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Family Euphorbiaceae
Shanghai beauty
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.
FIDDLEHEAD JATROPHA

Qin ye ying

Scientific names Common names
Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P.Wilson Shanghai beauty (Engl.)
Adenoropium integerrinum (Jacq.) Pohl Fiddlehead jatropha (Engl.)
Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andr.) Pohl Fiddle-leaf spurge (Engl.)
Jatropha acuminata Desr. Peregrina (Engl.)
Jatropha coccinea Link Rose-flowered jatropha (Engl.)
Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich  
Jatropha hastata Jacq.  
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andr.  
Jatropha pauciflora C.Wright ex Griseb..  
Jatropha pandurifolia Andrews is a synonym of Jatropha integerrima Jacq. The Plant List
Jatropha integerrima Jacq. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qin ye ying (Taiwan).
JAPANESE: Yatorofa integerima.
RUSSIAN: atrofa tsel'nokrainiaia, Korallovyi tsvetok.
SPANISH: Alelí, Alhelí, Peregrina.
THAI: Pattawia.

Botany
Jatropha integerrima is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, branching at the terminal part and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long.

Distribution
- Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread.
- Native to the West Indies.

Constituents
- Diterpene constituents consist of macrocyclic diterpenes jatrophone, jatrophatrione, jatropholone A-B, riolozatrione, curcusones A-D, rhamnofolane, lathyrane.
- Extracts of leaves and stems yielded tannin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins.
- Seed oil of J. pandurifolia yielded 38.40% oil content. Methyl ester analysis showed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in varying proportions along with hydroxy fatty acid up to 8.6%. (11)
- Methanolic extract of stem bark of J. pandurifolia isolated seven compounds viz. 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), jatropholone A (2), jatropholone B (3), 2α-hydroxyjatropholone (4), 2β- ydroxyljatropholone (5), scopoletin (6) and aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxycinnamate (7). (12)
- Phytochemical screening using two solvent crude extracts (ethyl acetate and methanol) yielded alkaloids (EA,M), flavanoids (EA,M), steroids (EA,M), tannins (EA), and phenols (EA). Total phenol content was 408.00±34.00 µg GAE/g. Total flavanoid content for ethyl extract of leaves was 10.14±0.59 µg QE/g. (14)
- Study of essential oil of leaves yielded pentadecanal (32.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%) and ß-ionone (10.8%) as major components. Seeds oil yielded mainly alipathic hydrocarbons viz. pentacosane (13.6%), hexacosane (13.3%), octacosane (12.3%) and heptacosane (10.1%). (see study below) (15)
- Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). (see study below) (16)

Properties
- Considered purgative, styptic, emetic.
- Latex considered toxic.
- Leaves, if accidentally chewed can cause stomachalgia and can be purgative.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiproliferative properties.


Uses

Folkloric
- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used in the treatment of warts, tumors, rheumatism, herpes, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, eczema and ringworm.


Studies
Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic:
Study on the n-hexane extract of the plant showed significant inhibitory activity against tested microorganisms. It also showed significant cytotoxicity when subjected to brine shrimp lethality assay. (1)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Five indigenous plants, including J pandurifolia, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. All the extractives were shown to possess significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Significant antioxidant activity was noticed by the chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of J pandurifolia, and moderate antioxidant activity from the methanolic extract of the leaves of JP. (2)
Integerrimene / Roots: Study isolated integerrimene, a possible biogenetic precursor of the rhamnofolane diterpenes and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide 2-epicaniojane from the roots of J. integerrima. (3)
Cyclic Peptides / Cytotoxic Activity / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclopeptides: integerrima cyclopeptide 4 and integerrima cyclopeptide B from fractionation of ethyl acetate extract of latex. The two cyclopeptides showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB tumor cells with IC values of 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.66 ±0.08, respectively. (6)
Cyclic Heptapeptides / Latex / Antiproliferative: Study isolated two new cyclic heptapeptides, integerrimides A and B, from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Both peptides significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell culture. They also partially inhibited proliferation of human IPC-298 melanoma cells as well as migration of human Capan II pancreatic carcinoma cells. (7)
Enantiomeric Neolignans and Sesquineolignans / Inhibition of NO Production: Study of trunk of JI isolated two pairs of new sesquineolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignans A and B (1a/1b and 2a/2b), one pair of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignan D (4a/4b), and two new neolignans, (+)-jatrointelignan C (3a), and (+)-schisphenlignan I (5a) together with seven known analogues. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 4b exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production. (8)
Antimicrobial / Roots: In a study of successive extracts of roots of three jatropha species viz. J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, and J. integerrima for antibacterial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans, all the extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 mg/ml extract. (9)
Catalase Activity / Monitoring of Environmental Pollution: Study assessed the activity of detoxifying peroxide enzymes as indicators of local air pollution. Results showed that catalase activity is more effective in stress conditions in J. integerrima and C. surattensis and could be a way to estimate atmospheric pollution in tropical countries. (10)
• Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the anthocyanin content, antioxidant and toxicity activity of four red flowers (Bougainvillea glabra, Jatropha integerrima, Melastoma malabathricum and Mussaenda philippica) by DPPH and Brine Shrimp Lethality method. Jatropha integerrima showed the strongest antioxidant activity (11.67 ppm), the richest anthocyanin content (15.83 mg CGE/100 g DW) and was not toxic. Results suggest a potential pigment source for food and natural product applications. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oils of leaves and seeds by GC and GC-MS. The oils showed weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (15)
• Natural Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors / Trunks: Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy with redox balance and antioxidant functions. Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). Compounds 1,3,6,7 and 15-21 showed stronger activity than positive control curcumin (IC50=25.0 µM). Compounds 17 and 19 showed highest activity with IC50 of 9.4 and 6.8 µM, respectively. (16)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Updated September 2017 / December 2016
July 2010


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Preliminary Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Jatropha pandurifolia / Afsana Akhter et al / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 27 (6): 918-21 (2008)
(2)
Free radical scavenging activities of some indigenous plants of Bangladesh / Shah M Adib et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 13, No 1, Jan 2010
(3)
A novel 8,9-seco-rhamnofolane and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide from Jatropha integerrima roots / Somyote Sutthivalyakit et al /
Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 44, Issue 18, 28 April 2003, Pages 3637-3640 /
doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(03)00704-4
(4)
Jatropha integerrima / Synonyms / The Plant List
(5)
Sorting Jatropha names / Common names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(6)
Cytotoxic activity of two cyclic peptides from the latex of Jatropha integerrima Euphorbiaceae
/ Welé A, Baraguèye C, Ndiaye W, Fall D, Ndoye I, Diop Y, Dubosq L, Bodo B. / Dakar Med. 2007;52(3):209-15.
(7)
Integerrimides A and B, Cyclic Heptapeptides from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Wantana Mongkolvisut, Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Heiko Leutbecher, Sabine Mika, Iris Klaiber, Wolfgang Möller, Harald Rösner, Uwe Beifuss, and Jürgen Conrad / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (10), pp 1435–1441 / DOI: 10.1021/np0602012
(8)
Enantiomeric neolignans and sesquineolignans from Jatropha integerrima and their absolute configurations /
Jian-Yong Zhu, Bao Cheng, Yin-Jia Zheng, Zhen Dong, Shu-Ling Lin, Gui-Hua Tang, Qiong Gua and Sheng Yin* / RSC Adv., 2015,5, 12202-12208 / DOI: 10.1039/C4RA15966G
(9)
IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF SOME JATROPHA SPECIES (FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE) / Surendra K Sharma, Harneet Singh / 30-Jun-2013 Research Article July - September 2013
(10)
DETOXIFYING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN TWO PLANT SPECIES EXPOSED TO AIR POLLUTION IN ABIDJAN CITY (CÔTE D'IVOIRE). / Koffi N'guessan Achille, Angaman Djédoux Maxime*, Barima Yao Sadaiou Sabas, Dongui Bini Kouamé / IJPAES, Volume-5, Issue-1, Jan-Mar-2015
(11)
Characterization of an Oxygenated Fatty Acid in Jatropha pandurifolia Seed oil for Hydroxy Fatty Acids / Swatika Sharma*, Seema Parveen, Abdul Malik and MRK. Sherwani / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 2(4), Oct-Dec 2013
(12)
Isolation of Terpenes and Coumarin from the Stem Bark of Jatropha pandurifolia (Andr.) / F.T. ZOHORA, P. SARKAR, F.S. TAREQ, F. ISLAM, C.M. HASAN,* and M. AHSAN / Asian Journal of Chemistry; Vol. 25, No. 5 (2013), 2853-2856
(13)
Antioxidant and toxicity properties of anthocyanin extracted from red flower of four tropical shrubs / HARLINDA KUSPRADINI , ANINDYA MARSABELLA ROSIARTO, AGMI SINTA PUTRI, IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA / NUSANTARA BIOSCIENCE, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 135-140 November 2016 / DOI: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n080201
(14)
A comparison of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and insecticidal properties of Jatropha species and wild Ricinus communis L. found in Mauritius / Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa*, Vijayanti Mala Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya / Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014; 7(Suppl 1): S384-S390 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60263-7
(15)
Chemical composition and antimicrobial studies of the essential oils of Jatropha integerrima Jacq (Leaf and Seeds) / Adeolu O. Eshilokun, Kasali Adeleke, Isiaka Ajani Ogunwande, William N. Setzer / Natural Product Communication
(16)
Natural thioredoxin reductase inhibitors from Jatropha integerrima / Jian-Yong Zhu, Lan-Lan Lou, Yan-Qiong Guo, Weil Li, Yan-Hong Guo, Jing-Mei Bao, Gui-Hua Tang, Xian-Zhang Bu, and Sheng Yin / RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 47235-47243  / DOI:10.1039/C5RA07274C

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