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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Silk tree
Albizia julibrissin Durazz.
He huan

Scientific names Common names
Acacia julibrissin (Durazz.) Willd. Asiatic sau (Engl.)
Acacia nemu Willd. Mimosa tree (Tag.)
Albizia julibrissin var. julibrissin Persian silk tree (Engl.)
Albizia nemu (Willd.) Benth. Pink silk tree (Engl.)
Feuilleea julibrissin (Durazz.) Kuntze Pink siris (Engl.)
Mimosa julibrissin (Durazz.) Scop. Pink powder puff tree (Engl.)
Mimosa speciosa Thunb. Powder puff tree (Engl.)
Sericandra julibrissin (Durazz.) Raf Silky acacia(Engl.)
Infraspecificc taxa Siris (Engl.)
Albizia julibrissin var. mollis (Wall.) Benth.  
Albizia julibrissin var. rosea (Carriere) Mouillefert.  
Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Shajarat al harir, Albyzyz zherh alharyr.
AFRIKAANS: Plenk siris, Syboom.
ARMENIAN: Parskakan mimos.
AZERBAIJANI: Gü labrisin, Ipak akasiya, Lankeran akasiyasi, Lankeran gulabrisini.
BULGARIAN: Yulibrisinovata albitsiya.
BURMESE: Vang-nyong.
CATALAN: Acacia de Constantinoble, Arbre de les sedes.
CHINESE: He huan, He huan shu.
DUTCH: Albizie, Konstantinopel acacia, Perzische slaapboom, Schlafbaum, Schirmakazie.
ENGLSIH: Mimosa, Mimosa tree, Persian silk tree, Pink silk tree, Pink siris, Powder-puff tree, Siris.
FINNISH: Silkkialbitsia.
FRENCH: Albizia, Arbre a soie, Arbre aux houppettes, Mimosa de Constantinople.
GEORGIAN: Abreshuma akats'la.
GERMAN: Albizzie, Federbaum, Schirmakazie, Schlafbaum, Seidenbaum, Seidenakazie.
GREEK: Akakia konstantinoupoeos.
HINDI: Brind, Bukarna, Kalkora, Karmaru, Resama rakha, Siris.
HONG KONG: Hup-foon.
HUNGARIAN: Selyemakac.
iITALIAN: Acacia di Constantinopoli, Albero de la seta, Gaggia arborea, Gaggia di Constantinopoli.
JAPANESE: Nemu no ki, Nemuri no ki, Nene no ki.
KANNADA: Celabae, Cheliva, Chellebaagi, Cellebage, Elesujjalubage, Sela, Selai, Yelesujilbage.
KOREAN: Ja gwi na mu.
MALAYALAM: Katu baramareca.
NEPALESE: Rato siris.
NETHERLANDS: Acacia van Constantinopel.
PERSIAN: Gul i abrisham, Shabkhosb.
POLISH: Albieja jedwabista.
PORTUGUESE: Acacia nemu, Albizia.
PUNJABI: Resama rakha.
RUSSIAN: Akatsiia shelkovaia, Al'bitsiia lenkoranskaia, Al'bitsiia obyknovennaia, Shelkovaia akatsiia.
SANSKRIT: Asrakhadira.
SOUTH AFRICAN: Julibrissin, Persische Seldenakazie.
SWEDISH: Silkesträd.
SPANISH: Acacia Constantinopola, Acacia de Persia, Acacia taperera, Albizia, Arbol de la seda.
TELUGU: Cencu, Cendugu, Chanchu, Cinduga, Kondaganam, Kondaganaru, Sansu, Sinduga.
THAI: Phu chomphu, Poo chom poo.
TURKISH: Gülibrisim, Ipek, Agaci.
UKRANIAN: Al'bitsiya lenkoranskaya, Shelkovaya, Lenkoranskaia akatziia.
URDDU: Resama rakha..

Gen info
- Albizia julibrissin was first introduced in Europe (particularly Florence, Italy) in 1745 from Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) by Filippo Degli Albizzi. It was first described by Antonio Durazzini, who dedicated the genus name to Albizzi.
- Species name "julibrissin" derives from the corresponding Persian name.
- The genus Albizia comprises approximately 150 species, mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. (5)

Mimosa is a medium-sized deciduous tree that can grow to a height of 6 meters, usually multi-stemmed, a with a flat spreading crown, and a fast growth rate of about 25-50 centimeters per year. Bark is dark, greening gray, striped vertically as it gets older. Leaves are bi-pinnate, 20-45 centimeters long and 12 to 25 centimeters wide, divided into 6 to 12 pairs of pinnae, each with 20 to 30 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets are oblong, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long and 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Flowers are pink, showy, fragrant, and borne in dense fluffy clusters, grouped at the end of branches, resembling fluffy pin-cushions. Fruits are flat, straw-colored pods, about 15 centimeters in length, containing several brown oval-shaped seeds.   (3)(5)

- Introduced.
- Ornamental cultivation., grown for its leaf texture and flowers.
- In some places, considered a nuisance because of its invasive nature.
It is highly invasive and can colonize areas in a short period of time.

- Flowers yield a total of 25 types of aromatic components, with main aromatic constituents of Julibroside, trans-linalool oxide, linalool, isopentanol, α-ocimene, 2,2,4-tirmethylpentane, cyanidin-3-glucoside, among others. Foliage yielded an unknown quercetin derivative, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and quercetin (quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside). (5)
- Bark has yielded triterpenoid saponins (julibroside J29, julibroside J30, julibroside J31, and two phenolic glycosides (albibrissinosides A and B). (5)
- Leaves yielded a total flavonoid content of 35.14 mg/g. (5)
- Study of stem bark yielded three new triterpenoid saponins, julibrosides A5-A7 (1-3), along with five known saponins (4-8). (10)
- Study of seeds yielded an oil content and moisture of 10.50% and 1.56%, respectively. Free fatty acid, peroxide value, p-anisidine vale, saponification value, iodine value were 2.54%, 6.61 mequiv.O2/kg of oil, 1.98, 190.63 mg KOH/g and 111.33 g/100 g of oil, respectively. Dominant fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid 58.58%, palmitic acid 13.86%, and oleic acid 10.47%. (see study below) (1)

Toxicity concerns
- Reported toxicity from green or mature pods; seeds and wood.
- Toxin: Legume yields a neurotoxic alkaloid that can cause neurological effects. It is thought to as as a pyridoxine antagonist. The toxicity is seasonal, when green or mature pods are available to sheep, goats, dogs, or cattle. Toxicity becomes a greater concern
when trees are present in parks and gardens where children play. (11)
- Signs of intoxication can occur within hours of ingestion: seizures, tremors, staggering and labored breathing. Toxic dose range is 10-15 g/kg; LD was ≥ 15g/kg. (11)
- There was a report of A. julibrissin poisoning involving 3 children presenting with decrease levels of consciousness at the Nashhad Medical Toxicology Research Center. They progressed to coma, but eventually recovered without residual deficits. (11)

- Requires irrigation once established.
- The tree drips with nectar, and is attractive to hummingbirds, honeybees and butterflies..
- Seeds have an impermeable coat and can remain dormant for years.
- It is moderately invasive, able to grow rapidly; sprouts can grove over 1 meter in a season, re-sprout after damage and seed prolifically. (4)
- Herb is sweet bitter in flavor.
- Pollen can be a source of hay fever. (11)

Parts used
Flowers, leaves, oil.


- Young leaves are cooked; used as potherb. (16)
- Dried leaves used as tea substitute.(16)
- Flowers are cooked, eaten as vegetable.(16)
- A valued Chinese botanical for relieving anxiety, stress, and depression. Referred to by some Chinese herbalist as the "herbal prozac."
- Its extract and essential oil are widely used for dysphoria-induced wakefulness, depression, forgetfulness, and dreaminess. (5)
- It is a constituent in the well known Chinese medicine for insomnia, together with Suan-zao-reng-tang and P. multiforme. (5)
- In Taiwan, it is the most prescribed herbal medicine for insomnia.
- Fodder: Seeds are used as food for livestock and by wildlife.

- Agrofrestry: Used as reclamation plant.

Sedative / Antidepressant:
Study on mice drenched with decoction significantly showed reduction in spontaneous activity and passive activity. Effects have included tranquilization, regulating qi to whet appetite, dispersing wind to improve eyesight and promoting blood circulation. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of ethanol and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Albizia julibrissin showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in HRBC membrane stabilization method. Percentage inhibition of membrane lysis by ethanol extract was 60.87% (1000 µg/ml) compared to standard diclofenac sodium at 69.56% (50 µg/ml). (6)
Amelioration of Memory Loss Induced by Insomnia: Study evaluated the effect of A. julibrissin on sleep deprivation-induced memory loss in a Drosophilia model. Results showed A. julibrissin ameliorated a 3-hour memory loss but not 1-hour memory or instant learning. Findings might have application in anticipated short-term sleep disturbance. (7)
Learning and Memory Enhancing Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the learning and memory enhancing activity of A. julibrissin against amnesia induced by scopolamine in young mice. Piracetam was used as standard. Anticholinesterase activity was evaluated. Administration of essential oil prevented scopolamine induced experimental amnesia and may have great potential in memory deficits.  (8)
Ultrasonic-Surfactant Extraction of Flavonoids / Flowers: Study reports on the methodology for extraction of total flavonoids from Albizia julibrissin flowers by combing surfactant with ultrasonic technology. (9)
Effect on Growth and Brain Monoamine Neurotransmitters: Study investigated the effects of A. julibrissin on growth and brain neurotransmitters in chronic stressed rats. Brain tissue was analyzed for content of homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine      (5-HT) .Results suggest A. julibrissin alleviates growth inhibition cause by stress and regulates the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters in stressed rats. (12)
Inhibition of Tumor Growth / Antiangiogenesis: Study investigated the in-vivo and in-vitro anti-angiogenesis effect of of A. julibrissin extract. The extract remarkably suppressed basic fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation and migration and tube formation of HMEC-1. In -vivo, extract significantly inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth in an intradermal inoculation mouse model. Results suggest potential as a potent anti-tumor drug, which exerts an anti-tumor effect through anti-angiogenic mechanism. (13)
Seed Oil: Analytical study of seed of Albizia julibrissin showed it is a promising oilseed crop, which can be used for making soap, hair shampoo, and UV protectors. Its high level of unsaturated fatty acids adds to a desirable nutritional profile. (see constituents above) (14)
Effect on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation: Study reports on the extraction of flavonoids from A. julibrissin biomass. Foliage, flower, and whole plant extracts were tested for potential to inhibit LDL oxidization Highest inhibition was obtained with foliage water extracts, which were standardized at 2.5 µM of flavonoids. Water extracts were not toxic to Vero 76 cells. (15)
Total Saponins / Inhibition of Vascular endothelial Growth Factor Medicate Angiogenesis: Study evaluated the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of total saponins from A. julibrissin. Results suggest the total saponins from A. julibrissin has potential an antiangiogenic agent that targets the VEGF/VEGER2 signaling pathway, and inhibits tumor-induced angiogenesis. (17)

- Wild-crafted.
- Herbal syrups in the cybermarket.

May 2020

                                                    PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photogrraph : Mimosa / Persian silk tree / Albizia julibrissin / © Etsy / click on image to go to source page / Etsy
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photogrraph : Pods / © Image by Nick Kurzenko / CalPhotos / click on image to go to source page / CalPhotos
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photogrraph : Seeds / Steve Hurst, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS / USDA
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Albizia julibrissin Durazz.
/ Synonyms / The Plant Lis
Sorting Passiflora names / /Mai ntained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Sorting Albizia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Albizia julibrissin (Silk tree0 / CSBE: Center for Study of the Built Environment
Albizia julibrissin (Silk tree) / GABI: Invasive Species Compendium
A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ALBIZIA JULIBRISSIN: AN ORNAMENTAL PLANT / Mahasweta Roy, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Bhupendra Kumar, Jaspreet Kaur, Amrit Kumar Patel and Nishant Kumar / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 5(4): pp 598-604
In vitro study of anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia julibrissin / E N Siju Anusha Kv, G R Rajalaksmi et al / International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science, 2014; 4(2): pp 24-26 / Corpus ID: 89163802
Albizia julibrissin Ameliorates Memory Loss Induced by Insomnia in Drosophila / Jui-Shu Chang, Hsin-Ping Liu, Jack Cheng, Chao-Jung Chen, Lee-Fen Hsu, Wei-Yong Lin et al / Evidenced-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2019 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7395962
Investigation on Learning and Memory Enhancing activity of Essential Oil in Albizia julibrissin Flowers in Experimental Mice / Dhanya K, Satish S, Karunakar Hegde, Shabaraya AR / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2016; 6(55): pp 11-15.
Study on Ultrasonic-Surfactant Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Albizia julibrissin Flower by Response Surface Methodology / Wei W, Guo WY / Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 2015; 38(3): pp 606-609 / PMID: 26495664 
Three new triterpenoid saponins from Albizia julibrissin / Xu-Da Wang, Hong Liang et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2019; 21(6) / pp 539-541 / https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2018.1473385
Albizia julibrissin / GLOBinMED
Effect of Albizia julibrissin on Growth and Brain Monoamine Neurotransmitters in Chronic-Stressed Rats / Li, Fa-Zeng; Zhand, Feng / Zoological Research, 2006; 27(6): pp 621-625 http://hdl.handle.net/1807/63918
Albizia julibrissin extract inhibits tumor growth in association with anti- angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo / Xu Wang, Lui Feng, Weiwei Cai, Yanling Liu, Ban Hoou, Bin Du and LLiying Qiu / Academia Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, October 2015; 3(2): pp 22-29 / DOI: /10.15413/ajpp.2015.0102
Characteristics, chemical composition and utilisation of Albizia julibrissin seed oil  [2011] / Industrial Crops and Products, 2013; 13(1): pp 30-34 / ISSN: 0926-6690
Effect of Albizia julibrissin Water Extracts on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidization / Katherine Vaughn, Colt Mcclain, Danielle Julie Carrier, Sunny Wallace, Jerry King, Shanmugam Nagarajan, Edgar Clausen / J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55(12): pp 4704-4709 / https://doi.org/10.1021/jf063458e
Albizia julibrissin / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Total saponins from Albizia julibrissin inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo / Weiwei Cai, Yue Li, Qingqing Yi, Fengshan Xie, Bin Du, Lei Feng, Liying Qiu / Molecular Medicine Reports / https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3228







It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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