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Family Euphorbiaceae
Shanghai beauty
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

Qin ye ying

Scientific names Common names
Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P.Wilson Shanghai beauty (Engl.)
Adenoropium integerrinum (Jacq.) Pohl Cotton-leafed jatropha (Engl.)
Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andrews) Pohl Fiddlehead jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha acuminata Desr. Fiddle-leaf spurge (Engl.)
Jatropha coccinea Link Fire-cracker (Engl.)
Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich Peregrina (Engl.)
Jatropha diversifolia var. pandurifolia (Andrews) M.Gomez Peregrina jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha hastata Jacq. Rose-flowered jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha integerrima Jacq. Spicy jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha integerrima var. coccinea (Link) N.P.Balakr.  
Jatropha integerrima var. hastata (Jacq) Fosberg  
Jatropha integerrima var. latifolia (Pax) N.P.Balakr.  
Jatropha moluensis Sessé & Moc.  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews  
Jatropha pandurifolia var. coccinea (Link) Pax  
Jatropha pandurifolia var.latifolia Pax  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews is a synonym of Jatropha integerrima Jacq.
Jatropha integerrima Jacq. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qin ye ying (Taiwan).
JAPANESE: Yatorofa integerima.
RUSSIAN: atrofa tsel'nokrainiaia, Korallovyi tsvetok.
SPANISH: Alelí, Alhelí, Peregrina, Jatrofa.
THAI: Pattawia.

Gen info
- The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, sub-shrubs, and herbs in the seasonably dry tropics of the Old and New World. (18)
- Jatropha integerrima, commonly known as peregrina or spicy jatropha, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
- The genus name Jatropha derives from Greek words iatros, meaning "physician", and trophe, meaning "nutrition".

• Jatropha integerrima is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, showy, emerging as clusters on terminal cymes and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long. Fruit is an oval 60loobed capsule containing 3 smooth and spotted seeds.

- Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread.
- Native to Cuba.

- Diterpene constituents consist of macrocyclic diterpenes jatrophone, jatrophatrione, jatropholone A-B, riolozatrione, curcusones A-D, rhamnofolane, lathyrane.
- Extracts of leaves and stems yielded tannin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins.
- Seed oil of J. pandurifolia yielded 38.40% oil content. Methyl ester analysis showed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in varying proportions along with hydroxy fatty acid up to 8.6%. (11)
- Methanolic extract of stem bark of J. pandurifolia isolated seven compounds viz. 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), jatropholone A (2), jatropholone B (3), 2α-hydroxyjatropholone (4), 2β-hydroxyljatropholone (5), scopoletin (6) and aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxycinnamate (7). (12)
- Phytochemical screening using two solvent crude extracts (ethyl acetate and methanol) yielded alkaloids (EA,M), flavanoids (EA,M), steroids (EA,M), tannins (EA), and phenols (EA). Total phenol content was 408.00±34.00 µg GAE/g. Total flavanoid content for ethyl extract of leaves was 10.14±0.59 µg QE/g. (14)
- Study of essential oil of leaves yielded pentadecanal (32.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%) and ß-ionone (10.8%) as major components. Seeds oil yielded mainly alipathic hydrocarbons viz. pentacosane (13.6%), hexacosane (13.3%), octacosane (12.3%) and heptacosane (10.1%). (see study below) (15)
- Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). (see study below) (16)
- Study of roots yielded five new compounds, 2a-hydroxyjatropholone (1), 2ß-hydroxyjatropholone (2), 1,5-dioxo-2,3-dihydroxyrhamnofola=4)10),6,11(18),15-tetraene (3), 2-keto-5-hydroxyguai-3,11-diene (4), and a sesquiterpene-coumarin conjugate, jatrophadioxan (5), along with nine known compounds. The six diterpenes were evaluated for antiplasmodial, antituberculosis, and cytotoxic activities. (19)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex of J. integerrima yielded a new cycloheptapeptide, integerrimide C (1). (see study below) (20)
- GC-MS analysis of leaves and seeds for essential oil showed significant variation. Leaf EO yielded pentadecanal (32.4%^), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), and ß-ionone (10.8%) as major components. Seed oil comprised mainly of alipathic hydrocarbons, pentacosane (13.6%), hexacosane (13.3%), octacosane (12.3%), and heptacosane (10.1%). Defatted seed oil was predominantly made up of monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (35.5%), p-cymene (20.5%) and α-pinene (16.5%). (see study below) (25)

- Drought tolerant.
- Considered purgative, styptic, emetic.
- Latex considered toxic.
- Leaves, when accidentally chewed. can cause stomachalgia and can be purgative.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiproliferative, wound healing, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-neurodegenerative, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, tyrosinase inhibitory properties.

Toxicity concerns
- Caution: Seed capsules which follow the flowers hold several smooth, speckled and toxic seeds, a fact that advises the plant should be place out of the reach of children. (17)
- Plant sap can cause contact dermatitis with skin irritation, itching, and rashes.
- Monkolvisut et al (2006) reported the latex to be toxic and the leaves can cause stomachache and purgative effects.
Levine et al (2000) reports of toxicity on two boys who developed who developed intractable vomiting, colicky abdominal pains and water diarrhea one hour after ingestion of ten seeds each. (18)


- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used in the treatment of warts, tumors, rheumatism, herpes, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, eczema and ringworm.
- Various parts have been used as purgative, styptic, emetic; used for treatment of tumors, herpes, warts, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm and eczema. (28)
- Dye: Flowers yield a natural dye. (21)
- Biodiesal:
Potential for biodiesel production.

Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic:
Study on the n-hexane extract of the plant showed significant inhibitory activity against tested microorganisms. It also showed significant cytotoxicity when subjected to brine shrimp lethality assay. (1)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Five indigenous plants, including J pandurifolia, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. All the extractives were shown to possess significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Significant antioxidant activity was noticed by the chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of J pandurifolia, and moderate antioxidant activity from the methanolic extract of the leaves of JP. (2)
Integerrimene / Roots: Study isolated integerrimene, a possible biogenetic precursor of the rhamnofolane diterpenes and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide 2-epicaniojane from the roots of J. integerrima. (3)
Cyclic Peptides / Cytotoxic Activity / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclopeptides: integerrima cyclopeptide 4 and integerrima cyclopeptide B from fractionation of ethyl acetate extract of latex. The two cyclopeptides showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB tumor cells with IC values of 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.66 ±0.08, respectively. (6)
Cyclic Heptapeptides / Antiproliferative / Melanoma Cells / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclic heptapeptides, integerrimides A and B, from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Both peptides significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell culture. They also partially inhibited proliferation of human IPC-298 melanoma cells as well as migration of human Capan II pancreatic carcinoma cells. (7)
Enantiomeric Neolignans and Sesquineolignans / Inhibition of NO Production: Study of trunk of JI isolated two pairs of new sesquineolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignans A and B (1a/1b and 2a/2b), one pair of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignan D (4a/4b), and two new neolignans, (+)-jatrointelignan C (3a), and (+)-schisphenlignan I (5a) together with seven known analogues. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 4b exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production. (8)
Antimicrobial / Roots: In a study of successive extracts of roots of three jatropha species viz. J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, and J. integerrima for antibacterial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans, all the extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 mg/ml extract. (9)
Catalase Activity / Monitoring of Environmental Pollution: Study assessed the activity of detoxifying peroxide enzymes as indicators of local air pollution. Results showed that catalase activity is more effective in stress conditions in J. integerrima and C. surattensis and could be a way to estimate atmospheric pollution in tropical countries. (10)
• Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the anthocyanin content, antioxidant and toxicity activity of four red flowers (Bougainvillea glabra, Jatropha integerrima, Melastoma malabathricum and Mussaenda philippica) by DPPH and Brine Shrimp Lethality method. Jatropha integerrima showed the strongest antioxidant activity (11.67 ppm), the richest anthocyanin content (15.83 mg CGE/100 g DW) and was not toxic. Results suggest a potential pigment source for food and natural product applications. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oils of leaves and seeds by GC and GC-MS. The oils showed weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (15)
• Natural Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors / Trunks: Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy with redox balance and antioxidant functions. Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). Compounds 1,3,6,7 and 15-21 showed stronger activity than positive control curcumin (IC50 25.0 µM). Compounds 17 and 19 showed highest activity with IC50 of 9.4 and 6.8 µM, respectively. (16)
• Cytotoxicity / Cycloheptapeptide / Latex: Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex isolated a new cycloheptapeptide, integerride C, which exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against tumor kB cells with IC50 1.7µM.(20)
• Larvicidal / Antifeedant / Leaves: Study evaluated the larvicidal and antifeedant activities of ethyl acetate crude extracts of Jatropha integerrima leaves against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Maximum antifeedant activity was74.33% and 70.11% at 5% concentration and maximum larvicidal activity of chloroform extracts of 76.84% and 73.12% at 5% concentration against S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. Results indicate J. integerrima has potential as alternative botanical pesticide against S. litura and H. armigera. (22)
• Wound Healing / Roots: Invention reports on the use of J. integerrima root extracts for wound healing, using an ointment formulation of methanolic and/or aqueous extracts of roots. The ointments containing the extracts were evaluated for wound healing activity using three in vivo models viz. excision model in mice, incision model in rats and excision model in diabetic rats. Results showed the J. integerrima root extracts, particularly methanol and aqueous extracts have significant wound healing property as evidenced by significant reduction of epithelization and elevation of hydroxyproline content. (23)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Oral and Topical Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of J. integerrima leaves extract (JILE) using rat paw edema model. Extract was applied orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg or topically as cream at 2.5, 5, and 10% strength. Results showed maximum reduction of edema volume by 63.09% compared to indomethacin at 6o.43%. The anti-inflammatory effect was accompanied by decrease in NO, PGE2, TNFα, and PKC by 19, 29.35, 16.9, 47.83%, respectively. Topical application showed dose-dependent reduction in paw edema and normalized levels of PGE2m TNFα, and PKC with the 10% cream. Signs of inflammation were reduced or absent from the paw tissue of tested animals. LC/MS analysis of JILE yielded 133 metabolites, including 24 diterpenoids, 19 flavonoids, 10 phenolic acid conjugates, 8 cyclic peptides, 6 phytosterols, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 4 coumarins. Several of the annotated metabolites, such as vitexin, isovitexin, fraxitin, scopoletin, stigmasterol, among others. (24)
• Essential Oil / Weak Antimicrobial Activity / Seeds and Leaves: GC-MS study evaluated seeds and leaves for essential oil. The oils displayed weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (25)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study reports on a safe method of synthesis of J-AgNPs using Jatropha integerrima leaves extract as reducing agent. The J-AgNPs and ampicillin-nanocomposite conjugate were investigated for potential antibacterial effects against four clinical isolates and cytotoxic effects against cancer and normal cell lines. The J-AgNPs showed strong antibacterial effect, although the ampicillin conjugate from showed very weak antibacterial effect. The NPs caused reduction in cell viability of all treated cells by initiating ultrastructural changes and apoptosis, identified by TEM and LSM analysis. (26)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of JIF-NPs was evaluated by well diffusion and microdilution techniques. The JIF-NPs showed highest and lowest growth inhibitory activity towards E. coli and B. subtilis. MICs against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and B. subtilis were 2.5, 5.0, 5.0, and 7.5 µg/mL, respectively. The JIF-NPs exhibited significant radical scavenging activities against DPPH, hydroxyl, Superoxide, and ABTS with IC50s of 32.5, 25, 42.5, and 33.5 µg/mL, respectively. Results suggest potential for the NPs as alternative antibacterial and antioxidant. (27)
• Anti-Neurodegenerative / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers: Study evaluated the methanolic extract of J. integerrima flowers yielded saponins, flavonoids, phenols, quinone and proteins. The extract showed promising concentration-dependent antioxidant activities using DPPH, FRAP, and H2O2 scavenging assays. Anti-inflammatory property was evidenced by potentials against albumin denaturation and heat induced hemolysis. The extract also effectively inhibited acetylcholine esterase and tyrosinase in invitro assays to suggest anti-neurodegenerative capabilities. (28)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective properties of ethanolic extract of J. integerrima leaves in a rat model of liver injury produced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Results showed significant dose-dependent decrease in blood levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin. There was also statistically significant reduction in overall oxidative stress levels. The hepatoprotective activity was supported by histopathological evidence of hepatocyte protection against CCl2 damage. Results suggest a potential hepatoprotective agent. (29)
• Nephroprotective / Chromium Exposure: Study evaluated the effect of J. integerrima on renal functions of male Albino rats exposed to chromium. Study was done in three phases: Acute, sub-chronic, and Chronic. Mean CRP. KIM, urea, and creatinine levels were significantly lower in the treatment group. compared to controls. Results showed J. integerrima may have potential to heal reverse the injurious effects if given as therapy for up to 30 to 60 days. (30)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

Updated July 2024 / December 2020 /September 2017 / December 2016
July 2010

                                                           PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Preliminary Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Jatropha pandurifolia / Afsana Akhter et al / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 27 (6): 918-21 (2008)
Free radical scavenging activities of some indigenous plants of Bangladesh / Shah M Adib et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 13, No 1, Jan 2010
A novel 8,9-seco-rhamnofolane and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide from Jatropha integerrima roots / Somyote Sutthivalyakit et al /
Tetrahedron Letters, April 2003; Volume 44, Issue 18: pp 3637-3640 /
Jatropha integerrima / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Sorting Jatropha names / Common names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Cytotoxic activity of two cyclic peptides from the latex of Jatropha integerrima Euphorbiaceae
/ Welé A, Baraguèye C, Ndiaye W, Fall D, Ndoye I, Diop Y, Dubosq L, Bodo B. / Dakar Med. 2007;52(3):209-15.
Integerrimides A and B, Cyclic Heptapeptides from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Wantana Mongkolvisut, Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Heiko Leutbecher, Sabine Mika, Iris Klaiber, Wolfgang Möller, Harald Rösner, Uwe Beifuss, and Jürgen Conrad / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (10), pp 1435–1441 / DOI: 10.1021/np0602012
Enantiomeric neolignans and sesquineolignans from Jatropha integerrima and their absolute configurations /
Jian-Yong Zhu, Bao Cheng, Yin-Jia Zheng, Zhen Dong, Shu-Ling Lin, Gui-Hua Tang, Qiong Gua and Sheng Yin* / RSC Adv., 2015,5, 12202-12208 / DOI: 10.1039/C4RA15966G
IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF SOME JATROPHA SPECIES (FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE) / Surendra K Sharma, Harneet Singh / 30-Jun-2013 Research Article July - September 2013
DETOXIFYING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN TWO PLANT SPECIES EXPOSED TO AIR POLLUTION IN ABIDJAN CITY (CÔTE D'IVOIRE). / Koffi N'guessan Achille, Angaman Djédoux Maxime*, Barima Yao Sadaiou Sabas, Dongui Bini Kouamé / IJPAES, Volume-5, Issue-1, Jan-Mar-2015
Characterization of an Oxygenated Fatty Acid in Jatropha pandurifolia Seed oil for Hydroxy Fatty Acids / Swatika Sharma*, Seema Parveen, Abdul Malik and MRK. Sherwani / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 2(4), Oct-Dec 2013
Isolation of Terpenes and Coumarin from the Stem Bark of Jatropha pandurifolia (Andr.) / F.T. ZOHORA, P. SARKAR, F.S. TAREQ, F. ISLAM, C.M. HASAN,* and M. AHSAN / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 25, No. 5 (2013), 2853-2856
Antioxidant and toxicity properties of anthocyanin extracted from red flower of four tropical shrubs / HARLINDA KUSPRADINI , ANINDYA MARSABELLA ROSIARTO, AGMI SINTA PUTRI, IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA / NUSANTARA BIOSCIENCE, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 135-140 November 2016 / DOI: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n080201
A comparison of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and insecticidal properties of Jatropha species and wild Ricinus communis L. found in Mauritius / Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa*, Vijayanti Mala Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya / Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014; 7(Suppl 1): S384-S390 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60263-7
Chemical composition and antimicrobial studies of the essential oils of Jatropha integerrima Jacq (Leaf and Seeds) / Adeolu O. Eshilokun, Kasali Adeleke, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande, William N. Setzer / Natural Product Communications, 2007; 2(8): pp 853-855 /
Natural thioredoxin reductase inhibitors from Jatropha integerrima / Jian-Yong Zhu, Lan-Lan Lou, Yan-Qiong Guo, Weil Li, Yan-Hong Guo, Jing-Mei Bao, Gui-Hua Tang, Xian-Zhang Bu, and Sheng Yin / RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 47235-47243  / DOI:10.1039/C5RA07274C
Jatropha integririma: Peregrina / Edward F Gilman, Dennis G Watson, Ryan W Klein, Andrew K Koeser, Deborah R Hilbert, and Drew C McLean / UF:IFAS Extension: University of Florida
Medicinal property, phytochemistry and pharmacology of several Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae): A review / Carla W Sabandar, Norizan Ahmat, Faridahanim Mohd Jaafar, I Sahidin / Phytochemistry, 2013; 85: pp 7-29
Diterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and a Sesquiterpene-Coumarin Conjugate from Jatropha integerrima / Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Wantana Mongkolvisut, Samran Prabpai, and Palangpon Kongsaeree / J Nat Prod, 2009; 72(11): pp 2024-2027 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np900342b
Novel Cytotoxic Cycloheptapeptide from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Ndoye Idrissa, Diedhiou Adama, Balde Mamadou, Sylla Gueye Rokhaya, Tine Yoro, Wele Alassane and Fall Djibril / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 8(11): pp 135-139 / ISSN: 0975-7384
Dyeing of silk with natural dyes (English) / Ekta Grover, Anshu Sharma, Bhawana Rawat, Susan Paul, Jahan Shannaz / International Dyer, 2005; 190(10): pp 9-16 / ISSN: --20-658X
Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of ethyl acetate extract or Jatropha integerrima against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera / T Chinnamani / International Journal of Zoologyy Studies, May 2018; 3(3): pp 10-14 / ISSN: 2455-7269
Compostion Comprising Herbal Extract of Jatropha integerrima Jacq and Uses Thereof / Prof. Surendra Kumar Sharma, Harneet Singh / Traditional Knowledge Biotechnologu / Application ID 2398/DEL/2013
Oral and Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Jatropha integerrima Leaves Extract in Relation to Its Metabolite Profile / Engy A Mahrous, Ahmed H Elosaily, Abeer A A Salama, Ahmed M Salama, Soheir M El-Zalabani / Plants (Basel), 2022; 11(2): 218 / DOI: 10.3390/plants11020218 / PMCID: PMC8781579 / PMID: 35050106
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Studies of the Essential Oils of Jatropha integerrima Jacq (Leaf and Seeds) / Adeolu O Eshilokun, Kasali Adeleke, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande, Tameka M Walker et al / Natural Product Communications, 2019; 2(8): pp 853-855 / DOI: 10.1177/1934578X0700200813
Silver Nanoparticles Formation by Jatropha integerrima and LC/MS-QTOF-Based Metabolite Profiling / Afrah E Mohammed, Lamya Ahmed Al-Keridis, Ishrat Rahman et al / Nanomaterials (Basel), 2021; 11(9): 2400 / PMID: 34578715 / PMCID: PMC8468306 / DOI: 10.3390/nano11092400
Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Jatropha integerrima Jacq. flower extract and their possible applications as antibacterial and antioxidant agent / Gunasekaran Suriyakala, Sivaji Sathiyaraj, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Mohamad S Alsalhi, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam et al / Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 2022; 29(2): pp 680-688 / DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.12.007
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative activities of Jatropha integerrima Jacq. floral methanolic extract / Ayman Geddawy, Karukuvelraja, KP Shamna, Muhammad Mustafa Poyil / Annals of Phytomedicine, 2023; 12(1): pp 514-522 / DOI: 10.54085/ap.2023.12.1.32
The Hepatoprotective Effects of Jatropha integerrima Leaves Extracts on Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Liver Damage in Rats / Maqsood Ali, Gao Xue / OUCI, 2023 / DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-3567322/v1
Evaluation of the Effect of Jatropha integerrima (Euphorbiaceae) on the renal Function of Male Albino Wistar Rats Exposed to Chromium / M J Andy-Nwokocha, E O Nwachuku, E S Bartimaeus, C C Obunwo / Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021; 14(1): pp 44-52 / DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130237

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,500 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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