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Family Meliaceae
Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr.

Suan ming gou

Scientific names Common names
Azedarach edule Noronha Santol (Tag.)
Melia koetjape Burm. f.  Santor (Most dialects)
Sandoricum indicum Cav.  Katoh (Pamp.)
Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f) Merr. Katul (Sbl.)
Sandoricum maingayi Hiern Kechapi (Eng.)
Sandoricum nervosum Blume Red santol (Engl.)
Trichilia nervosa Vahl                   Unresolved Lolly fruit (Engl.)
Trichilia venosa Spreng               Unresolved Wild mangosteen (Engl.)
Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.) Merr. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Klampu.
BURMESE: Thitto.
CHINESE: Suan ming kou, Suan ming guo.
FRENCH: faux mangoustan, Sandorique, Mangoustanier sauvage.
GERMAN: Sandoribaum, Falsche mangostane, Sandorie-baum.
GUAM: Santor.
INDONESIA: Kecapi, Ketuat.
KHMER: Kom piing riech.
LAOTIAN: Tong, Toongz.
MALAY: Klampu, Kecapi, Kelampu, Ketapi, Ranggu, Sentol, Setol, Sentul.
TAMIL: Sayai, Sevai.
THAI: Katon, Kra thon, Sa thon, Satawn.
VIETNAMESE: Sau chua, Sau tia, Sau do.

Santol is a tree growing up to 20 meters high, with softly hairy young branches and leaves. Leaves are groups of 3 leaflets, elliptic to oblong-ovate, 10 to 25 centimeter long, with pointed tips and round bases. Flowers are numerous, somewhat fascicled, about 1 centimeter long, in greenish or yellowish clusters. Fruits are rounded and somewhat flattened, 4 to 6 centimeters, yellowish-orange when ripe with a thick pericarp. Seeds are large, surrounded by a translucent or pale, sweet tasting edible pulp.

- Throughout settled areas in the Philippines, planted or semi-cultivated, and abundant in secondary forests.
- Introduced into the Philippines, now thoroughly established.
- Native to Malaysia, Cambodia and Southern Laos.
- Reported in Indonesia, India and the Andaman Islands.

- Bark contains traces of a bitter principle, a toxic alkaloid.
- Seed contains an amorphous bitter principle.
- Bark also contains a bitter substance, sandoricum acid, similar to acids found in Chisocheton, dysoxylum, heynea and carapa.
- Thai study yielded two new limonoids from the leaves: sandoripin A and sandoripin B.
- Study on leaves have yielded trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins A, B, C, D and E and sandoripin A and B.

- Studies have yielded more than 10 terpenoids. Terpenoids represent the largest class of secondary metabolites from natural source.
- Seeds have yielded andirobin-type limonoids - sandoricin and 6-hydroxysandoricin.
- Fruit hulls have yielded bryononic acid and bryonolic acid terpenoids, meso-inositol and dimethyl mucate polyalcohol.
- Stem bark studies have yielded triterpenoids such as, katonic acid, indicic acid, koetjapic acid, 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid, alloaromadendrene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol], bryononic acid, secobryononic acid, secoisobryononic acid, 20-epikoetjapic acid, 3-epikatonic acid and sandorinic acid A, B and C.
- Ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded two new limonoids: 2α-(2-methylbutanoyl)oxy]sandoricin (1) and 2α-(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]sandoricin (2). (18)
- Hexane extract of stem bark yielded an oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid. (see study below) (19)

- Ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded two new limonoids identified as acetate derivatives 1 and 2, suggested to be added to the class of highly oxidized ring fissioned limonoids. (26)
- Study of stem bark yielded secomultiflorane-type triterpenoid acids: bryononic acid and two new ring=A secotriterpenoids. (30)
- Study yielded two new additional trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins D (4) and E (5), which are analogues of previously reported sandrapins A-C (1-3). (34)

Roots is aromatic, carminative, antispasmodic, astringent, stomachic, and tonic.
Fruit considered astringent.

Parts used
Roots, bark, and leaves.

Nutrition / Edibility
- Fruit is eaten raw or spiced.
- High in carbohydrates, fair in iron, but low in calcium.
- Fair source of vitamin B.
- Santol makes a delicious preserve - peeled, quartered, and cooked in syrup.

- Fresh leaves applied to the skin are sudorific.
- Used by the Ifugaos for diarrhea.
- Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga, apply mashed fresh leaves throughout the body as repellent against hematophagous insects. (35)
- Indigenous people of Santol, La Union, use the lolly fruit for fever and diarrhea. Bark used in embalming, placed inside the casket. (36)
- Decoction or infusion of leaves used for baths to reduce fever.
- Also, used for diarrhea and as a tonic after childbirth.
- Bark poultice used for ringworm.
- Bitter roots, bruised with vinegar and water, is a carminative; used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Pounded barks applied to ringworm.
- Leaves used for skin infections and rashes.
- Roots used as tonic.

- Roots used in Malay medicine as preventive after childbirth and as a general tonic.
- In Malaysia, aqueous extract of the bark is consumed as a tonic after childbirth. (8)
- In Indonesia, bark decoction used to treat leucorrhea and colic. (8)
- Wood: Yields a lightweight to medium-weight hardwood. Fragrant wood used in perfumery. (27)
- Dye: Bark used for tanning fishing nets. (27)
- Poison: Seeds contain limonoids (antifeedant compounds). (27)
- Insect repellent: Leaves used as insect repellent. (35)

Ichthyotoxic and Anticarcinogenic Effects: Two ichthyotoxic triterpenoids were isolated with non-toxic katonic acid which showed remarkable inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation. The triterpenoid koetjapic acid showed promising chemopreventive possibility. (1)
Anti-cancer: Study isolated a new ring-A secotriterpene, koetjapic acid, and five known compounds. Two compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against cultured human cancer cells. (2)
Anti-inflammatory / Stems: Stem extract study yielded 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid and katonic acid which showed anti-inflammatory activity equivalent to indomethacin. (3)
DNA Polymerase B Inhibition: Bioassay-guided fractionation of S. koetjape using assay sensitive to DNA polymerase ß inhibition isolated three compounds (1-3) having IC50 values from 20 to 36 µM. Derivatives 11, 12, and 13 from compounds 1 and 2 showed activity against DNA polymerase ß with IC50 values from 16 to 36 µM. (4)
Termite Repellent: Although the research product was not quick in killing termites. it was as good as the commercial product in repelling them. It also showed to be environmentally friendly, organic, lacking unpleasant odors and containing no dangerous chemicals. (6)
Antiangiogenic / Koetjapic Acid: Antiangiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. It is an important target in cancer therapy. Study isolated koetjapic acid, a seco-A-ring oleanene triterpene. Results suggest the non-cytotoxic compound, KA, may be a potent antiangiogenic agent; its activity may be attributed to inhibition of endothelial cells migration and differentiation as well as VEGF suppression. (9)
Breast Cancer / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic: A n-hexane extract showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptotic activities on all breast cancer cell lines. Study provides evidence for the presence of an effective anticancer agent in the stem bark of S. koetjape. (10)
Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effect / Stem Extracts: Anti-inflammatory effect of stem extracts was investigated on topical administration in a TPA-induced mouse ear inflammation model. Fractionation of active fractions isolated 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid and katonic acid as the biotic principles responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. The inhibition effect was almost equivalent to indomethacin. (13)
Cytotoxic / Anti-Angiogenic / Stem Bark: An n-hexane extract of stem bark of S. koetjape was investigated for cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic properties in an invitro cell proliferation assay. In a rat aorta ring assay, study showed inhibition of outgrowth of blood vessels from rat aorta rings. Extract also showed dose-dependent growth inhibition of all tested cell lines. At 50 µg mL, there was potent induction of apoptotic cell death of HCT-116 colon cancer cell line by inducing caspases activity. Results showed anti-angiogenic and apoptotic properties on colon cancer cell line. (14)
Breast Cancer / Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of stem bark in an invitro cell proliferation assay on three breast cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. The n-hexane extract exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibition of all tested cell lines. At 100 µg m, there was induced apoptotic cell death by inducing activity of effector caspases. Results suggest S. koetjape is a good candidate for further research targeting cancer treatment. (15)
Sentulic Acid / Cytotoxic Tritpenoids / Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells: Study isolated a new ring A-seco triterpenoid, sentulic acid, along with a known oleanane-type triterpenoid, 3-oxoolean-12-en-27-oic acid. Cytotoxic activity was studied on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Results showed the compound were able to induce cytotoxicity through apoptosis. (16)
Biosorption / Lead and Cadmium / Peel Wastes: In a study comparing biosorbent capacity of peel wastes of S. koetjape, A. comosus and C. nobilis for removal of lead and cadmium in contaminated tap water from Manila, S. koetjape showed the highest biosorption efficiency for lead and cadmium at 64.02% and 78.94% respectively. (17)
Briononic Acid: A hexane extract of stem bark yielded an oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid. Study suggests it originated from β-amyrine undergoing enzymatic hydrogenation reaction at C-12 followed by rearrangement process. (See constituents above) (19)
Bioinsecticide Effect: Study evaluated stem bark extracts of five Meliaceious plants in Indonesia against 3rd instar larvae of armyworm, Spodoptera litura. The maximum bioinsecticide effect was seen with Sandoricum koetjape and suggests promise as a botanical insecticide. (
Retrospective Study / Peritonitis due to Seed Ingestion: Study evaluated the factor associated wit mortality of patients with peritonitis due to S. koetjape seed ingestion. All patients were diagnosed with seed-induced colon perforation intraoperatively. Six of 30 patients died. The factor-associated mortality was consistent with a picture of septic shock. Early recognition and treatment of hypotension with surgery and control of infection is key to the improvement of mortality outcome. (
Limonoid Antifeedant / Seeds: Two new limonoids, sandoricin (1) and 6-hydroxysandoricin (2) from a seed extract f S. koetjape showed effective antifeedant activity when incorporated into artificial diets and fed to fa army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda) or European corn borer (Ostrina nubilalis) larvae. (
Antifungal / Candida albicans / Stem: Study evaluated S. koetjape methanol bark extracts and fractions for antifungal activity against C. albicans. GC-MS analysis showed fraction III to have greatest antifungal activity with potential antifungal compounds identified as α-gurjunene, trans-caryophyllene, aromadendrene, α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, δ-Cadinene, alloaromadendrene, octadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid metil ester (metil palmitate), hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid metil ester, 9-octadecenoic acid.
• Risk-Associated Mortality / Peritonitis from Sandorica Koetjape Seed Ingestion: Retrospective study reports on the mortality of patients who presented with peritonitis due to S. koetjape seed ingestion. All patients received preoperative diagnosis of Sandorica seed-induced colon perforation. Six of 30 patients died during a 28-day hospitalization. The clinical picture was consistent with septic shock. (28)
• Potential Antioxidant Source / Agricultural Peel Waste: The peel, the outer skin covering the fruit, is often discarded as agricultural waste. Studies have shown the peel to be an abundant source of natural antioxidant compounds, such as tannins and polyphenols. In this study, freeze-dried aqueous extract of fruit peel was evaluated for antioxidant properties at concentrations of 200 ppm. Extract exhibited greater than 90% free radical scavenging by DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Extract exhibited good antioxidant capacity with ORAC f 139,000 µmol TE/1000 g and highest total phenolic content at 1,734 mg GAE/100g. Results suggest the agricultural fruit peel waste has potential for commercial development as a natural antioxidant dietary supplement. (29)
• Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds for phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity against three bacteria viz., P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, and S. aureus. Phytochemical screening yielded high amounts of alkaloid and flavonoid. A crude methanol extract showed inhibition zones towards the three test bacteria with minimal IZ of 0.25 mgL for B. subtilis and 0.50 mgL for both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. (31)
• Inhibition of Blood Type O Fibrin Formation / Leaves: Study evaluated the inhibitory activity of S. koetjape leaf extract to blood type O fibrin formation. Warfarin was used as positive control. Results showed the 100% concentration has the highest time of coagulation but replication was almost the same. (32)
• Invention / Anticancer / Human Colorectal Cell Line: Invention relates to extracts from S. koetjape plant, their usages and functions in the treatment of cancer. The invention provides a compound purified and crystallized from an n-hexane extract of stem bark. Compound shows inhibitory activity towards human cancer cell with higher potency towards human colorectal (HCT 116) cell lines. (33)

Cultivated for its fruit.

Updated May 2019 / November 2017 / June 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / File:Sandoricum koetjape Blanco1.127-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Public Domain/ Modifications by Carol Spear / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ichthyotoxic and Anticarcinogenic Effects of Triterpenoids from Sandoricum koetjape Bark / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Vol. 26 (2003) , No. 9 1351/ doi:10.1248/bpb.26.1351
Plant anticancer agents, L. cytotoxic triterpenes from Sandoricum koetjape stems / Norito Kaneda, John M. Pezzuto, A. Douglas Kinghorn, Norman R. Farnsworth et a / J Nat Prod. 1992 May;55(5):654-9.
Antiinflammatory activity of stem extracts of Sandoricum koetjape / M A Rasadag et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 261-263
DNA Polymerase β Inhibitors from Sandoricum koetjape / Di-An Sun et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1999, 62 (8): pp 1110–1113 / DOI: 10.1021/np990104r
Modified limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape / Intan S Ismail et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 64, Issue 8, December 2003, Pages 1345-1349 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00500-4
Sandoricum koetjape (Santol) Tree Bark Extract as Pesticide-Repellant for Termites / Michael Janus Manzano / Research Project • Rizal National Science High School

Two new limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape / Orasa Pancharoen, Anchalee Pipatanapatikarn, Walter Charles et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 23, No 1, 2009 / /DOI:10.1080/14786410601133426
The Pharmacological Properties Of Terpenoids From Sandoricum Koetjape / Zeyad D. Nassar, Abdalrahim A.F. Aisha , Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid / Webmed Central. COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE, 2010; 1(12): WMC001311 / doi: 10.9754/journal.wmc.2010.001311
Antiangiogenic properties of Koetjapic acid, a natural triterpene isolated from Sandoricum koetjaoe Merr / Zeyad D Nassar, Abdalrahim FA Aisha, Mohamed BK Ahamed et al / Cancer Cell International 2011, 11:12 / doi:10.1186/1475-2867-11-12
In vitro Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Properties of the Stem Bark of Sandoricum koetjape on Breast Cancer Cells
/ A F A Aisha, S A Alrokayan et al / International Journ of Cancer Research, 5(3):123-129, 2009
The use of medicinal plants by Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range / Jasper Wester
Sandoricum koetjape (Kechapi) / Common names / ZipcodeZoo
Anti-inflammatory agents from Sandoricum koetjape Merr. / M A Rasadah, S Khozirah, A A Aznie, M M Nik / / Phytomedicine, 11(2-3):261-3. / DOI:10.1078/0944-7113-00339
Cytotoxic and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of the Stem Bark Extract of Sandoricum koetjape / A.F.A. Aisha, H.B. Sahib, K.M. Abu-Salah, Y. Darwis and A.M.S. Abdul Majid / International Journal of Cancer Research, 2009; 5(3): pp 105-114. / DOI: 10.3923/ijcr.2009.105.114
In vitro Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Properties of Stem Bark Extract of Sandoricum koetjape on Breast Cancer Cells / A F A Aisha, S A Alrokayan, K M Abu-Salah, Y. Darwis, and A M S Abdul Majid / International Journal of Cancer Research 5(3): 123-129, 2009.
Sentulic acid: A cytotoxic ring A-seco triterpenoid from Sandoricum koetjape Merr / Mai Efdi Masayuki Ninomiya Erma Suryani Kaori Tanaka Sanusi Ibrahim Kunitomo Watanabe Mamoru Koketsu / Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 17 May 2012; 22(13): pp 4242-4245 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.05.043
Peel Wastes of Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Citrus nobilis Lour. as Lead and Cadmium Biosorbent in Manila Tap Water / Judilyn N. Solidum / Journal of Environmental Science and Management, Dec 2013; 16(2): pp 28-35
Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Sandoricum koetjape / O. Pancharoen, P. Haboonmee, W.C. Taylor / Proc. WOCMAP III, Vol. 3: Perspectives in Natural Product Chemistry, Acta Hort. 677, ISHS 2005
BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae) / Tukiran *, Saidah, Suyatno, Nurul Hidayati and Kuniyoshi Shimizu / Indo. J. Chem., 2006, 6 (3), 304 - 306
BIOINSECTICIDE TEST OF CRUDE STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SOME MELIACEOUS PLANTS AGAINST SPODOPTERA LITURA / Tukiran / Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture & Health Sciences, G.J.B.A.H.S.,Vol.2(3):28-31, July-Sept 2013
Sandoricum koetijape / Synonyms / The Plant List
Sandoricum koetjape / Vernacular names / Lim T K / Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits
Risk-associated mortality in patients with peritonitis due to Sandorica Koetjape seed ingestion: a retrospective study. / Changsrisuk S, Chutipongtanate S. / J Med Assoc Thai. 2013 Jul;96(7):807-13.
Limonoid antifeedants from seed of Sandoricum koetjape. / Powell RG1, Mikolajczak KL, Zilkowski BW, Mantus EK, Cherry D, Clardy J. / J Nat Prod. 1991 Jan-Feb;54(1):241-6.
IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUND ANTIFUNGI OF Sandoricum koetjape. Stem AND ACTIVITY TO Candida albicans / Warsinah Warsinah, Eka Kusumawati, Sunarto Sunarto / Traditional Medicine Journal, Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF SANDORICUM KOETJAPE / O. Pancharoen, P. Haboonmee, W.C. Taylor / / III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 3: Perspectives in Natural Product Chemistry / Eds. K.H.C. Başer, G. Franz, S. CaÒigueral, F. Demirci, L.E. Craker and Z.E. Gardner / Acta Hort. 677, ISHS 2005
Sandoricum koetjape / WorldAgroForestry Database
Risk-Associated Mortality in Patients with Peritonitis Due to Sandorica Koetjape Seed Ingestion: A Retrospective Study / Somdej Changsrisuk, Somchai Chutipongtanate / JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF THAILAND, Vol 96, No 7
Antioxidant Evaluation Of Agricultural Waste: Sandoricum Koetjape (Burm. F.) Merr. Fruit Peel Extract / Shalini Markandan, Viimala S, Abdull Rashih A, Muhammad Kamil O / Conference: 5th International Conference On Biotechnology For Industry Wellness: UTM, Kuala Lum / June 2014 / DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4635.2007
Bryononic acid and two new ring-A secotriterpenoids were isolated from Sandoricum koetjape stem bark and their structures elucidated by NMR spectrometry.  / Kosela, S.; Yulizar, Y.; Chairul; Tori, M.; Asakawa, Y. / DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(94)e0242-k
Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Seed Extracts From Sandoricum Koetjape / Saripah Salbiah Syed Abd. Azziz, Hasimah Alimon, Asmaniza Abdullah Sani, Norhayati Daud , Nor Nafizah Mohd Noor  / The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013; 4:104 / DOI: 10.2174/2210289201304010104
Inhibitory activity of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (santol) leaf extract to Blood Type O fibrin formation
/ Sergio Jabel II, Maria Feibe M Pastoril, Josephine Fe, Sheryll B Sacramento / University of the Visayas Journal of Research (UVJOR), 2014; 8(1): pp 37-46
Composition comprising sandoricum koetjape extracts and uses thereof  / InventorL Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Khalid M Abu-Salah et al / WO2013028051A1 - WIPO (PCT)
Two new analogues of trijugin-type limonoids from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape. / Ismail Intan Safinar; Ito Hideyuki; Hatano Tsutomu; Taniguchi Shoko; Yoshida Takashi / Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2004: pp 1145-1147
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, 2014; 7(1): pp 179-186
Ethnomedicinal Knowledge of Plants among the Indigenous Peoples of Santol, La Union, Philippines / Michelle B Ducusin / Electronic Journal of Biology, 13:4


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