Sibuyas-tagalog is a low herb, 15 to 50
centimeters high, with red, ovoid, subterranean bulbs, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, 1 to
4 centimeters in diameter, with accessory bulbs. Leaves are fistular, terete
and glaucous with pointed and subulate tips. Pedicles are long, erect,
fistular and 20 to 50 centimeters long. Umbels are rounded, 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters diameter,
containing many flowers. The pedicels are 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Sepals are
free, ovate-oblong, white or pale lilac, 0.4 to 0.9 centimeter long.
• Introduced during remote times.
• Grown extensively in Batangas Province and cultivated in other provinces in Luzon.
• Originated in the Levant.
• Now cultivated in Java, Malaya, and India.
• Contains ash,
phosphorus, calcium and iron.
a volatile oil that stimulates the tear glands and upper mucous membranes
causing the eyes and nose to water. This property is the homeopathic
basis for using it in treating illnesses associated with tearing eyes
and nasal discharge, such as hay fever and colds.
• Phytochemical screening showed presence of secondary metabolites
such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins,
cyanogenetic glycosides and flavonoids.
• Study of polar extracts of bulbs isolated two new furostanol saponins, ascalonicoside A1 and A2 (1,2) and ascalonicoside B (4), along with compounds 2A and 2B. High concentrations of quercetin, isorhamnetic, and their glycosides were isolated and described. (23)
• Bulbs considered stomachic, tonic, anthelmintic, antispasmodic,
aphrodisiac, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive
• Edible parts
are flowers, leaves and roots.
• Added to salads, used as flavoring or vegetable.
• Bulbs used for pickles in brine.
• In the Philippines, bulbs are used as anthelmintic, stomachic, and tonic.
• Also used for diarrhea, choleraic attacks, pain in the loins, headaches, laryngitis with hoarseness, coughs, amenorrhea, neuralgic
• Poultice of bulb for earache; also, juice dropped into canal.
• In Africa, juice
is rubbed on the body for fevers.
Malaya, juice of bulk,
with tumeric juice, is used for stomach aches.
• In the Gold Coast,
mixture of bulbs with palm oil and large Capsicums used for fever.
• Bulbs used as aphrodisiac and for earache.
pylori / Leaves: Crude extract
of leaf of AA showed therapeutic potential against H pylori and gastroduodenal
Protective / Antioxidant: Study showed the protective
potential of shallot extract against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, a
benefit probably contributed to by its antioxidant property. (3)
One of 15 medicinal herbs studied for antibacterial properties, A ascalonicum
showed effect against B cereus. (4)
• Antifungal: Study investigated the antifungal activities of the fresh extract of Allium ascalonicum. It showed remarkable activity against saprophytic fungi followed by Candida species and dermatophytes. (5)
• Antiangiogenesis: Study showed the ethyl acetate fraction potently inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Findings provide basis for further investigations on shallot for therapeutic and preventive activities against angiogenesis related disorders. (6)
• Hypoglycemic / Attenuation of Contractile Responsiveness: Study of AA on diabetic rats showed oral administration for two months could improve hyperglycemia and showed attenuation of contractile responsiveness of the vascular system and thus, may help prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats. (7)
• Anti-Cancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed the aqueous extract of A. ascalonicum with most the anti-growth activity on the cancer cell lines and significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. (8)
• Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic Effect: Study in diabetic rats showed oral administration of AA had a time-dependent significant hypoglycemic effect and improved the lipid profile except for HDL cholesterol. (9)
• Antihemolytic / Anti-Lipid Peroxidation: Study showed the hexane-extract of shallot had a very high activity on protecting the human erythrocyte from radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion in erythrocytes.
• Antioxidant: Study showed the antioxidant activity of Thai shallot and the tendency of application for protection and scavenging activity on hydroperoxide formation in the biological system. (10)
• Antimicrobial Activity: Study evaluated various extracts for antimicrobial activity. Fresh extracts of garlic showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and shallots. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Among bacteria, Bacillus cereus was most sensitive; among fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum. (12)
• Antimycobacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Allium ascalonicum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results showed antimycobacterial activity with an MIC value of 500ug/ml., and implies the extract could be used as an effective agent against M. tuberculosis. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Crude Juices: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, and Allium sativum. Results showed strong antibiotic properties, and the complete absence of development of resistance from juices of Allium species merit consideration. (14)
• Antihyperglycemic / Cardiovascular Effects: Study evaluated the effects of Allium ascalonicum on contractile reactivity of isolated thoracic aorta from diabetic Wistar rats. Results showed oral administration of AA for two months improved hyperglycemia and attenuated the contractile responsiveness of the vascular system, and may help prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats. (15)
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa Inhibition / Bulbs: Study evaluated the activity of extracts of underground bulbs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed P. aeruginosa was sensitive to the bactericide type effect of the extract. The most effective was a 50% aqueous solution. (16)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol and aqueous extracts significantly exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of albumin-induced paw edema in rats. The methanol extract showed analgesic activity at all test doses. (17)
• Ethnoveterinary Antidermatophytic: Crude methanol extracts of Piper betel leaves, Alpinia galanga rhizomes, and Allium ascalonicum bulbs were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and yeast-like Candida albicans. All extracts suppressed the growth of fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. (18)
• Comparative Antifungal Study / Candida albicans: Study evaluated and compared the antifungal activities of ethanol extracts A. ascalonicum, Marticaria chamomilla and Stachys lavandulifolia on Candida albicans. While all three extracts were effective, Allium escalonicum showed the highest antifungal activity on Candida albicans with an MIC50% of 0.39 mg/ml, MIC90% of 8.5 mg/ml, and MFC of 20. (21)
• Anticancer / HepG2 Cell Line / Dry and Fresh Bulbs: Study investigated the anticancer activity of ethanol extracts of dry and fresh dry and fresh shallot bulbs (A. ascalonicum). Results showed both dry and fresh shallot extracts have anticancer potential with IC50 of 50 µg/ml. (22)
• Mucolytic: Study studied the mucolytic activity of shallot extract in vitro based on decreased viscosity of egg whites by Bookfield viscometer. At 25% concentration, the mucolytic activity of shallot extract was almost equal to 0.2% N-acetylcysteine. (24)
• Anti-Listeriosis / Essential Oil: Study showed shallot essential oil has high antibacterial power against Listeria monocytogenes (Hsani et al, 2011). (25)
• Anxiolytic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of aerial parts of hydroalcoholic extract of A. ascalonicum. Results showed anxiolytic properties using hole-board test, elevated plus-maze, light/dark exploration, open field and social interactions tests. (26)
• Wound Healing / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extracts of A. ascalonicum in a rat model. Results showed potential antimicrobial activity by inhibition of gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Histological studies showed the complete epidermis and the collagen fibers similar to the dermis of the standard group. Study showed the AAE extract possess antimicrobial and wound healing activities. (27)
Cultivated market produce.