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Family Leguminosae / Fabaceae
Sila-sila
Derris trifoliata Lour.

THREE-LEAF DERRIS
Yu teng

Scientfic names  Common names 
Dalbergia heterophylla Willd. Asi-asiman (Tag.) 
Dalbergia trifoliata (Lour.) Taub. Bugong (Bis.) 
Dalbergia uliginosa (Willd.) Baill. Hingasan (P. Bis.) 
Derris floribunda Prain Hingasinan (P. Bis.) 
Derris forsteniana Miq. Mangasin (Tag.) 
Derris heterophylla (Willd.) K.Heyne Sabuko (Bag.) 
Derris heteropylla (Willd.) Backer Sila-sila (Tag.) 
Derris trifoliata Lour. Tuba-tuba (Yak.) 
Derris uliginosa (Willd.) Benth Common derris (Engl.)
Galedupa uliginosa (Willd.) Benth Derris (Engl.) 
Pongamia madagascariensis Baker Sea derris (Engl.) 
Pongamia uliginosa (Baker) DC. Three-leaf derris (Engl.) 
Pterocarpus frutescens Blanco  
Pterocarpus uliginosus Roxb.  
Robinia uliginosa Willd.  
Derris trifoliata Lour. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Panlata, Panlota, Kali lota Goali lata, Kirtana.
CHINESE: Du yu teng, San ye yu teng, Lou teng, Yu teng.
INDONESIAN: Tuwa areuy.
MALAGASY: Fanamovahy, Vahinamo, Vahisamonta.
MALAY: Kĕtui, Sĕtui, Tuba bekut.
SINHALESE: Kala-Wel.
TAMIL: Tekil, Tilankoddi, Uppu Thailan-Kodi.
TELUGU: Nalla tiga.
THAI: Phak thaep.
VIETNAMESE: Cóc Kèn.

Botany
Silasila is a smooth, climbing shrub, reaching a length of 8 meters or less. Leaves are 10 to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are 3 to 7, shining, oblong-ovate and 4 to 13 centimeters long. Flowers are white, often tinged with violet, 8 to 10 millimeters long, borne in simple axillary racemes or narrow panicles. Stamens are 10, usually monadelphous or the upper one free. Ovary is sessile, few-ovuled, superior. Fruits are pods subrhomboidal to broadly oblong, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, smooth, prominently veined, with a narrow wing along the upper suture and containing 1 to 2 seeds.

Distribution
- Abundant on muddy shores, along tidal streams, mangrove swamps, etc., throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in tropical East Africa and in Asia, through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Yields a considerable amount of tannin and red coloring matter.
- A quantitative determination showed the tannin in the bark at 9.3%.
- Study reported the bark to yield a neutral crystalline principle, wax, two resins, two coloring matters, an alkaloid, glucose, an acrid glucoside allied to saponin, gum, and mineral matter (8%).
- Stems yield, besides gum and sugar, an appreciable amount of inorganic salts, notably potassium nitrate.
- Acetone extract yielded a new isoflavonoid derivative, 7a-O-methyldeguelol (rotenoloid), with known rotenoids - rotenone, deguelin and a-toxicarol.
- Phytochemical screening yielded fatty acids, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, phenyl propanoids, tannin and mucilage.
- Study of aerial parts isolated a new prenylated flavanone, 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-6,8-di-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)- flavanone, together with 11 known compounds: rotenone, tephrosin, 12a-hydroxyrotenone, deguelin, 6a,12a-dehydro- rotenone, dehydrodeguelin, 7a-O-methyldeguelol, 7a-O-methylelliptonol, 5,7,3',4'-tetra- hydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone, daidzein and 4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone. (see study below) (20)
- n-BuOH fraction of a methanolic extract of leaves yielded 15 compounds viz., inamoside, (6S,9R)-roseoside, (6R,9R)-3-oxo-a-ionyl ß-D-glucopyranoside, apocynoside, corchoionoside, citroside A, 2,6dimethoxy-p-hydroquinone 1-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, tachioside, isotachioside, benzyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside, n-hexyl ß-D-glucopyranoside, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-yl ß-D-glycopyranoside, maltol ß-D-glucopyranoside, mauritianin, and betulalbuside. (3)
- Study of stems isolated one new rotenoid, 6aα,12aα-12a-hydroxyelliptone, together with five known rotenoids. (see study below) (2)

Propertie
Pungent-tasting, warming.
Anticontusion, antispasmodic, analgesic, insecticide, stimulant, counterirritant.

Bark is alterative, insecticidal, fiscicidal.

Parts utilized
· Roots and stems.
· Collected year round.
· Rinse, section into slices, sun-dry, pulverize.

Uses
Folkloric
· Poultice of powdered material, heating with alcohol, applied to areas of swelling and sprains.
· Roots and stems may be used to kill maggots.
· In India, raw leaf juice used two or three times daily for chronic dysentery.
(23)
· In India plant used as stimulant, antispasmodic, and as counterirritant. Used for rheumatism, chronic paralysis and dysmenorrhea.
· In Papua New Guinea, root decoction used externally for fever and internally against sores.
· Stems used as laxative and for arthritis.
Others
· Fish poison: Crushed leaves dispersed in streams will kill fish and shrimp.
· Fodder: Leaves used as fodder.
· Dye: Bark yields up to 9.5% tannin.

Caution !
Contains rotenone and has an good insecticidal effect. Not to be taken internally.

Studies
Larvicidal / 7∂-O-methyldeguelol:: Study of acetone extract of roots isolated an isoflavonoid, 7a-O-methyldeguelol, and known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and a-toxicarol. Rotenone and deguelin were shown to have larvicidal properties. (1)
Larvicidal : Acetone extract of roots of Derris trifoliata showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. (6)
Cancer Chemopreventive / Rotenoid: A new rotenoid was isolated from the stems of DT together with five other known rotenoids. Screening showed inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation. Compound 3, 6aα,12aα-12a-hydroxyelliptone, showed inhibitory effect equivalent to ß-carotene without any toxicity. Deguelin (4) and α-toxicarol (5) showed marked inhibitory effect on mouse skin tumor promotion. Study indicated the rotenoids to be valuable anti-tumor promoters. (2)
Glycosidic Constituents: Phytochemical study from the leaves of D trifoliata yielded 15 glycosidic compounds. (see constituents above) (3)
Rotenoids / Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity: Study yielded nine rotenoids from the stems of D trifoliata. Results showed very potent inhibition of NO. Results showed scavenging activity, the highest with compound 5, followed by deguelin (1). All compounds showed no cytotoxicity. (4)
Anti-Hyperlipidemic: Study of methanolic extract of the leaves and stems of Derris trifoliata showed significant antihyperlipidemic effect with lowering of triglyceride and cholesterol levels with increase of HDL. (5)
Cytotoxic Rotenoloids / Cancer Chemopreventive: Study isolated a new rotenoloids, 6aα,12aα-12a-hydroxyelliptone from stem extracts, together with 5 known compounds. Deguelin, and a-toxicarol exhibited marked inhibitory effect on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo carcinogenesis test. The result of the present study indicates that rotenoids could be a potent candidate as a phytotherapeutic anti-tumor promoter.
Anti-Helicobacter pylori Effect: Study showed Derris trifoliata shows potential as a source of selective anti-H. pylori agent. (9)
Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production: Study isolated three known and two new rotenoid derivatives. The new derivatives, derrisfolin A and B, inhibited nitric oxide production in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. (12)
Diuretic Activity / Brine Shrimp Toxicity: Study evaluated aerial parts for diuretic activity in mice and general toxicity activity by brine shrimp test. Results showed significant diuretic effect, while BST lethality assay exhibited significant toxicity towards the brine shrimp nauplii. (13)
Anti-Diarrheal / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated an 80% ethanol extract of aerial parts on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Oral administration of the extract showed dose-dependent delay in the onset of diarrhea induced by castor oil, significant reduction in the number of diarrheal episodes and number of animals exhibiting diarrhea. (14)
Antioxidant / Analgesic / Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay comparable to ascorbic acid. In the analgesic activity test using the Tail Immersion method, results showed significant inhibition of pain. (15)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated various parts of D. ellipitca, D. indica and D. trifoiata for antimicrobial activity. Petrol and ethyl acetate fraction of D. trifoliata exhibited good antibacterial activity. (16) Methanol extracts of Derris trifoliata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. (19)
Antiplasmodial / Larvicidal: Study of extract of seed pods yielded a new flavanone derivative (S)-lupinifolin, together with known flavonoids lupiniflin and rotenone. Lupinifolin showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquin-sensitive and chloroquin-resistant strains of Plasmodium falcifarum. Different plant parts showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Rotenoids were identified as active principles. (17)
CNS Depressant Activity: Study of evaluated an ethanol extract of aerial parts for neurobehavioral activity. Results showed CNS depressant effects with potentiation of onset of sleep and prolongation of total sleeping time in mice. On exploratory behavior, there was significant effect on ambulation. (18)
Toxicity to Brine Shrimp: Study of aerial parts yielded a new flavanone, together with 11 known compounds. Eight of the isolated compounds were found to be significantly toxic to brine shrimp (LC50 0.06-9.95 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (20)
Rotenone Derivatives / Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activity / Stems: Study of stems isolated three known and two new rotenoid derivatives. The new derivatives, derrisfolin A and B inhibited nitric oxide production in murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. (21)
Deguelin / Anti-Tumorigenic: Deguelin, a natural compound from the flavonoid family, has been isolated from D. trifoliata. It exhibited significant anti-tumorigenesis and anti-proliferative activity in various types of cancer in vivo and in vitro. It induces cell apoptosis by blocking anti-apoptotic pathways, while inhibiting tumor cell propagation and malignant transformation through cell cycle control and anti-angiogenic pathways. Deguelin is identified as a novel anti-tumorigenic agent with potential for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. (22)
Deguelin / Apoptosis of Lung Squamous Carcinoma Cells: Study demonstrated deguelin induced significant apoptosis of lung SCC cells in vitro. It down-regulated the expression of galectin-1, which was involved in a wide range of tumorous physiologic processes. Results suggest deguelin may act as a new chemopreventive agent through induction of apoptosis of lung SCC cells in a galectin-1 dependent manner.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update June 2016


IMAGE SOURCE: File:Derris trifoliata fruit.jpg / derris trifoliata fruit / 9 March 2013 / Vengolis / /Vengolis / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Dalbergia frutescens.jpg / Illustration of Dalbergia frutescens (Orig. Dalbergia variabilis) / Flora Brasiliensis vol. 15 pt. 1 tab. 57 / 1859-1862 / Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868) / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain /File:Aganope thyrsiflora Blanco1.161-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata / doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.02.005 / Phytochemistry Vol 66, Issue 6, March 2005, Pages 653-657
(2)
Cancer chemopreventive activity of rotenoids from Derris trifoliata / Ito, C., Itoigawa, M., Kojima, N., Tan, H. T.-W., Takayasu, J., Tokuda, H., Nishino, H., et al. (2004) / Planta Medica, 70(6), 585-588. / DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-815447
(3)
Glycosidic constituents of the leaves of an Okinawan Leguminosae plant, Derris trifoliata Lour / Yoshio Takeda et al / Journal of Natural Medicines • Volume 62, Number 4 / October, 2008/ DOI 10.1007/s11418-008-0263-y
(4)
Nitric oxide inhibitory principles from Derris trifoliata stems / S. Tewtrakul, S. Cheenpracha, C. Karalai / Phytomedicine, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 568-572
(5)
Antihyperlipedemic effect of Derris Trifoliata Lour in Triton induced hyperlipedemia in rats / Thomas A et al / Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune – 411018, India /

(6)
Rotenoid derivatives from Kenyan Millettia and Derris species as larvicidal agents / Abiy Yenesew, John T Kiplagat et al / NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antannarivo, Madagascar
Cytotoxic rotenoloids from the stems of Derris trifoliata.
(7)
Cytotoxic rotenoloids from the stems of Derris trifoliata. / FreePatentsOnLine
(8)
Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Rotenoids from Derris trifoliata / Chihiro Ito, Masataka Itoigawa, Naoki Kojima et al / Planta Med 2004; 70(6): 585-588 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-815447
(9)
IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS FROM PENANG ISLAND MALAYSIA ON METRONIDAZOLE-RESISTANT-HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA / Uyub, Abdul M; Nwachukwu, Ikenna N; Azlan, Ahmad A; Fariza, Shaida S / 2010
(10)
Derris trifoliata (Derris) / Common names / ZipCodeZoo
(11)
Derris trifoliata Lour. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(12)
Rotenoid derivatives from Derris trifoliata with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity. / Ito C, Murata T, Tan HT, Kaneda N, Furukawa H, Itoigawa M. / Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Nov;7(11):1479-82.
(13)
Diuretic activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Derris trifoliata Lour. / Saifullah Al Mamoon and Md. Golam Azam*/ INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, Vol. 2, Issue 9: Sep.: 2011, 1029-1032
(14)
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF DERRIS TRIFOLIATA LOUR
. / Saifullah Al Mamoon and Md. Golam Azam* / Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2012
(15)
ANTIOXIDANT & ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF PANLATA (Derris trifoliate): IN-VITRO INVESTIGATION / Md. Raihan Sarkar*, Moynul Hasan, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Mohammad Saydur Rahman and Shubhra Kanti Dey / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences ISSN 2305-0330 Volume 1, Issue 2, Serial 1: September 2012
(16)
Antimicrobial activity of the Derris elliptica, Derris indica and Derris trifoliata extractives / M. R. Khan, A. D. Omoloso, Y. Barewai / Fitoterapia , vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 327-330, 2006 / DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2006.03.007
(17)
ANTIPLASMODIAL AND LARVICIDAL FLAVONOIDS FROM DERRIS TRIFOLIATA
/ Abiy Yenesew,* Hannington Twinomuhwezi, Jacques M. Kabaru, Hoseah M. Akala, Bernard T. Kiremire, Matthias Heydenreich, Martin G. Peter, Fredrick L. Eyase, Norman C. Waters and Douglas S. Walsh / Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009, 23(3), 409-414.
(18)
Derris trifoliata / Synonyms / The Plant List
(19)
MANGROVE PLANT DERRIS TRIFOLIATA- EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY / R. SUGANYA* AND M. THANGARAJ / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 7, Suppl 1, 2014 ISSN - 0974-2441 Research Article
(20)
A New Prenylated Flavanone from Derris trifoliata Lour. / Cheng Jiang, Shengzi Liu, Weihong He, Xiongming Luo , Si Zhang, Zhihui Xiao, Ximin Qiu,* and Hao Yin* / Molecules 2012, 17, 657-663 / doi:10.3390/molecules17010657
(21)
Rotenoid derivatives from Derris trifoliata with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity / Ito C, Murata T, Tan HT, Kaneda N, Furukawa H, Itoigawa M / Natural Product Communications [2012, 7(11):1479-1482]
(22)
Deguelin, a novel anti-tumorigenic agent targeting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis for cancer chemoprevention / Ying Wang Wenli Ma Wenling Zheng / Molecular and Clinical Oncology / DOI: 10.3892/mco.2012.36
(23)
Green Leaves for Diarrhoeal Diseases Used by the Tribals of Kenojhar and Mayurbhanj District of Orissa, India / Kambaska Kumar Behera, Purandra Mandal and Dayanidhi Mahapatra / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10: 305-328. 2006.
(24)
Deguelin Induces the Apoptosis of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Regulating the Expression of Galectin-1 / Bing Yan, Dejian Zhao, Yinan Yao, Zhang Bao, Guohua Lu, Jianying Zhou / Int J Biol Sci 2016; 12(7):850-860 / doi:10.7150/ijbs.147

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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