Dai Yue and Hou Li-Fei / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2005, Vol. 43, No. 3, Pages 243-248
(11)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS / Rajesh Kumar et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 1, Suppl 1, Nov.-Dec. 2009
(12)
Antifertility Activity of Stems of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. in Female Albino Rats / Sheeja Edwin, Siddheshwar Balkrishna Joshi and Dharam Chand Jain l / Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, July 2008, Vol 7, No 2, pp 169-174
(13)
Further Studies On The Mechanism Of Carbohydrate Intolerance Induced In The Rat By An Ethanolic Root Extract Of Plumbago Zeylanica / J AS Olagunju et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 38, Issue 5 December 2000 , pages 362 - 366 / DOI: 10.1076/phbi.38.5.362.5973/
(14)
In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity / Henrik Toft Simonsen et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology• Volume 74, Issue 2, February 2001, Pages 195-204 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00369-X /
(15)
Antimutagenic Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Four Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants / Farrukh Aqil et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology • Vol 46, Sept 2008, pp 668-672

(16)
Pharmaceutical Studies and Therapeutic Uses of Plumbago Zeylanica L. Roots (Chitraka, Chitramulamu) / K. Madhava Chetty, K. Sivaji, G. Sudarsanam, P. Hindu Sekar / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 294-304. 2006.
(17)
Protective role of Plumbago zeylanica extract against the toxic effects of ethinylestradiol in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9 and cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes / Yasir Hasan Siddique, Gulshan Ara, Mohammad Faisal, Mohammad Afzal / Alternative Medicine Studies, Vol 1, No 1, 2011. / DOI: 10.4081/ams.2011.e7
(18)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA ON PARACETAMOL INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN RATS / N. KANCHANA AND A. MOHAMED SADIQ / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 1, 2011
(19)
Evaluation of wound healing activity of methanolic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica L. in wistar albino rats
/ Devender Rao Kodati, Shashidher Burra and Kumar Goud P./ Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1 (2): 26-34
(20)
Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of extract from Plumbago zeylanica
/ Kantha D. Arunachalam , P. Velmurugan and R. Balaji Raja / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4(12) pp. 1239-1245, 18 June, 2010
(21)
Chitrak / Common names / Flowers of India
(22)
Plumbago zeylanica / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(23)
Studies on Bioactivity of the Root Extract of Plumbago zeylanica / O O Oyedapo / Pharmaceutical Biology, 1996, Vol. 34, No. 5 , Pages 365-369 /doi/abs/10.1076/phbi.34.5.365.13249
(24)
Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies on Plumbago zeylanica L. / Kakad Subhash, A. S. Wabale and M. N. Kharde / Advances in Bioresearch, Vol4 (3) September 2013: 115-117
(25)
POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA IN PREVENTION OF HEPATIC DAMMAGE IN WISTAR RAT / Rohit Goyal and Pyare Lal Sharma / American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2012, 7 (3), 101-108
(26)
PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA ROOTS: A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LEARNING AND MEMORY / VINEET MITTAL*, SHARMA S. K., PAWAN JALWAL, ANIL HOODA AND J.MOR InternationalJournalofPharmaandBioSciences V1(2)2010 /
(27)
Phytochemical Analysis and Cardioprotective Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn in Isoproterenol Provoked Oxidative Myocardial Injury in Albino Wistar Rats / Karre Siva Venkata Subhash, Tallapudi Kiran Kumar, N Chidambranathan, Vinodth Prabhu / IRJP 2012, 3(9)
(28)
Plumbago zeylanica / Synonyms / The Plant List
(29)
EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN. / H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH (IJPSR)
(30)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI-TRICHOSPORON ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN / V. UNIYAL, R. P. BHATT, S. SAXENA, R. NEGI / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 9, 2014
(31)
In Vitro Anthelm intic Efficacy of Fractions from Plumbago zeylanica L (Family- Plumbaginnaceae) Root Extract / Yohannes Weldemariam Getahun, Afework Mulugeta Bezabh / American Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 3 , June 2015, Pages:134-142

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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