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Family Amaranthaceae
Taba-ahas
Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss.
MOUNTAIN KNOT-GRASS

Scientific names Common names
Achyranthes lanata Linn. Apugapugan (Tag.)
Achyranthes villosa Forssk. Karlatan (Ilk.)
Aerva elegans Moq. Pamaynap (Tag.)
Aerva floribunda Wight Taba-ahas (Tag.)
Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. ex Schult. Aerva (Engl.)
Aerva pubescens Mart. Mountain knot-grass (Engl.)
Aerva sansobarica Suess. Stone-breaking plant (Engl.)
Aerva tandalo Buch.-Ham. ex Dill.  
Aerva viridis E.Mey. ex Moq.  
Alternanthera pubescens Moq.  
Amaranthus lanatus Dum.Cours.  
Celosia lanata L.  
Illecebrum lanatum (L.) L..  
Aerva brachiata Walp.  
Illecebrum lanatum Linn.  
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
HINDI: Chaya, Kapurijadi.
INDIAN: Polpala, Gorakha ganja.
INDONESIA: Katumpangan uler, Rumput upas-upasan.
SANSKRIT: Bhadra.
TAMIL: Sirupulai.
VIETNAMESE: Mao v[ix] l[oo]ng.

Botany
Taba-ahas is an ascending or prostrate, densely hairy herb, stems of which are 0.2 to 0.8 meter long. Leaves are alternate, elliptical to orbicular or obovate, 1 to 3.5 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, borne on many white axillary spikes, 1 centimeter or less in length, solitary or crowded in the axils of the leaves.

Distribution
- In open dry waste places, at low and medium altitudes, and in regions subject to prolonged dry season.
- Commonly found in La Union to Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro; Marinduque; and Panay.
- Probably introduced.

- Also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya (Sumatra, Java).

Constituents
- Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids (ervine, methylervine, ervoside, aervine, methylaervine, aervoside, ervolanine, and aervolanine), flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetic, persinol, persinosides A and B), methyl grevillate, lupeol, lupeol acetate benzoic acid, β-sitosteryl acetate and tannic acid. (11)
- Methanolic extract yielded steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, sugar, carbohydrate, proteins, ash content and amino acids. (12)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded flavonoid glycosides, aervitrin, aervolanine, aervoside, amyrin betulin, campesterol, canthin-6-one, 10-hydroxy-canthin-6-one, carboline-1 propionic acid, chrysin, β-ecdysone, daucosterol, hentriacontane, narcissin, β-sitosterol, syringic acid, feruloyl tyramine and vanillic acid. (14)
- Elemental analysis yielded essential trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, silicon, chloride, potassium and carbon.

Properties
- Considered demulcent, anti-inflammatory, anti-lithiatic, anthelmintic, diuretic, febrifugal.
- Pharmacologic studies report diuretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-diabetic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-urolithiasis, antiasthmatic, antifertility and hypolipidemic properties.

Parts used
Roots.

Uses

Folkloric
Considered an efficacious diuretic, and is said to be useful in catarrh of the bladder and gonorrhea.
- In India, roots are used to treat headaches.
- In the Malabar Coast, used as demulcent.
- Used for cough and as vermifuge for children.
- In Indian folk medicine, used as diuretic and for lithiasis. Also used for boils, cephalalgia, strangury, cough.
- In Ayurveda, recommended for all urinary diseases, spermatorrhea, leucorrhea.
- In Orissa, whole plant is used for herpes. In Trivandrum (Kerala) whole plant is used as uterine tonic. In West Bengal, juice used internally for measles. In Madya Pradesh, root is roasted, mixed with mustard oil and applied externally for skin diseases. (22)
- Plant used as anthelmintic.
Others
- Veterinary: In Madhya Pradesh, stems are tied around cattle's neck to get rid of wound worms. (22)


Studies
Antihyperglycemic:
Study of alcoholic extract of A. lanata leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity. (1)
Hepatoprotective: Study showed hydroalcoholic extract of Aerva lanata possesses hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (2)
Nephroprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of the entire plant of Aerva lanata in cisplatin and gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats showed it possessed marked nephroprotective activity with minimal toxicity and offers a potential role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxins like cisplatin and gentamicin. (3)
Antihelmintic: Study showed the aqueous and alcoholic extracts from the leaf and stem of Aerva lanata possess good anthelmintic activity on testing against tapeworm and an earthworm. (4)
Anti-Tumor: Study showed the partially TLC-purified fraction of petroleum ether extract to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites (EA) and B16F10 cell lines in vitro. Results indicate that the PEF significantly reduced the development of solid tumor in mice. (5)
Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed the alcoholic extract of A. lanata possess anti-diabetic activity and ameliorated biochemical damages in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (7)
Anti-Urolithiasis / Calcium Oxalate: Study showed administration of AL aqueous suspension to CaOx urolithic rats reduced oxalate synthesizing enzymes, diminished the markers of crystal deposition in the kidney. Results confirm that A lanata can be used as a curative agent for urolithiasis. (6) Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of A. lanata on oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in ethylene glycol induced calcium urolithic rats.
Anti-Urolithiasis / Gout: Study suggested Routula aquatica and Aerva lanata extracts exhibited good monosodium urate monohydrate crystal (MSMU) growth inhibition. Results suggest a potential use for formulation of gout treatment. (9)
Antimicrobial: Study showed A. lanata showed considerable activity against P mirabilis, S paratyphi, B subtilis and Candida tropicalis. (8)
Terpenoids: Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of stems, leaves, root, flower and seeds yielded 27 different types of terpenoids. Terpenoids, also called isoprenoids, constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of primary and secondary metabolisms. Plant terpenoids are extensively used for their aromatic qualities and play a role in traditional herbal remedies. (12)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal effect of an alcoholic extract using different experimental models--castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal test and PGE2 induced diarrhea. Results showed significant protection against P arrhea. (13)
Antihyperglycemic:
Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of alcoholic extract of leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results showed significant dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose level. The observed late onset of action and prolonged duration of action may be due to improved pancreatic cytoarchitecture. (14)
Diuretic / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the diuretic effects of a crude aqueous extract. Results showed a diuretic activity with marked increase in urine output, urine osmolality and urinary potassium excretion. Long term use showed not toxicological effects on the renal structure and function of rats. (15)
Antioxidative / Antimicrobial: Methanol and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against Gram+ bacteria viz. B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed effective and concentration-dependent free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and nitric oxide scavenging activity, possibly due to the presence of flavonoids and saponins. (16)
Anthelmintic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extracts of aerial parts for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate was the reference drug. Results showed both extracts exhibited dose-dependent activity, the methanol extract more active than the aqueous extract. (17)
Antiasthmatic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of aerial parts in-vitro in isolated goat tracheal chain preparation model and in-vivo model using clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation in mice. Results showed dose-dependent antiasthmatic activity. (18)
Antilithiatic / Dried Flowers: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of dried flowers against ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats. Results showed the aqueous flower extract showed antiurolithiatic activity, better than cystone. (19)
Inhibition of Melanoma-Induced Lung Metastasis via Induction of Apoptosis: Study evaluated the antimetastatic potential of an ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata using the B16F-10 melanoma-induced lung metastases model. A. lanata inhibited migration of tumor cells, cell invasion, and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Treatment with A. lanata induced apoptotic response. (20)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of A. lanata. Results showed high anti-lipid peroxidation against TBA. Stronger antioxidant activity was exhibited by aqueous ethanol extract compared to water and ethanol extracts. Standards were ascorbic acid and BHT. (21)
Antiurolithiatic: Study evaluated various extracts of A. lanata for antiurolithiatic activity using ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in male Wistar albino rats. Isolated compounds from n-butanol and EA fractions were identified as quercetin and betulin. In in silico testing, the two compounds produced significant antiurolithiatic results. (23) Study evaluated the effectiveness of A. lanata roots on renal calculus formation in vitro. Results showed an aqueous extract of root was good at controlling calcium phosphate crystallization. (28)
Anti-HIV Activity / Cytotoxic / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-HIV activity and cytotoxic effects of Aerva lanata root extracts. All the extracts showed notable activity with the chloroform extract showing the highest (91%) HIV-RT inhibition at 2mg/mL concentration. AZT control showed 91.7% inhibition at 2 mg/ml concentration. (24)
Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated a whole plant decoction for nephroprotective activity in Gentamicin model in Wistar albino rats. Results showed nephroprotective activity with significant reduction in BUN and S creatinine with histopathology exam showing reduction in degree of renal damage. (25)
In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the invitro anticancer potential of flowering aerial parts of A. lanata on 5 different human cell lines (lung, leukemia, prostate, colon, and cervix cancer) using Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. A chloroform fraction showed significant inhibitory effect for leukemia, lung and colon cancer. An ethyl acetate fraction showed significant inhibitory effect for lung and cervix cancer. (26)
Antidiabetic / Alkaloids / Roots:: Study isolated and evaluated the bioactive active compounds from the roots of A. lanata against STZ-nicotinamide induced elevated serum glucose in rats. Partially purified alkaloid basified toluene fraction (PPABTF) caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in serum glucose level. The PPABTF was identified as canthin-6-one derivative which may be responsible for the hypoglycemic activity. (29)
Diuretic: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of Aerva lanata and Ecbolium ligustrinum on make wistar strain albino rats using furosemide as standard. Results showed diuretic activity. EL showed a diuretic index of 1.70 and AL showed 1.49 compared to furosemide standard value of 1.80. (30)
Nutraceutical Potential in Ameliorating Secondary Complications in Diabetes: Study evaluated the nutraceutical potential of A. lanata for its culinary and therapeutic potential in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose. Its therapeutic potential could be partly attributed to flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes (alpha amyrin, betulin, and ß-sitosterol) along with micronutrients potassium, magnesium, calcium, and zinc. (31)
Protection Against Oxalate Mediated Free Radical Toxicity in Urolithiasis: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of A. lanata on oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in ethylene glycol induced calcium urolithic rats. Results suggest A. lanata can prevent the free radical formation from calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats and protect the renal cells from oxidative injury. (32)
Antifertility Effects / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the ethanolic extract of roots of Plumbago indica and aerial parts of Aerva lanata for antifertility activity using antiimplantation, abortifacient, and motility of rat spermatozoa (in-vivo) models. A. lanata showed pre-implantation loss of 20% and 30% against control at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kbw. Aerva lanata at 10% concentration showed no motility of rat spermatozoa within 60 seconds. (33)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Aerva lanata by HRBC lysis and protein denaturation. Results showed a concentration dependent inhibition of lysis of HRBC and protein (albumin) denaturation. The effect was possibly due to the presence of polyphenols and flavanoids in the extract. (34)
Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin Induced Cardiomyopathy: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of aqueous, ethanol, and aqueous ethanol extracts of AL against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in Wistar rats compared with allopathic drug aspirin. Results showed all three extracts showed cardioprotective activity (p<0.05) similar to that of aspirin.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Digitally modified / Public Domain / File:Aerva lanata Blanco2.354.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / closeup / Leaves and Flowers / File:Aerva Lanata.JPG / Challiyan at ml.wikipedia / 4 July 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antihyperglycaemic activity of alcoholic extract of Aerva lanata (L.) A. L. Juss. Ex J. A. Schultes leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice / Tushar A Deshmukh et al / Journal of Applied Biomedicine 6:81-87, 2008
(2)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Aerva lanata Linn. Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats / Manokara S, Jaswanth A et al / Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(4): Oct.-Dec. 2008
(3)
Effect of Aerva lanata on cisplatin and gentamicin models of acute renal failure / Annie Shirwalkar et al /

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 90, Issue 1, Jan 2004, Pages 81-86 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.033 |
(4)
Invitro Antihelmentic Activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Aerva lanata Seeds and leaves / D Anantha, T Israiel Kumar et al / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.2(5), 2010, 317-321
(5)
Effect of Aerva lanata on solid tumor induced by DLA cells in mice / K G Nevin and P L Vijauammal /
Fitoterapia, Vol 74, Issue 6, September 2003, Pages 578-582 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00148-5 |
(6)
Effect of Aerva lanata on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats / P Soundararajan et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 44, Dec 2006, pp 981-986
(7)
Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schultes in rats / T Vetrichelvan and M Jegadeesan / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 80, Issues 2-3, May 2002, Pages 103-107
/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00412-3 |
(8)
Antimicrobial activity of Aerva lanata, Boerhavia diffusa, Cassia tora, Pongamia pinnata and influence on the virulence factors of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Amutha Kuppusamy / UPublish.info
(9)
In vitro Growth and Inhibition Studies of Monosodium Urate Monohydrate Crystals by Different Herbal Extracts
/ Bharat B Parekh et al / American Journal of Infectious Diseases 5 (3): 232-237, 2009 / DOI : 10.3844/ajidsp.2009.225.230
(10)
Aerva lanata (L.) A L Juss ex Schultes / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(11)

Aerva lanata: A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects / Manoj Goyal, Anil Pareek, B. P. Nagori, and D. Sasmal / Pharmacogn Rev. 2011 Jul-Dec; 5(10): 195–198. / doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.91120
(12)
Phytochemical studies on the terpenoids of medicinally important plant Aerva lanata L. using HPTLC /
Yamunadevi M, Wesely EG, Johnson M / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S220-S225
(13)
Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Aerva lanata in Experimentally Induced Diarrhoea in Rats / Singh Sunder*, Rai A K, Sharma Praveen, Panwar Aakash Singh / Pharmacologyonline 2: 921-928 (2011)
(14)
Antihyperglycaemic activity of alcoholic extract of Aerva lanata (L.) A. L. Juss. Ex J. A. Schultes leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice / TusharA. Deshmukh, Bapuso V.Yadav, Sachin L. Badole, Subhash L. Bodhankar, Sunil R. Dhaneshwar / J. Appl. Biomed. 6: 81–87, 2008
(15)
A preliminary investigation on the effects of Polpala (Aerva lanata) on the structure and function of urinary tract of rats / HMDR Herath, M Gunatilake, D Lokuhetty, J Wijayabandara / The Ceylon Journal of Medical Science 2005; 48: 33-42 / DOI = 10.4038/cjms.v48i2.120
(16)
Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Study of Aerva Lanata / Muthukumaran. P, Shanmuganathan P and Malathi C / Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research Issue 2 (Vol. 1) 2011
(17)
In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Aerial Parts of Aerva lanata Linn / Juss Rajesh R*, Chitra K, Padmaa M. Paarakh / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2010; 2(4): 269-271
(18)
ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Aerva lanata Linn
. / Deepak Kumar*, D.N. Prasad, Jyoti Parkash, S P Bhatnagar, Dinesh Kumar / Pharmacologyonline 2: 1075-1081 (2009)
(19)
Evaluation of Aerva Lanata Flower Extract for Its Antilithiatic Potential In Vitro and In Vivo
/ Jayaraman Uthaya chandirika, Ravi Kumar Nirmala Devi*, Gurusamy Annadurai * / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Research 2013; 3(2): 67-71
(20)
Inhibition of B16F-10 Melanoma–Induced Lung Metastasis in C57BL/6 Mice by Aerva lanata via Induction of Apoptosis / Kodappully Sivaraman Siveen, MSc, MPhil, Girija Kuttan, PhD / doi:10.1177/1534735412443853 / Integr Cancer Ther January 2013 vol. 12 no. 1 81-92
(21)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF Aerva lanata (L) – An Invitro Stud
y /
PARAMASIVAM RAGAVENDRAN, DOMINIC SOPHIA, CHINTHAMONY ARUL RAJ, THANGARAJAN STARLIN AND VELLIYUR KANNIAPPAN GOPALAKRISHNAN* / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Issue 2, 2012
(22)
A Pharmacological review on Gorakha ganja (Aerva lanata (Linn) Juss. Ex. Schult) / Nagaratna A, Prakash L Hegde, Harini A / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 3(5): 35-39
(23)
In Silico Antiurolithiatic Screening of Aerva lanata (L) Isolated constituents / Basavaraj M Dinnimath and Sunil S Jalalpure* / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2015; 49(2):126-133 / doi:10.5530/ijper.49.2.8
(24)
Anti-HIV Activity and Cytotoxic Effects of Aerva lanata Root Extracts / Rajendra Prasad Gujjeti and Estari Mamidala* / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2(7); 2014: pp 894-900
(25)
Evaluation of nephroprotective activity of sirupeelai kudineer (Aerva lanata decoction) in rats / G. S. Lekha / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(10):522-530
(26)
In vitro anti cancer activity of ethanol extract fractions of Aerva lanata L. / Bhanot A , Sharma R , Singh S , Noolvi MN , Singh S / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences : PJBS, 2013, 16(22):1612-1617 / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1612.1617
(27)
Elemental Analysis of Aerva lanata (L.) by EDX Method / Ragavendran P, Arul Raj C, Sophia D, Starlin T, and Gopalakrishnan VK / IRJP 2012, 3(7)
(28)
Chemical analysis and in vitro evaluation of antiurolithiatic activity of Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. Ex Schult. roots / KN Sunil Kumar*, Suchitra Narayan Prabhu, B Ravishankar, Sahana, B Yashovarma / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
(29)
Antidiabetic activity of alkaloids of Aerva lanata roots on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats / Ritesh Agrawal, Neeraj K. Sethiya, and S. H. Mishra / Pharm Biol, Early Online: 1–8
(30)
DIURETIC POTENTIAL OF AERVA LANATA AND ECBOLIUM LIGUSTRINUM ROOT EXTRACTS / NIMMAKAYALA SRIDHAR, BONDADA V.V.S. SURYA KIRAN, MITHUN RUDRAPAL / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Health Care, Vol 6, No 2 (2014)
(31)
Nutraceutical potential of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult ameliorates secondary complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / M. P. Riya, K. A. Antu, S. Pal, A. K. Srivastava, S. Sharma and K. G. Raghu* / Food Funct., 2014,5, 2086-2095 / DOI: 10.1039/C4FO00013G
(32)
Effect of Aerva lanata against oxalate mediated free radical toxicity in urolithiasis / Vava Mohaideen Hazeena Begum*, Ramalingam Mahesh, Thiyagarajan Ramesh, and Periasamy Soundararajan / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2008 8(1), 59-66 DOI 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.1.059
(33)
ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PLUMBAGO INDICA AND AERVA LANATA ON ALBINO RATS / R. V. Savadi, K. R. Alagawad / International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Vol 3, No 3 (2009)
(34)
In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Aerva lanata / Vivek D, Nimisha G Nair, Anju M P, Bijesh Vatakkeel, Siju E N, Aiswarya Lakshmi A G. /International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research 2015; 7(1); 57-59
(35)
Cardioprotective effect of aqueous, ethanol and aqueous ethanol extract of Aerva lanata (Linn.) against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy in rats / Paramasivam Ragavendran, Dominic Sophia, Chinthamony Arulraj, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2012, Vol 2, No 1, Supplement S212-S218

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