Silisian is an erect, branched, annual,
glandular, hairy and slightly rank-smelling herb, growing to a height of
0.3 to 1 meter. Leaf has 3 to 5 leaflets, oblong to oblong-ovate,
1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are in leafy, terminal racemes with
the pedicels. Petals are yellow, narrowly obovate, 7 to 8 millimeters
long. Capsule is cylindric, 4 to 7 centimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, striate, glandular-hairy, and narrowed above.
- A common weed at low and
medium altitude, in settled areas throughout the Philippines.
- Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids.
- Plant yields a powerful and
volatile principle, with a smell similar to mustard, considered antiseptic and antispasmodic.
- The seed contains a volatile oil, acting as vermifuge.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. (see study below) (13)
- Seeds contain 26% oil yielding 18% on expeller crushing, with a fatty acid profile of palmitic 10.6%, stearic
4.9%, oleic 14.4% and linoleic 68.6%.
- Study isolated coumarinolignoid cleomiscosins A, B, and C. (See study below)
- Phytochemical screening of aerial parts yielded
carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins. (see study below) (28)
- Study evaluated volatile constituents of oils from integral parts. Main constituents of non-polar fraction of oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons (21% in stem/leaves, 15% in seed/fruits, 12% in roots) and some oxygenated derivatives (3% in leaves/stem, 1% in seeds/fruits, and 1.5% in roots). Fatty acid esters, especially ethyl palmitate, was a major constituent in seeds/fruit oil. (39)
- Chemical composition (g/100g DM) showed crude protein 14.7, crude fiber 19.6, ether extract 3.7,
ash 9.4, neutral detergent fiber 59.1, acid detergent fiber 38.7, acid detergent lignin 12.0, cellulose 27.7, hemicellulose 20.6, NFE 52.7. (see study below) (46)
- Study for major minerals and trace elements yielded (g/100g DM): (Major minerals) calcium 11.6, magnesium 2.3, potassium 1.0, sodium 0.0211, phosphorus 1.1; (Trace elements) iron 0.1, copper 0.0133, zinc 0.0321, manganese 0.1. (see study below) (46)
- Phytochemical screening of seed extracts yielded alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the PEE and EAE, with cardiac glycosides and anthraquinone in the PEE, and terpenoids and steroids in the EAE. (see study below) (58)
- Antiseptic, stimulant, vermifuge, astringent and spasmodic.
- Roots are antiscorbutic.
- Studies have suggested
larvicidal, antibacterial, analgesic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, wound healing, psychopharmacological, antiemetic, cytotoxic, antifibrotic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antitumor properties.
Leaves, roots and seeds.
- Leaves and young shoots cooked as vegetable.
- Leaves eaten in salad, fermented in Mindanao and the Visayas.
- Pungent seeds can be pickled or used as mustard substitute in curries.
- Juice of plant used as condiment.
- In the Himalayas, seeds used as condiment; considered a good substitute for cumin. (54)
- Seeds yield an oil that can be used for cooking.
- In the Philippines, roots, leaves and seeds used as substitute for mustard cures in which a revulsive is needed.
- Powdered roots, leaves and seeds, mixed with sugar, as antihelminthic.
- Whole plant used as folk remedy for wounds, ulcers, inflammations and skin infections.
- Infusion of seeds, roots and leaves used as maggot cleanser for nonhealing
- Bruised plant used as counter-irritant for blisters.
- Juice of leaves used for earaches.
- Leaf poultice used for headaches and deafness.
- Seed decoction used for abdominal complaints.
- In India, mixed with oil, used for purulent ear discharges.
- In Africa, used as vermifuge.
- In Australia, aborigines use the leaves for headaches. Used as antiseptic for cuts.
- Leaves applied to boil to prevent formation of pus.
- In Indo-China, roots used as stimulant and anti-scorbutic.
- In the U.S., roots used as vermifuge.
- In Ceylon roots and seeds used as cardiac stimulant.
- Seeds used as carminative, anthelmintic, and rubefacient.
- Infusion of seeds used locally to kill maggots in unhealthy sores.
- Seeds used for fevers and diarrhea; also as remedy for infantile convulsions.
- In Guam, seeds used in decoction for abdominal complaints; in poultice form, as rubefacient.
- In Grenada, decoction of leaves used to treat colds and fevers.
- In Ayurveda, used as stomachic, laxative, diuretic, anthelmintic, and for skin diseases, itching, ulcers, leprosy, and malarial fevers.
- In Unani medicine, seeds are considered anthelmintic and detergent, and used to treat fever and diarrhea. In Ayurvedic medicine, used in treatment of blood disorders, uterine complaints, earaches, ulcers, and to remove kapha (phelgm). (50)
• Seed oil: Composition and Characteristics of Cleome icosandra L. Seed Oil: Study
showed seeds yield 26% oil with a high amount of unsaturated acids-
oleic and linoleic acid which polymerizes during storage, suggesting
exploitation of the oil for industrial use. (1)
• Cembrane Acids:
Study yielded two new unsaturated cembrane acids from Cleome viscosa. (2)
• Analgesic / Anesthetic:
Study of aqueous extract of seeds of C viscosa showed it to be non-toxic with significant analgesic activity in mice and local anesthetic activity in guinea-pigs.
Study showed at concentration of 50% and 75%, gatas-gatas and silisian exhibited intermediate inhibitory effect against Shigella dysenteriae. (7) Crude methanolic extract showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Shigella sonnie, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Strep epidermis, Shigella flexneri and Staph aureus. (•)
• Anthelmintic / Seeds:
Study of crude alcohol and aqueous extracts of seeds of C. viscosa against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli showed significant dose-dependent anthelmintic activity. (8)
• Anthelmintic / Comparative Study: Comparative study of Cleome viscosa and C. burmanni for anthelmintic potential against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma showed both to exhibit significant anthelmintic activity. The methanol extract of C. viscosa at 2000 ug/ml was the most effective treatment dose. (18)
Study of selected Unani plant extracts, seven, including C. icosandra, showed moderate antioxidant activity. Three, including C. icosandra, showed potentially significant oxidative damage preventive activity and radical scavenging activity. (9)
Mice study of methanol extract showed promising analgesic activity in all methods of testing used: acid-induced writhing, tail flick, tail clip, and tail immersion. (12)
• Otitis Media / Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study evaluated various extracts of C. viscosa leaves for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria causing otitis media. Among the organisms tested S. pneumonia and E. coli were most sensitive to the acetone extract, followed by S. aureus, K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa, with effective zone of inhibition range of 20-25 mm and MIC range of 4-32 mg/ml. Antioxidant evaluation of acetone extract by DPPH radical scavenging assay was 33% at 50 µg/ml and 21% at 100 µg/ml concentration. (13)
Study of a methanolic extract of Cleome viscosa in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma exhibited antitumor activity, with the extract treatment bringing back all the abnormal parameters of tumor bearing animals to normal. (14)
• Psychopharmacological Effect:
Study of a methanol extract of the entire plant in rats and mice showed significant psychopharmacological activity, with reduction in spontaneous activity, decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern, reduction in muscle relaxant by rotarod, a significant lowering of body temperature, with potentiation of phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time. (15)
• Wound Healing / Leaves and Whole Plant:
Study of leaves and whole plant of C. viscosa on experimentally induced excision wound model in rats showed the methanolic extract to possess significant wound healing activity. (16)
• Coumarinolignoids / Modulation of Inflammatory Mediators:
Study in female Swiss albino mice of coumarinolignoid cleomiscosins A, B, and C isolated from the plant showed inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF- a, and NO) and enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent manner. (17)
Study of ethanolic extract of seeds on paracetamol-treated albino rats showed significant hepatoprotective effect evidenced by histopath studies on the liver. The standard drug was silymarin. (19) Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of C. viscosa against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Results showed hepatoprotective activity comparable to silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. (37) Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed hepatoprotective activity against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Activity was comparable to silymarin. (45)
• Analgesic / Antiemetic / Fixed Oil from Seeds:
Study of fixed oil from seeds of C. viscosa using the acetic acid induced writhing test (intraperitoneally) and chick emetic model (oral) showed significant analgesic and antiemetic activities. (20)
• Antinociceptive / Antibacterial / Cytotoxic:
Study of methanol extract of dried leaves in animal models produced: (1) significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, (2) prominent cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp Artemia salina, and (3) significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Staph saprophyticus, Shigella sonnie, S. typhi, Vibrio cholera, S. epidermis and Staph aureus.(21)
• Antifibrotic Effect / CCl4-induced Liver Fibrosis:
Study of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant in CCl4-induced fibrosis in rats showed an antifibrotic effect evidenced by biochemical parameters. (22)
Study evaluated methanolic extracts against pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans). Results showed significant antimicrobial activity in a dose-dependent manner. (24)
• Anti-Inflammatory Effect:
Study evaluated methanol and chloroform extracts of C. viscosa and C. burmanni by in vitro methods. Results showed a concentration dependent inhibition of albumin denaturation and hyaluronidase enzyme and significant inhibition of proteinase activity by extracts of both plants. Methanol extracts were more effective. Reference drugs were aspirin and indomethacin. (26)
• Promotion of Wound Repair / Topical Application: Study evaluated the wound healing property of C. viscosa methanol extract (CvME) and its mechanism using Wistar rat cutaneous excision wound model. Topical application of CvME significantly accelerated wound contraction rate, increased hydroxyproline content and improved wound histopathology. Results suggest promotion of wound repair by attenuation of the Smad-mediated collagen production in wound granulation tissue. (27)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study evaluated various extracts of aerial parts of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The hexane extract showed more potent antioxidant compounds while the ethanol extract showed the presence of polar compounds responsible for its better antimicrobial activity. (see constituents above) (28)
• Flavone Glycoside / Anti-Inflammatory & Antimicrobial / Flowers: Study evaluated quercetin 3-O-(2"-acetyl)-glucoside isolated from an ethyl acetate fraction of C. viscosa flowers. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (in vivo) and anti-microbial activity (in vitro) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The anti-inflammatory activity may be due to inhibition of of prostaglandin synthesis. (29)
• Biodiesel / Seed Oil: Biodiesel from Cleome viscosa seed oil was produced using nano MgO as catalyst. MgO showed to be an effective catalyst for transesterification of C. viscosa seed oil. (30)
• Anti-Malarial: Study evaluated the in vivo antimalarial effect of methanolic extract of C. viscosa whole plant and fractions against early, established and residual malaria infections. The ME and partitioned fractions showed significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent anti-malarial activity in all three evaluation models. (31)
• Anti-Diabetic: Study evaluated the therapeutic potential of C. viscosa in alleviating diabetes through assessment of liver and kidney function and lipid profile parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in the biochemical parameters. Results suggest the ME possess significant ability to reduce diabetes complications. (32)
• Sperm Count and Morphology Effects: Study evaluated three Nigerian medicinal plants for effects on hematological parameters and sperm count of albino rats. Cleome viscosa showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in packed cell volume, white blood cells, lymphocytes, and platelets, with a significant decrease (p<0.05) in sperm concentration and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in headless tail sperm cell abnormality. (33)
• Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity of methanolic extract of whole plant in mice. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Histopathological analysis showed mild congestion of the pulmonary vessels at 1600 mg/kg and above and mild renal cortical congestion at high dose. The oral LD50 suggests the ME of whole plant is non-toxic at the tested doses. (34)
• Diabetic Foot Wound Care / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing property of leaves of C. viscosa extracted and applied to cotton knitted fabrics. The herbal treated fabric showed good antibacterial activity against selected wound pathogens. (35)
• Protection in Diabetic Neuropathy: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of an EE against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in Wistar rats. Results showed administration of ethanol extract of C. viscosa produces significant protection against diabetic neuropathy as evidenced by amelioration from oxidative stress, thermal hyperalgesia, hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation in diabetic treated rats. The outcome may be due to prevention of free radical production and suggests the role of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. (36)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial: Study reports on the cost effective and environment friendly technique of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles through Cleome viscosa leaf extract as reducing and capping agent. Study also confirmed antimicrobial efficacy. (38)
• Antioxidant / Comparative Evaluation: Study did a comparative evaluation of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of Cleome viscosa and Trichodema indicum. All phytochemicals analyzed were present in both fruit and root of C. viscosa and T. indicum. The study showed the leaf, fruit, and root extracts of CV and TI possess good antioxidant activity and can be explored as a potential therapeutic agent for free radical related pathological damage. (40)
• Antifeedant / Seeds: Study showed C. viscosa and S. alba seed extracts possess antifeedant and chronic toxic properties against H. armigera and can be used as a ecofriendly alternative for pest management programs against H. armigera. (41)
• Antiemetic / Leaves: Cleome brachycarpa and C. viscosa were evaluated for anti-emetic activity in copper sulfate induced chick emesis model. Results showed an anti-emetic with decrease in the number of retching. Anti-emetic activity was comparable to chlorpromazine. (42)
• Antibacterial Synergism with Moringa oleifera: Moringa oleifera and Cleome viscosa combination demonstrated strong synergistic effect towards K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. pneumonia and S. aureus. (43)
• Seed Oil / Biodiesel Potential: Oil extracted from Cleome viscosa seeds using a hydro-carbon solvent was analyzed for its potential use as biodiesel. Results suggest the eco-friendly and less expensive process makes C. viscosa oil a potential source of biodiesel and a replacement for fossil diesel. (44)
• Comparative Nutritive Assessment of Four Dominant Weed Species: Study evaluated the nutritive value of four dominant weed species in north central Nigeria viz., Cleome viscosa, C. esculentus, D. scandens, and E. hirta. All the weeds were high in crude protein (7.67-16.74%), crude fiber (19.21-26.89%), ash (9.38-12.67%) and low in ether extract (2.36-5.61%). All had sufficient composition of calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus to meet requirement for ruminants. Study showed Cleome viscosa had the best nutritive value. All the selected weeds may serve as potential supplements for ruminants in north central Nigeria. (see constituents above) (46)
• Immunomodulatory / Immunosuppressant / Aerial Parts: Study in mice evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts by various hematological ad serologic tests. Results showed significant immunosuppressant activity, with remarkable decrease in the number of WBC and splenic lymphocytes, decreased phagocytic index and both cellular and humoral antibody responses. (47)
• Helmintholytic Activity / Seeds: Study evaluated the helmintholytic activity of crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of C. viscosa against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The crude methanol extract caused significant paralysis and death of worm in a shorter time as compared to the aqueous extract in the study. (48)
• Mosquito Larvicidal Activity / Cx quinquefasciatus: In a study of crude plant extracts of 32 commonly available plants evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity against third instars larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Cleome viscosa was one of eight that showed satisfactory activity. (49) Study evaluated the larvicidal efficacy of various crude extracts of aerial parts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Along the solvent extracts, petroleum ether exhibited the highest larvicidal activity with LC50 of 52.2 and 43.16 mg/L after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. (57)
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic leaf extract for antipyretic and analgesic properties in Baker's yeast induced pyrexia and tail immersion or tail flick technique in rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) antipyretic and analgesic effects. Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. The extract showed no toxicity at highest dose of 5000 mg/kg in albino rats. (51)
• Anti-Diarrhea: Study evaluated the methanol extract of whole plant of C. viscosa for anti-diarrheal potential against various experimental models of diarrhea in rats. Results showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea and PGE-2-induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also exhibited significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. (52)
• Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study evaluated the invitro antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Cleoma viscosa against microbial species. Results showed significant antimicrobial activity, with maximum zone of inhibitions with gram-negative K. pneumonia (20mm) and fungus Mucor sp (20mm). Phytochemical screening yielded sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenol, lignin, fixed oils and fats, gum and mucilage. (53)
• Potential as Cash Crop: The plant provides three times higher yielded when maintained by farmers as pure crop compared to yield obtained in mixed cropping conditions. It is exchanged by traditional farmers of Garhwal Himalaya in areas where it does not grow. This paper describes the agronomy, yield, cost-benefit analysis, uses, and ethnobotany of Cleoma viscosa. (54)
• Antioxidant / Phenolic Content: Study evaluated the invitro antioxidant activity and estimated the total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanolic extract and fractions of C. viscosa. An ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest total phenolic content (77.33 ± 4.21 mg/gallic acid equivalent/G extract) and total flavonoid content ( 71.67 ±8.125 mg of quercetin/g of extract. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the ethyl acetate extract also showed most activity (IC50 0.34) compared to standard ascorbic acid (IC50 0.034 mg/mL). The EA extract also showed highest antioxidant capacity (384.70 ±7.37 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract. (55)
• PEG Antibacterial Potentiation of Crude Extract: Study showed Cleome viscosa crude extract-PEG (polyethylene glycol) ointment formulation showed increased potency than the crude extract alone. Results suggest an innovative formulation suitable for topical use for treatment of Pseudomonas infection. (56)
• Anthelmintic / Anticonvulsant / Seeds: Study evaluated the anthelmintic and anticonvulsant activity of various extracts of Cleoma viscosa seeds. The extracts showed dose dependent anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma, with not significant difference with reference drug, albendazole. In anticonvulsant evaluation using PTZ model, a petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract showed insignificant difference with hind limb tonic extension time as exhibited by standard phenytoin sodium. Results showed the EAE at 400 mg/kbw has potent anthelmintic and anticonvulsant effects. (see constituents above) (58)
Seeds in the cybermarket.