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Family Compositae
Erigeron bonariensis L.
Ye tang hao

Scientific names Common names
Aster ambiguus (DC.) E.H.Krause Asipukpuk (Pang.)
Conyza ambigua DC. Atipukpuk (Ilk.)
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist Balagun (Bag.)
Conyza chenopodioides DC. Batbatung (Bon.)
Conyza crispa (Pourret) Rupr. Insok (Ilk.)
Conyza crispa (Pourr.) Cout. Lagia (Ilk.)
Conyza gracilis Hoffmanns. & Link Put-putak (Ig.)
Conyza hispida Kunth Tagabili (Bik.)
Conyza ivifolia Burm. f. Takiadauan (Bon.)
Conyza leucodasys Miq. American horseweed (Engl.)
Conyza linearis DC. Asthma weed (Engl.)
Conyza plebeha Phil. Flax-leaf fleabane (Engl.)
Conyza rufescens Hoffmanns. & Link Hairy fleabane (Engl.)
Conyza sinuata Elliott  
Conyza sordescens Cabrera  
Conyzella linifolia (Willd.) Greene  
Dimorphanthes ambigua C. Presl  
Dimorphanthes angustifolia Cass.  
Dimorphanthes crispa Rupr.  
Dimorphanthes hispida (Kunth) Cass.  
Dimorphanthes linifolia (Willd.) Rupr.  
Erigeron ambiguus Sch.Bip. ex Webb & Berthel.  
Erigeron bonariensis L.  
Erigeron contortus Desf. ex Pers.  
Erigeron coranopifolius Willk. & Lange  
Erigeron crispus Pourr.  
Erigeron gusalakensis Rech.f. & Edelb.  
Erigeron linerifolius Cav.  
Erigeron linifolius Willd.  
Erigeron looseri Herter  
Erigeron naudinii (Bonnet) Bonnier  
Erigeron transsilvanicus Schur  
Erigeron undulatus Moench  
Eschenbachia ambigua Moris  
Eupatorium dictophyllum DC.  
Leptilon bonariense (L.) Small  
Leptilon linifolium (Willd.) Small  
Marsea bonariensis (L.) V.M.Badillo  
Pulcaria gracilis (Hoffmanns. & Link) Nyman  
Pulcaria rufescens (Hoffmanns. & Link) Nyman  
Erigeron crispus Pourr. is a synonym of Erigeron bonariensis L. The Plant List
Erigeron bonariensis L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAAN: Kleinskraalhans.
ARABIC: Koweenza
CHINESE:Ye di huang ju, Suo yi cao, Xiang si cao, Ye tang hao.
FRENCH: Erigeron crepu
GERMAN: Südamerikanisches Berufskraut
INDIA: Buar.
ITALIAN: Saeppola di Buenos Aires
PAKISTAN: Gulava, Mrich booti.
PORTUGUESE: Avoadinha-peluda
SPANISH: Joppo de zorra

Tagabili is a stout, sometimes slender, erect, more or less hairy, branched annual 0.5 to 2 meters in height. Leaves are lanceolate to oblanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, 1 to 4 centimeters wide, and coarsely toothed or sublobed in the margins. Panicles are terminal and ample, bearing numerous, peduncled, narrowly ovoid, flowering hears 6 to 7 millimeters long. Bracts are green. Flowers are many in each head, greenish-white.

- Abundant in open, waste places, old clearings, etc., from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 meters, throughout the Philippines.
- Occurs in all warm countries.

- Study yielded a new (aromatic glycoside, erigoside G) and nine known compounds: stigmasterol (1), freideline (2), 1,3-dihydroxy-3R,5R-dicaffeoyloxy cyclohexane carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), 1R,3R-dihydroxy- 4S,5R-dicaffeoyloxycyclohexane carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), quercitrin (5), caffeic acid (6), 3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxycarbonylethyl ester (8), benzyl O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), and 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (10). The aromatic glycoside, erigoside G (7) was reported as the new natural compound. (1)
- GC/MS analysis of volatile fraction from Tunisian E. bonariensis yielded higher terpenes components (90.6%) compared to essential oil by traditional hydrodistillation (86.2%). (4)
- Essential oil of Tunisian essential showed higher content of caryophyllene oxide (18.7%), spathulenol (18.6%) and a-curcumene (10.2%) whereas Sardinian oil was richer in Cis-lanchnophyllum ester (14.2%) and (E)-ß-farnesene (12.0%). (4)
- GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of leaves yielded 19 compounds. Main compounds were benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester (10.94%), palmitic acid (18.049%), 1-alpha-18O-1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (22.63%), stigmasterol (4.38%), verticellol (4.45%), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol, (3beta,5alpha,22E) (5.43%), methyl commate B (5,16), beta-sitosterol (4.21%). (5)

- Considered antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial.
- Studies have suggested hepatoprotective. antibacterial, antifungal, gul-modulatory properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots.


- In the Philippines, cataplasm of fresh plant is applied to wounds, contusions, and dislocations.
- Leaves used for rheumatism or lumbago, and to prevent too rapid conception.
- Decoction of roots reported as protective medicine after childbirth.
- In Pakistan, traditionally used for urine problems. (3) Whole plant used for treatment of hypertension. (14)
- In Madhya Pradesh, India, leaves used to relieve block nose (6)
- Used as pungent tonic, astringent to control bleeding, and as diuretic. (10) .

Chemotaxonomic Significance:
Previous studies have considered Erigeron bonariensis as synonym of Conyza bonariensis. The study suggests Erigeron and Conyza are two different genera. On basis of chemotaxonomy, study concludes the title species is Erigeron bonariensis. (1)
Phytochemical Analysis: Study yielded a new compound, an aromatic glycoside, erigoside G, together with nine known compounds. (See Constituents above)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of C. bonariensis against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Results showed hepatoprotective activity as evidenced by a decline (p<0.05) in paracetamol induced liver marker enzymes and total bilirubin at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. 750 mg/kg showed a remarkable decline in ALTT, AST, ALP, and TB levels. Activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin. (7)
• Essential Oils / Leaves, Stem and Flower Heads: Study of essential oils at flowering stage of aerial and underground parts by GC and GC/MS analysis yielded 143 constituents, with 20 major constituents. Some of the main constituents were matricaria ester, (Z)-nerolidol, caryophyllene oxide, (E)-ß-farnesene, geranyl acetone, trans-a-bergamotene and limonene. Oils showed significant variation among the seasons. (8)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of C. bonariensis in animal models. Results showed analgesic effect using acetic acid and formalin-induced models of nociception and anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. (10)
• Antimicrobial / Synergism with Tribulus terresetris: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Conyza bonariensis and Tribulus terrestris. All extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains i.e., S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, S. typhi, and C. neoformans. The plant extracts also demonstrated synergistic effect of their chemical components against the test microbes. (11)
• Gut Modulator Effects / Basis for Use in Constipation and Diarrhea: Study evaluated the pharmacological basis of crude extracts for its use in constipation and diarrhea. The crude extract showed spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum preparation. The extract cause inhibition of high K+ induced contraction in isolated rabbit jejunum. Among various fractions, only hexane and ethyl acetate fractions showed spasmogenic effects. Results demonstrated the crude extract contains spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents, which explains its use in constipation and diarrhea. (12)
• Inhibitory Activity Against Superficial Bacterial and Fungal Infections / Tincture / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of a tincture from C. bonariensis leaves against fungi and bacteria causing superficial infections. The tincture exhibited inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and fungi such as dermatophytes, Candida and Malassezia. (13)


Updated August 2019 / December 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: (2) Little Horseweed / Erigeron bonariensis / Will Rogers State Historic Park / Research Learning Center / Click on image to go to source page
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photohraph / Conyza bonariensis/ Photo taken and uploaded by Iorsh / Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Erigeron bonariensis / Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. (Asthmaweed)
Hippolyte Coste - Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France, de la Corse et des contrées limitrophes, 1901-1906 - This image is in public domain because its copyright has expired / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Constituents from Erigeron bonariensis L. and their Chemotaxonomic Importance / Aqib Zahoor,, Hidayat Hussain, Afsar Khan3, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Karsten Krohn / Rec. Nat. Prod., 2012; 6(4): pp376-380

Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. / Catalogue of Life, China
Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activity, Traditional & Medicinal Uses of Erigeron Species: A Review / Rajesh Kumar Sharma*, Nishant Verma, K. K. Jha, Niraj K. Singh, Brijesh Kumar / International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation, Volume 2, Issue 2 (2014)
Effects of different ecological conditions and extraction techniques on the quality of volatile oils from flaxleaf fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis L.) / Anissa Benzarti, Saoussen Hammami, Alessandra Piras, Sana Gannoun / Journal of medicinal plant research, 7(41):3059-3065, January 2013 /
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2013.5241
PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USING GC-MS / Vinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj* / International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, April - May, 2016, Vol. 5, No.3, pp 2153-2158
Study of some rare medicinal wild herbs from gardens of Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh (India) / Kshipra Nag* and Zia-Ul-Hasan / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES 4(3), March 2013
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Extract of Conyza bonariensis against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice / Mohammad Saleem, Faiza Naseer, Sohail Ahmad, Attiya Nazish, Fiza Raza Bukhari, Atta Ur Rehman, Imran Mahmood Khan, Samra Sadiq, Fatima Javed / American Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2014; 2(6): pp 124-127.
Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves, stems, flower heads and roots of Conyza bonariensis L. from Tunisia / S. Mabrouk, A. Elaissi, H. Ben Jannet & F. Harzallah-Skhiri / Natural Product Research, Vol 25, 2011, Issue 1 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.513685
Erigeron bonariensis L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanoic Extracts of Conyza bonariensis and its Fractions in Rodent Models / Ishfaq Ali Bukhari, Saeed Ahmed Sheikh et al / International Journal of Pharmacology, 14: pp 144-150 / /
International Journal of Pharmacology, 14: 144-150. / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2018.144.150
In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Conyza bonariensis and Tribulus terrestris Growing in Tanzania / Ambrose Antony Kiang’u Ghwangav and Musa Chacha / Herb Med, 2019; 5(1) / DOI: 10.21767/2472-0151.100042
Gut modulator effects of Conyza bonariensis explains its traditional use in constipation and diarrhea/ Ishfaq A Bukhari et al / European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 2013; 17(4): pp 552-558

Inhibitory activity of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquisttincture against fungi and bacteria causing superficial infections / Javier Esteban Mussin, Patricia Manzano, Magdalena Mangiaterra, Gustavo Giusiano / Revusta Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 2017; 22(3)
Potential Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Hypertensin in Turkey, Pakistan, and Malaysia / Munir Ozturk, Volkan Altay et al / Plant and Human Health, Vol 1: pp 595-618

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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