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Family Liliaceae / Smilacaceae
Smilax china Linn.

Ba qia

Scientific names Common names
Coprosmanthus japonicus Kunth Buanal (Ig.)
Smilax china L. Palipit (Bon.)
Smilax japonica (Kunth) A.Gray Sarsaparillang-china (Tag.)
Smilax pteropus Miq. China root (Engl.)
Smilax taiheiensis Hayata Chinese sarsaparilla (Engl.)
Smilax taquetii H.Lév Chinese smilax (Engl.)
Smilax thomsoniana A.DC. Wild smilax (Engl.)
Smilax china L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin gang teng, Jing gong dou, Ba qia.
FRENCH: Racine de Chine, Squine.
GERMAN: Chinawurzel.
HINDI: Chobchini.
INDONESIA: Gadung cina, Peudang, Ghadhung tambha.
MALAYSIA: Gadong china, Gadong saberang, Akar restong.
SPANISH: Zarzaparilla De China.
VIETNAM: Kim chang trung qu[oos]e.

Sarsaparillang-china is a woody vine armed with small thorns all over the stem. Rhizomes are long, thick and gray colored. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptically oblong to subrounded, 5 to 8 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide; those toward the end of the branches are much smaller and veined. Petioles are about 7 millimeters long, with adnate spiculate stipules which frequently are extended into tendrils. Inflorescence arises from the upper leaf axils, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are white to yellowish-green, their pedicels subtended by bracteoles, umbellate. Berries are globose, reddish when ripe.

- In mossy forests at altitudes of 1,600 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, and Zambales Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindanao and Negros.
- Occurs in Japan and China, where is it indigenous.

- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract yielded flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, and glycosides.
- Root contains fat, sugar, glucoside, coloring matter, gum and starch.
- Root also yields smilacin, tannin, resin, cinchonin and saponin.

- Dried rhizomes yield fat, sugar, glycoside, glycoside, coloring matter, saponin, tannin, cinchonin. smilacin, and starch.
- Leaves reported to contain rutin.
- Ethyl acetate fraction of an ethanol extract of rhizomes yielded seven compounds, structure of three were established as dihydrokaempferol-5-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), beta-sitosterol (2), and daucosterol (3). (12)
- Study of leaves yielded two new flavonoids, bismilachinone and smilachinin, together with 14 known compounds. (see study below) (23)
- Study of rhizomes yielded 13 compounds and identified as kaemperol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), engeletin (2), isoengeletin (3), kaempferol (4), dihydrokaempferol (5), dihydrokaempferol-5-O-P-D-glucopyranoside (6), rutin (7), kaempferol- 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystibene (9), vanillic acid (10), 3, 5-dimethoxy4-O-beta-D-glu-copyranosylcinnamic acid (11), beta-sitosterol (12), and beta-daucosterol (13). (27)
- Flavones isolated included kaempferol, kaemperide, morin, kaempferol 7-O-a-L-ramnodise, kemperin, quercetin-4'-O-ß-D-glucoside, vitexin, kaempferitrin, lapidoside, and rutin; isoflavones included pratensein, puerarin, smilachinin. (28)
- Study of rhizomes isolated a new triflavanoid, kandelin B-5 (1), along with six known phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols (2-7), nine flavonoids (8-16), two stilbenoids (17,18), and two other compounds (19,20). (see study below) (32)
- Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract of S. china stems isolated nine phenylpropanoids including six new compounds, smilasidesA-F (1-6) and three known phenylpropanoids, smiglaside E, heloniosides B, and 2',5'-diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucross. (see study below) (36)

- Depurative, demulcent, diaphoretic, stimulant, alterative, antisyphilitic, aphrodisiac.
- Studies have
suggested anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, COX-inhibitory, anti-hyperuricemic, anticonvulsant, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihepatotoxic, antiobesity, antiviral, antihyperlipidemic, anti-psoriatic properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves and rhizomes.


- Roots, cooked.
- Young shoots and leaves, raw or cooked.
- Used as potherb.
- Tea made from leaves.
- Fruit eaten raw.
- In the Philippines, decoction of roots and rhizomes used as depurative in cases of herpetism and syphilis.
- In India, used to some extent like sarsaparilla, in decoction as a depurative, diaphoretic, stimulant, alterative, antisyphilitic, and aphrodisiac.
- Sudorific and demulcent, used in rheumatism.
- Used as alterative in old syphilitic cases and in chronic rheumatism.
- In large doses, causes nausea and vomiting.
- Used for various skin diseases.
- In Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medical systems, used for syphilis, skin diseases, epilepsy, insanity, flatulence, dyspepsia, constipation, fever, neuralgia, rheumatism, gout and general debility. Smilax china is the accepted botanical source of the Ayurvedic drug Chopachinee.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used as diuretic and for treatment of rheumatic arthritic conditions; also used for detoxification, treatment of gout, tumors, and lumbago.
- in Korea used as a remedy for inflammatory disease and ischuria.
- Inhalation from sarsaparilla roots used in asthma.

Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / COX Inhibition:
Study in rats of aqueous extract of tubers of Smilax china showed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results showed inhibition of both COX-2 activity and COX expression. (2)
Chemical Constituents: Study of rhizomes isolated 13 compounds: kaemperol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, engeletin, isoengeletin, kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol, dihydrokaempferol-5-O-P-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, kaempferol- 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystibene, vanillic acid, 3, 5-dimethoxy4-O-beta-D-glu-copyranosylcinnamic acid, beta-sitosterol, and beta-daucosterol. (3)
Nephroprotective / Anti-Hyperuricemic: An ethyl acetate fraction exhibited strong anti-hyperuricemic activity. Caffeic acid, resveratrol, rutin and oxyresveratrol isolated from the EAF showed different inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase in vitro. The EAF also prevented renal damage against tubulointerstitial pathologies in hyperuricemic rats. (4)
Anticonvulsant / Rhizome: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate extracts of Smilax china rhizomes in mice. Anticonvulsant activity was assessed by maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice and neurotoxicity was assessed by rota rod test. The duration of hindleg extension in MES test was significantly (p<0.001) reduced. Seizure latency was prolonged. Results of study of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the rhizome of SC in mice showed it may help control petit mal and grand mal seizures. (5)
Sieboldogenin / Anti-Inflammatory: Study isolated seiboldogenin from ethyl acetate fraction of the plant crude extract. Seiboldogenin showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition and significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and presents as a potential new anti-inflammatory compound. (6)
Stilbenes / Antioxidant: Study isolated 3 compounds: resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and 3, 5, 3′ , 4′ - tetrahydroxylstilbene. The compounds showed strong antioxidant activity and effective scavenging of DPPH free radicals. (7)
Circulatory Benefits / Coagulation Effects: Study results conclude S china has a pharmacologic benefits on promoting circulation which may be from inhibition of platelet aggregation and prolongation of clotting time. (8)
Flavonoid Glycoside / Anticancer: Study of eight crude extracts of Smilax china showed a fraction rich in flavonoids to show good activity against HeLa cells. Study isolated kaempferol-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, a flavonoid glycoside, and exhibited marked anticancer activity. The antiproliferative effect may be due to cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induction of apoptosis. (9)
Anti-Diabetic / Roots: Study of various extracts of roots were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed significant blood glucose reduction. A petroleum extract exhibited very weak anti-diabetic activity. (13)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Various leaf extracts were evaluated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The ethanol extract showed the highest DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. All extracts inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Results suggest potential use in the food and cosmetic industry. (14)
Antioxidant / Phenolic Composition: Various extracts were tested for radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest antioxidant activity, correlating with the high phenolic levels, particularly catechin and epicatechin. (15)
Anti-Diabetic / Rhizomes: In a study of various extracts in rats with allloxan-induced diabetes, the hydroalcoholic and aqueous fractions exhibited anti-diabetic activity. (16)
Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study of a hydroethanolic extract of Smilax china in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed pretreatment for 30 days reverted the biochemical parameters almost to normal. (18)
Testicular Antioxidant Activity / Spermatogenesis Benefits: Rats subjected to forced swimming stress showed increase lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular SOD, catalase, sperm count, viability and motility. Results showed pretreatment of rats with rhizome ethanol extracts showed good protection against testicular antioxidant activity and improved spermatological parameters. (17)
Antihepatotoxic / Roots: Study evaluated an methanolic extract of roots against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Results showed a dose-related protective action against CCl4-induced liver damage with significant effect on serum enzyme levels and morphological parameters supported by histopathological changes. The hepatoprotection was attributed the flavonoid content. (19)
Effects on Nicotine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Study investigated the effects of 10 compounds isolated from a 70% EtOH extract of Smilax china on nicotine-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Kaempferol, kaempferol 7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside, puerarin and ferulic acid showed strong inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule expression, while kaempferol, kaempferin and caffeic acid attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule expression. There was also up-regulated expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inhibitory effects on inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, inhibition of IL-8 and IL-1ß. Results showed the potential of the isolated compounds in reversing the toxic effect of nicotine on the endothelium. (21)
Antiobesity Effects: Study investigated the lipolytic actions of a water soluble fraction of Smilax china leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results showed potential antiobesity activity, which may be due, at least in part, to stimulation of cAMP-PKA-HSL signaling. The wsSCLE-stimulated lipolysis induced by signaling is mediated by activation of ß-adrenergic receptor. (22)
Anti-Diabetic / PTP1B, α-Glucosidase and DPP-IV Inhibitory Effects: Study of leaves isolated two new flavonoids, bismilachinone and smilachinin, together with 14 known compounds, from the leaves of Smilax china. Compounds 4, 7, and 10 showed moderate DPP-IV inhibitory activities, while compounds 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, and 16 showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities. Compounds 2-7, 11, 12, 15, and 16 showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Results show the leaves of Smilax china may contain antidiabetic compounds. (23)
Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells / Rhizomes: Study investigated the effects of rhizome extract of SC on ovarian cancer cells A2780. The rhizome extract suppressed A2780 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, p<0.01), arrested cells in G2/M phase and induced apoptosis by activating cspse-3, PARP and Bax. SC rhizome extract effectively inhibited NF-kB, induced apoptosis, and reduced chemoresistance to cisplatin and adriamycin in ovarian cancer cells, which may be the molecular basis for the treatment of ovarian cancer. (24)
Herb/Drug Interactions: (1) Interacts with digoxin (Lanoxin) increasing the absorption of digoxin. (2) Sarsaparilla might also decrease the elimination of lithium from the body. (25)
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of methanol extracts of Smilax chinensis in alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose (p<0.01) in a time-dependent manner. Extract treated groups also showed significant reduction (p<0.01) in serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. (26)
Antioxidant / Enzyme Fortifying Activity / Root: Study of a methanol root extract of Smilax china showed high DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 7.4 microg/ml) and protective property of cell's viability. Also, V79-4 cells treated with the methanol root extract induced an increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in a dose-dependent manner. (29)
Anti-HIV activity / Phenolics and Extracts: Study evaluated four extracts (EtOH, CHCl3, EtOAc and BuOH) and five phenolics i.e., dihydrokaempferol (1), resveratrol (2), kaempferol-7-O-ß-D-glucoside (3), dihydrokaempferl-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4), oxyresveratrol (5) for anti-HIV activities and cytotoxicity activities in vitro. All extracts and phenolics showed lower or no cytotoxicity. BuOH extract and compound 2 showed higher anti-HIV activities than other extracts and compounds. EtOAc and compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate anti-HIV-activities at concentrations higher than 4 µg/ml. (30)
Anti-Inflammatory / Phenolics / Rhizomes: Study of rhizomes isolated a new triflavanoid, kandelin B-5 (1), along with six known phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols (2-7), nine flavonoids (8-16), two stilbenoids (17,18), and two other compounds (19,20). Compounds 10, 15, and 17 showed slight inhibition of IL-1ß expression on LPS-induced THP-1 cells, with inhibition rte of 15.8%, 37.3%, and 35.8%, respectively, at concentration of 50 µg/ml. (32)
Antimetastatic on MDA-MB-231 Cells: Smilax china has shown anti-inflammatory, detoxification and anti-cancer effects. The effect of SC on breast cancer cell metastasis and underlying mechanism. was yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the effect of SC ethanol extract on proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell, and expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Results showed the SC extract exerted an antimetastatic effect on human breast cancer cells, which may involve the modulation of ECM (extra-cellular matrix) degradation. (33)
Endophytic (-)Mycousnine Derivative / Immunosuppressive: Endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella nawae ZILQ129, isolated from the leaves of Smilax china, yielded a dibenzofurane compound, (-)mycousnine (1). Modification to amide derivative (-)mycousnine enamine (2), the compound showed high and selective immunosuppressive activity, similar to cyclosporin A. Compound 2 selectively inhibited T cell proliferation, suppressed expression of surface activation antigens CD25 and CD69 and formation and expression of cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-y in activated T cells, without any effect on B cell proliferation and cancer cells (PANC-1 and A549). Cytotoxicity of compound 2 was lower than cyclosporin A, with a therapeutic index five fold higher. Results conclude (-)mycousnine enamine (2) is an effective novel immunosuppressant with low toxicity and high selectivity. (34)
Anti-Psoriatic / Rhizome: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of S. china rhizome for antipsoriatic activity. using mouse tail test. in Swiss albino mice. The ethyl acetate fraction of rhizome at 200 mg/kg showed maximum antipsoriatic activity with increase orthokeratotic region by 29% compared to the methanol extract. (35)
Cytotoxic Phenylpropanoid Glycosides / Stems: Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract of S. china stems isolated nine phenylpropanoids including six new compounds, smilasides A-F (1-6) and three known phenylpropanoids, smiglaside E, heloniosides B, and 2',5'-diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose. The new phenylpropanoids were evaluated against several human tumor cell lines. (36)
Inhibition of Testosterone Propionate-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia / Macroporous Resin: Study evaluated the effect of a fraction of macroporous resin (FMR), a bioactive component of smilax china, on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in castrated rats induced by testosterone propionate. FMR treatment inhibited prostatic hyperplasia, reducing the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level in serum and improved prostatic gland morphology. Results suggest the FMR is effective at inhibiting experimentally induced prostate enlargement, and presents potential valuable resource for treatment of human BPH. (37)
Cytotoxic Phenylpropanoid Glycosides / Stems: Invention relates to a Smilax china polyoses extract, with polyoses content of more than 20% w/w. The invention suggests that S. china polysaccharide has good anti-inflammatory activity, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. The invention seeks to provide a polyoses extract and its production for use in treating pelvic infection. (38)
Anti-Inflammatory Components / Reverstroal: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of S. china in rats. Compounds isolated were identified as reverstroal (1) and oxyreverstroal (2). Reverstroal inhibited cotton-induced granuloma in rats (p<0.05). (39)
Effect on Testiscular Antioxidant Activity and Spermatological Parameters: Study evaluated the potential benefits of ethanolic extract of S. china rhizomes on testicular antioxidant activity and spermatological parameters in rats using forced swimming stress. On forced swimming stress, rats showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular SOD, catalase, sperm count, viability, and motility, with abnormal sperm forms. Pretreatment with rhizome extract prevented stress-induced changes. Results suggest the extract showed free radical scavenging activity and restored normal spermatological parameters. Activity was attributed to known phytochemical constituents and unknown chemical constituents in the rhizomes extract. (40)
Protective Effect against Testicular Dysfunction / Rhizomes: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of S. china rhizomes in treating male reproductive dysfunctions induced by forced swimming in rats. The ethanolic extract showed promising improvement in fertility parameters in stressed rats. Results showed good protection against forced swimming induced male reproductive dysfunctions by inhibition of ∆-38 and 176-HSD enzymes. (41)

- Wild-crafted.
- Herbs, capsules, tablets, tinctures, root powder in the cybermarket.

updated September 2020 / August 2016

                                                    PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Smilax china - China root /File:Sarutoriibara 08b2110.jpg / ISAKA Yoji (CORY) / 5.23.2008 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Smilax china fruits in Yōrō Mountains / File:Smilax china fruits.JPG / Alpsdake / 19 Dec 2007 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Liliaceae - Smilax china / Medical botany by William Woodville / London, James Phillips, 1794 [-1795], 1. edition, supplement, plate 236. Hand-coloured engraving (sheet 174 x 227 mm / illustrated with excellent plates drawn and engraved by James Sowerby (Henrey) / MEEMELINK

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Smilax china / Plants For A Future
Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Smilax china L. aqueous extract / Xiao-Shun Shu, , Zhong-Hong Gao and Xiang-Liang Yang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 103, Issue 3, 20 February 2006, Pages 327-332 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.004
Studies on chemical constituents of rhizomes of Smilax china
/ Yan Xu, Jing-Yu Liang, Zhong-Mei Zou / China journal of Chinese materia medica (2008), Volume: 33, Issue: 21: pp 2497-2499 / PMID: 19149257
Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Smilax china L. / Lvyi Chen, Huafeng Yin, Zhou Lan et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 17 May 2011; Volume 135, Issue 2: pp 399-405 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.03.033
Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity profile of rhizome of Smilax china Linn. in mice / A Vijayalakshmi, V Ravichandiran et al / Indian Journ of Pharmacology, Feb 2011; Vol 43, No 1: pp 27-30
Anti-inflammatory activities of Sieboldogenin from Smilax china Linn.: Experimental and computational studies / Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Nisar et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 12 January 2009; Volume 121, Issue 1: pp175-177 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.009
Study on Antioxidant Stilbenes from the Rhizomes of Smilax china / ZHAO Zhongxiang, JIN Jing, ZHU Chenchen, ZHANG Cuixian et al / Traditional Chinese Drug Research & Clinical Pharmacology, 2008-02 / DOI: CNKI:SUN:ZYXY.0.2008-02-016
Study on the pharmacological action of Smilax China L on promoting blood circulation / Liu Yong Ning, Chen Dong Sheng and Xu Chu Hong / Chinese Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 2002-09 / DOI: CNKI:SUN:ZGYZ.0.2002-09-011
A flavonoid glycoside isolated from Smilax china L. rhizome in vitro anticancer effects on human cancer cell lines / Yuan-Li Li, Guo-Ping Gan et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 113, Issue 1, 15 August 2007, Pages 115-124 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.05.016
Smilax china L. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Smilax china / Common names / GLOBinMED
Studies on chemical constituents of Smilax china / Ruan J, Zou J, Cai Y. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Jan;28(1):24-6.
Antidiabetic activity of Smilax china roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats / B.G. SolomISSN: 0974-4304on Raju, B.Ganga Rao,Y.B. Manju Latha / Pharma Tech, Jan-Mar 2012; Vol 4, No 1: pp 369-374 / .
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Smilax china L. leaf extracts
/ Hye-Kyung Seo, Jong-Hwa Lee, Hyun-Su Kim, Chang-Kwon Lee, Seung-Cheol Lee / Food Science and Biotechnology, December 2012, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 1723-1727
PHENOLIC COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF SMILAX CHINA ROOT / CHANG-HO JEONG, HEE ROK JEONG, JI HYUN KWAK, JI HYE KIM, GWI NAM CHOI, DAE-OK KIM, UK LEE, HO JIN HEO* / Journal of Food Biochemistry, Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 98–107, February 2013 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2011.00610.x
Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction and anti- diabetic activity of Smilax china L. rhizome / Rajesh Bhati a, Anupama Singh, Vikas Anand Saharan , Veerma Ram, Anil Bhandari / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2011, 6 (5)
Effect of Smilax china Linn. on Testicular Antioxidant Activity and Spermatological Parameters in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Stress
/ C D Saraswathi, M V Suresh, Satyanarayan Sreemantula, K Venkata Krishna / International Research Journal of Pharmacy,2012, 3(11).
/ U. SARASWATHI AND N.R. NITHYA / Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper, Vol.12, Issue 1, 2010; Page No.(49-53)
Antihepatotoxic Activity of Smilax china Roots on CCl4-induced Hepatic Damage in Rats
/ B G Solomon Raju, Ganga Rao Battu, Manju Latha, R Srinivas / Int J Pharm Pharm Sci Vol 4, Issue 1, 494-496
Smilax china / Synonyms / The Plant List
Effects of Constituent Compounds of Smilax china on Nicotine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. / Lincha VR, Zhao BT, Woo MH, Yang IJ, Shin HM. / Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39(6):984-92. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b15-00997.
Antiobesity effects of the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of Smilax china L. leaf in 3T3-L1 adipocytes / Kang YH, Kim KK, Kim DJ, Choe M / Nutr Res Pract. 2015 Dec;9(6):606-12. / doi: 10.4162/nrp.2015.9.6.606. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
PTP1B, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV inhibitory effects for chromene derivatives from the leaves of Smilax china L./ Zhao BT, Le DD1, Nguyen PH2, Ali MY3, Choi JS3, Min BS1, Shin HM4, Rhee HI5, Woo MH / Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Jun 25;253:27-37 / doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.04.012
Smilax china L. rhizome extract inhibits nuclear factor-κB and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. /
Hu LL, Chen DS, Wang YY, Qin Y, Huang P, Yu LX, Liao J, Hua XL / Chin J Integr Med. 2015 Dec; 21 (12): 907-15 / doi: 10.1007/s11655-014-1788-9
Sarsaparilla / Interactions / WebMD
Studies on chemical constituents of rhizomes of Smilax china / Xu Y, Liang JY, Zou ZM / Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi: China journal of Chinese materia medica 33:21 2008 Nov pg 2497-9
Tremendous health benefits and clinical aspects of Smilax china / Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, and Qi Cheng / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Oct 2019; 13(6): pp 253-258 / DOI: 10.5897/AJPP2019.5070
Free radical scavenging and antioxidant enzyme fortifying activities of extracts from Smilax china root / S E Lee, E M u, J H Kim / Exp Mol Med., Dec 2001; 33(4): pp 263-268 /  doi: 10.1038/emm.2001.43.
Anti-HIV-1 activities of extracts and phenolics from Smilax china L. / Wei-Xin Wang, Jing-Yi Qian, Xiao-Jing Wang, Ai-Ping Jiang, and Ai-Qun Jia / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci.,, Jan 2014; 27(1): pp.147-151
Distinguishing Smilax glabra and Similax china rhizomes by flow-injection mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis / Jian Liang, Hui-Lian Huang et al / Acta Pharmaceutica, 68(1) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/acph-2018-0003
Phenolic Compounds from the Rhizomes of Smilax china L. and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity / Cheng Zhong, Deng Hu, Lian-Bing Hou, Lu-Yao Song, Ying-Jun Zhang, Yang Xie, and Li-Wen Tian / Molecules, 2017, 22, 515 / doi:10.3390/molecules22040515
Anti‑metastatic effect of Smilax china L. extract on MDA‑MB‑231 cells / Kyoung Jin Nho, Jin Mi chun, Ho Kyoung Kim / Molecular Medicine Reports /  https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2014.2698
A Novel Derivative of (-)mycousnine Produced by the Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella nawae, Exhibits High and Selective Immunosuppressive Activity on T Cells / Li-Wei Yang, Jin-Liang Wang, Jing Chen, Feng-Yang Chen et al / Fontiers in Microbiology,, July 2017 / https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01251
Anti-Psoriatic Activity of Smilax china Linn. Rhizome / Vijayalakshmi A, Ravichandiran V, Malarkodi Velraj, Nirmala S, Anusha Male, Jayakumari S, and Masilamani K / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2013; 47(1): pp 82-89
Cytotoxic Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from the Stems of Smilax china / Yao-Haur Kuo, Ya-Wen Hsu, Chia-ching Liaw, Jiu Kuan Lee, Hui-Chi Huang, and Li-Ming Yang Kuo / Journal of Natural Products, 2005; 68(10): pp 1475-1478 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np050109q
Fraction of Macroporous Resin from Smilax china L. Inhibits Testosterone Propionate–Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Rats / Jing Chen, Chao-Mei Xiong, Shan-Shan Song, Pan Han, and JinLan Ruan / Journal of Medicinal Food, 2012; 15(7) / https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2011.1968
A kind of Smilax china L polyoses extract and preparation method thereof  / CN104248732B China, 2014
A Study of the Anti-inflammatory Components of Smilax China / Ruan Jin-lan, Zou Jian, Cai Ya-ling / Herald of Medicine 2005-08
SMILAX CHINA LINN ON TESTICULAR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND SPERMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS SUBJECTED TO FORCED SWIMMING STRESS / C.D. Saraswathi, M.V. Suresh, Satyanarayan Sreemantula, K.Venkata krishna / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2012; 3(11) / ISSN: 2230-8107
Forced swimming stress disrupts testicular steroidogenesis by inhibiting ∆53β and 17β-HSD enzymes, its protective effect by ethanolic extract of Smilax china Linn. / Saraswathi C.D, Suresh M.V, Satyanarayan Sreemantula / , 2013; 4(1): pp 18-24 / ISSN: 0975-7538International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences









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