HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Rubiaceae
Sinampaga
Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.
EMETIC NUT TREE

Scientific names Common names
Canthium chinense Pers. Sinampaga (Tag.)
Canthium coronatum Lam. Common emetic (Engl.)
Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Triveng. Emetic nut tree (Engl.)
Ceriscus malabaricus Gaertn. False guava (Engl.)
Gardenia dumetorum Retz. Mountain pomegranate (Engl.)
Gardenia dumosa Salisb. Spiny randia (Engl.)
Gardenia spinosa Thunb. Thorny bone apple (Engl.)
Gardenia stipularis Rottler  
Genipa dumetorum dumetorum (Retz.) Baill.  
Narega coduva Raf.  
Posoqueria dumetorum (Retz.) Willd. ex Roxb.  
Posoqueria floribunda Roxb.  
Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam.  
Randia floribunda (Roxb.) DC.  
Randia lachnosiphonium Hochst.  
Randia oxypetala Lindl.  
Randia rottleri Wight & Arn.  
Randia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir.  
Randia stipulosa Miq.  
Randia tomentosa Wight & Arn.  
Randia uniflora Regel  
Solena dumetorum (Retz.) D.Dietr.  
Solena floribunda (Roxb.) D.Dietr.  
Solena longispina D.Dietr.  
Solena nutans D.Dietr.  
Xeromphis retzii Raf.  
Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay  
Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam. is a synonym of Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.
Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Maen.
AYURVEDA: Madan phala, Mainphal.
BENGALI: Mainaphal, Mayanaphal.
HINDI: Manphal.
KANNADA: Mangarikai, Karigidda.
LAOS: May ngieng pa.
SANSKRIT: Madani, Madana, Vamanaphala.
THAI: Khet khaang, Khlet, Ma khwet.
VIETNAMESE: G[aw]ng tuh[us], G[aw]ng tr[aa]u.

Botany
Randia dumetorum is a small deciduous tree, shrubby with stout axillary spines, Leaves as fascicled on suppressed branches, 3.2 - 6.7 cm long, simple, obovate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, roundish or shortly obtuse, and wrinkled. Flowers are fragrant, subsessile in axillary fascicles; corolla 2 cm long, at first white, later becoming yellow, Fruit is a yellow berry when ripe, globose or broadly ovoid, about 4 cm across, smooth or obscurely longitudinally ribbed, crowned with a large calyx limb. Seeds are many. flat, about 4 mm long, angular.

Distribution
- Found in the coast of Luzon.
- Eastern and southern Africa, Nepal, India Sri Lanka, Indo-China, Thailand and Java.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of bark and leaves yielded flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, carbohydrates, and glycosides, with absence of alkaloids and saponins. (see study below) (6)
- Phytochemical screening of various leaf fractions yielded glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, with absence of gums and mucilage, alkaloids protein, and amino acid. (see study below) (9)
- Phytochemical of leaves for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and glycosides. ( see study below) (15)
- GC-MS study of ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded triterpenoid esters, cinnamate, naphthalene, phenolic compounds mainly BHT, while a methanol fraction yielded triterpenoid esters, amines, and coumarins, mainly 5a-methoxy-9a-methyl-3-(1-propenyl)perhydro-pyrano[4,3-b]bemzopyran-1,9-dione. (18)
- Studies have yielded secondary metabolites: iridoid glycosides, randinosides, galioside, deacetylasperulosidic acid methyl ester, scandoside methyl ester, geniposide, gardenoside. (26)

Properties
- In Ayurveda, fruit considered anti-inflammatory, emetic, and abortifacient.
- Considered antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, emetic, sedative, antihelmintic properties.

Parts used
Fruit, bark, roots, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is edible, eaten raw or as vegetable. (
24)
Folkloric
- The pulp of the fruit, dried and powdered, is used as an emetic, as substitute for ipecacuanha (Cephaelis ipecacunha), useful as nervine calmative and antispasmodic. (
24)
- (24) In Ayurveda, used to vitiated pitta and kapha/mucous, and for treatment of cough, skin diseases, ulcers, asthma, flatulence, colic. Fruit used to induce emesis (vomiting). Fruit considered anti-inflammatory and abortifacient. Tree bark applied externally to relieve pain of bruises and rheumatism.
(2)
- Fruit used to treat abscesses, wounds, tumors ulcers. Fruit pulp used as anthelmintic; also as abortifacient. Bark is astringent, used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. Bark applied externally as a paste to treat rheumatism and pains associated with bruises and bone pains of fever. Extract of root bark used as insecticide. (3)
- In the tribal areas of the Kodagu district of Karnataka, India, the plant roots and leaves of Acacia suma are pounded with salt and applied to snake bites and scorpion stings. (10)
- Fruit used for treatment of helminthiasis.
- Leaves used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, snake bite, wound healing, inflammation, tumors, piles, intestinal and skin diseases. (15)
- In Indo-China, powdered and roasted fruits (without seeds) used externally to treat ulcers; the bark used internally to treat diarrhea and dysentery, and to regulate menstruation. In India, bark is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. (27)
- In Africa, used to treat bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma and diseases of the brain; the fruit used for poulticing sores. Root decoction applied directly on melanomas; infusion used orally as emetic, and to treat fevers, nausea, cough, toothache, pains during pregnancy, dizziness, menorrhagia, snake bites and gonorrhea. (27)
Others
- Fish poison: In India, fruits used for fish poisoning.
(10) In India, Nepal, and Africa, bark and fruits used as fish poison. (27)

Studies
Immunomodulatory / Fruits:
Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract and various fractions of fruits of R. dumetorum. Effects on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice were observed. A chloroform fraction at a dose of 100 mg/kg produced statistically significant results as evidenced by increase in humoral antibody (HA) titer (p<0.05) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The fraction also enhanced the total WBC level in cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression model (p<0.001) at dose of 100 m,g/kg. Results suggest promise as an immunomodulatory agent. (4)
Mechanism of Emetic Action: In-silico and in-vitro study seeks to evaluate the molecular mechanism of the emetic action of identified phytochemical compounds in madanaphala medicinal plant (R. dumetorum). Study aimed to identify the active compounds in seeds mediating emetic action on binding towards 5HT3 and ML receptors. (5)
Antioxidant / α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of methanolic extracts of R. dumetorum from bark and leaves. The extracts exhibited antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. (see constituents above) (6)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the methanol extracts of leaf and bark of Randia dumetorum for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. Results showed good antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 112 ± 3.24 mg and !38 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 2,6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents /g extract, respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The hepatoprotective activity of leaf and bark against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats was evidenced by reversal of all abnormal biochemical parameters to significant levels, along with histopathological evidence. (7)
Antibacterial / Fruits: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of crude extracts of R. dumetorum fruits using disc diffusion method by quantitation against E. coli, B. subtiliis, S. aureus, and S. typhi. Highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by chloroform and petroleum ether fraction against all the investigated phytopathogens. Phytochemical screening of of these fractions yielded terpenoids and steroids. (8)
Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of various fractions of leaf extract of Randia dumetorum. All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity by reducing power assay, total antoxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The methanol and water extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality test. (9)
Antidiabetic / Fruits: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Randia dumetorum fruit extracts using nicotinamide and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with the extract and gliclazide showed significantly decreased glucose levels. (11)
Lipid Lowering Activity in Induced Hyperlipidemia: Study evaluated the lipid lowering activity of Randia dumetorum fruit extracts and Paederia foetida aerial part extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in male albino rats. Results demonstrated the R. dumetorum fruit extract is a potent lipid lowering agent. with none of the side effects of currently available hypolipidemmic drugs. Compared with P. foetida, it showed comparatively better hypolipidemic activity. (12)
significantly decreased glucose levels. (11)
Effect on Clonidine and Haloperidol Induced Catalepsy: Study evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Randia dumetorum fruits in clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. Cataleptic score was measured
as the time maintained an imposed posture. In the clonidine induced catalepsy model there was significant (p<0.01) reduction in catalepsy score. However, there was no significant reduction in the haloperidol catalepsy model. The cataleptic activity was attributed to antihistaminic activity. Randia dumetorum does not possess antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity. (13)
Anthelmintic / Fruit: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of different extracts prepared from fruits of R. dumetorum against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma in measures of time of paralysis and time of death. Albendazole was used as standard reference drug. Among the extracts, the ethanol fruit extract showed better anthelmintic activity. (14)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves showed good dose dependent free radical scaveng9ing property, with the aqueous extract showing more activity than the ethanol extract. (see constituents above) (15)
Sedative / Acute Toxicity Study / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the sedative activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Catunaregam spinosa in Swiss albino mice in two models viz. potentiation of thiopentone-induced seeping time and locomotor activity using Actophotometer. Elevated plus-maze was used in Wistar albino rat model. Acute toxicity study of both extracts showed safety up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw in Swiss albino mice by oral route administration. Both extracts exhibited significant potentiation of thiopentone-induced sleeping time and reduction in locomotor activity. HPTLC studies revealed the presence of triterpenoid and saponin compounds in both extracts. (16)
Piscicidal / Ripe Fruits: The fruit of Catumaregam spinosa and leaves of Polygonum hydropiper possess fish toxins of potential value to aquaculture. Aqueous extracts of dried, ripe fruits of C. spinosa tested under laboratory conditions showed a 5h LC40 0.0036% (weight/volume) for the tropical air-breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis, Similar results were observed in a farm pond. (17)
Antimicrobial Formulation / Endocarp: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Randia spinosa against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus nutans, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. Standards used were Ciprofloxacin and Amphotericin B. The petroleum ether extract of endocarp showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi tested. (19)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study of Randia dumetorum showed antidiabetic activity on STZ induced diabetic rats. STZ-induced hyperglycemia was attributed to hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decrease utilization of glucose by the tissues. The study suggests the leaves extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. (20)
Cytotoxic Triterpene / Bark: Study of Randia dumetorum bark isolated α-L-arabinosyl (1-->3)-3-ß-galactopyranosyl (1-->3) -3-ß-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-methyloate (compound 1). The compound was evaluated for cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines i.e., MDA-MB-231 (Breast cancer cell line) and SK-MEL-2 (Human skin melanoma cell line), BE(2)C (Neuroblastoma cell line) and U87MG (Human neuronal glioblastoma cell line). Results showed cytotoxicity increased with increase in compound concentration, with the compound showing potent activity against SK-MEL-2 (Human skin melanoma cell line) with minimum IC50 value of 93.33 µg/ml. (21)
Hepatoprotective / Alcohol-Induced Damage / Fruit: Study evaluated the hepatoprtective effect of methanolic fruit extract in alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Randia dumetorum increased the levels of total protein and reduced glutathione and significantly decreased the elevated levels of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation. (22)
Binding Properties of Fruit Mucilage / Fruit: Study reported on the extraction of mucilage from Randia dumetorum fruit and its suitability as a tablet binder. The tablets prepared with R. dumetorum fruit mucilage as binder showed good results, with a profile comparable to that of standards and complied with pharmacopoeial limits. Results suggest the fruit can act as suitable binder for conventional tablets instead of synthetic polymers. (23)
Anti-Allergic / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated the anti-allergic and anri-inflammatory activity of R. dumetorum extract and fraction on milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice, passive paw anaphylaxis, and mast cell degranulation in rat models. The extract and its fractions significantly inhibited the passive paw edema and mast cell degranulation in rats. The methanol extract showed significant (p<0.01) dose dependent activity. Among the fractions the chloroform fraction showed most significant activity. (25)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Emetic nut powder in the cybermarket.

Nov 2020

P
-_Mountain_Pomegranate_at_Blathur_2014_%2810%29.jpg
                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Catunaregam spinosa: Mountain pomegranate / J M Garg / CC by 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Catunaregam spinosa: Mountain pomegranate / Vinarayaj / CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / WIKIMEDIA COMMONS
 
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)

Catunaregam spinosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
Medicinal uses of Mainphal (Emetic Nut - Randia dumetorum) / Anupama / Nov 2014
(3)
Phytopharmacological Properties of Randia dumetorum as a Potential Medicinal Tree: An Overview / Patel Ritesh G, Pathak Nimish L, Rathod Jaimik D, Dr L D Patel and Vhatt Nayna M / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 1(10): pp 24-26
(4)
Immunmoduatory activity of fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk / K L Satpute, M M Jadhav, R S Karodi, Y S Katare, M J Patil, Rukhsana Rub and A R Bafna / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, Aug 2009
(5)
In-silico and in-vitro study to understand the molecular mechanism of emetic action of identified phytochemical compounds in madanaphala medicinal plant (Randia dumetorum) mediated by 5HT3 and NK1 receptors – A proposal / Journal of Ayurveda abnd Integrative Medicine, April 2018; 9(2) / DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2018.02.094
(6)
Antioxidant and in-vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activities of leaves and bark of Randia dumetorum / DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.19.244236
(7)
Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines / Raghuram Kandimalla, Sanjeeb Kalita, Bikas Saikia, Bhaswati Choudhury, Jibon Kotoky et al / Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2016; / DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016/00205 / PMID: 27471465
(8)
Antibacterial activity of fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk / Satpute K L, Sonvane S M, Bodas K S, Sheth N S / J Nat Prod Plant Resour., 2012; 2(3): pp 381-384
(9)
Antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of Randia dumetorum Lam. leaf extract / Abdullah Al=Ragib, Md Tanvir Hossain, Javed Hossain, and Md Jakaria / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, Sept 2017; 9(9): pp 138-145 / DOI: 10.5897/JPP2016.o435 / ISSN: 2141-2502
(10)
Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional medicinal plants in tribal areas of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India / D P Lingaraju, M S Sudarshana, N Rajashekar / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Feb 2013; 6(2): pp 284-297 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jopr.2013.02.012
(11)
Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Randia dumetorum / Piyush Ranjan Mishra, Prasana Kumar Panda, Koria Apanna Chowdary, and Saswati Panigrahi / International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry,2012; 2(3) / ISSN: 2231-2781
(12)
Evaluation of acute hypolipidemic activity of different plant extracts in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Piyush Ranjan Mishra, Prasanna Kumar Panda, Korla Apanna Chowdary, Saswati Panigrahi / Pharmacologyonline, 2011; 3: pp825-934
(13)
Effect of Randis dumetorum Lam on Clonidine and Haloperidol Induced Catalepsy in Mice / M M Ghaisas, P B Ninave, G P Ganu, V S Zope, M B Tanwar, A D Deshpande /Pharmacologyonline, 2008; 2L pp 43-50
(14)
Anthelmintic evaluation of Randia dumetorum fruit extracts / Bobillapati Jyothirmayi, Lagadapati Tejaswini, Gurram Asha Latha, Chetter Swathi, Gujula Nishitha, Rahamat Unissa / Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2018; 12(6)
(15)
Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Randia spinosa Leaves / Vanga Shridhar,Pingili Mamatha, Sriramula Harikishan Prasad / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017
(16)
Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Sedative Activity Studies on the Stem Bark of Catumarega, spinosa (Thunb.) Triven. / Vedavathi B / Dissertation, May 2010 / Master of Pharmacy in Pharmacognosy /M S Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, Bangalore
(17)
Piscicidal plants of Nepal: Ripe fruit of Catumaregam spinosan *Thunb.) (Rubiaceae) and leaves of P9lygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) as fish poisons / Augussthy Thevasia Kulakkattolickal / Aquaculture, June 1989; 78(3-4): pp 293-301 / https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(89)90107-5
18)
Phytochemical Investigations of Methanol Leaf extract of Randia spinosa Using Column Chromatography, HPTLC, and GC-MS / Mahabaleshwara K, Chandrasekhar N and Govindappa M / Natural Products Chemistry & Research, 2016; 4(2) / DOI: 10.4172/2320.6836.1000202
(19)
Antimicrobial Activity of Formulation Containing Bioactive Extract of Endocarp of Randia spinosa / Tilloo S K, Bodhankar M M, Walker S B, Pande V B / International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. Apr-Jun 2012; 1(2) / ISSN: 2277-3688
(20)
Antidiabetic Activity of Randia dumetorum against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats / S Gandhimathi and G Viji Stella Bai / International Journal of Pharmacological Research, 2014; 4(3) / DOI: 10.7439/ijpr / ISSN:2277-3312
(21)
IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ACTIVITY OF TRITERPENE ISOLATED FROM BARK OF RANDIA DUMETORUM LAMK. / J S Jangwan and Raghubir Singh / Journal of Current Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 4(1): pp 1-9 / ISSNL 2277-2871
(22)
Pretreatment of Albino Rats with Methanolic Fruit Extract of Randia dumetorum (L.) Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage / Arshad Ali Noorani and Mohan K Kale / Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, April 2012; 15: pp 125-130 / DOI> 10.4196/kjpp.201216.2.125
(23)
Preliminary Evaluation of Binding Properties of Randia dumetorum Fruit Mucilage / K S Bodas, V V Potnis, M J Patil, K L Satpute, N S Sheth / International Journal of Pharmacy & Teachnology, June 2010; 21(31): pp 440-445 / ISSN: 0975-766X
(24)
Wild edible plants: a potential source of nutraceuticals / Neelu Singh / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, 2011; 2(12): pp 216-225 / ISSN: 0975-9492
(25)
Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of the fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk / Dinesh Kumar, Satish C Mudgade, Zulfiqar Ali Bhat, Santpsh S Bhujbal, R Rub / Orient Pharm Exp Med, 2011; 11: pp 161-167 / DOI: 10.1007/s13596-011-0025-3
(26)
Secondary Metabolites from Rubiaceae Species / Daiane Martins and Cecilia Veronica Nunez / Molecules, 2015; 20: 13422-13495 / DOI: 10.3390/molecules200713422
(27)
Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants / RHMJ Lemmens and N Bunyapraphatsara / Backhuys Publiishers, Leiden 2003

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

α(5)
                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT