Taingang-daga is a small variable,
prostrate, creeping herb, somewhat pubescent with long, scattered
hair, the stems creeping, up to 50 centimeters in length, usually rooting
at the nodes. Leaves are trifoliate, with three small heart-shaped leaflets,
their petioles 5 centimeters long or less, sessile. Leaflets are obcordate, 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters long and stalkless. At noontime, the leaflets
droop like folded umbrellas. At night, the leaflets close and
fold together. Flowers are yellow, one to several on each peduncle, subumbellately
disposed, nearly 1 centimeter long. Petals are obcordate. Fruits are capsules, hairy, tomentose, subcylindric, 1 to 1.8
centimeters long, divided into minute segments with numerous black seeds
the size of sand grains.
- In waste places, open grasslands,
etc., from sea level to an altitude of 2,200 meters throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in the warmer parts of the Old World.
- Phytochemical study yielded tannins, palmitic acid, a mixture
of oleic, linoleic, linolenic and stearic acids.
- Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, proteins, amino acids, and volatile oil.
- Phytochemical studies have yielded flavanoids, tannins, phytosterols, phenol, glycosides, fatty acids, galacto-glycerolipid and volatile oil. Leaves yield flavonoids, iso-vitexine and vitexine-2"-O-betaD-glucopyranoside. Plant is rich in essential fatty acids like palmitic acid, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and stearic acids.
- Study of an
ethyl acetate soluble fraction of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid glucoside, Corniculatin A, along with luteolin, luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside and ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside. (33)
- Acidic tasting, cooling effect, astringent, appetizing, febrifuge, antibilious, antiscorbutic, blood refrigerant, tranquilizer.
- Studies have shown
antioxidant, anticancer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, steroidogenic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, diuretic, emmenagogue, styptic, cardioprotective, anti-urolithiatic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anxiolytic properties.
· Entire plant.
· May be collected throughout the year.
· Rinse, sun-dry, compress.
· Propagate by seeds or vegetative propagation.
· Leaves are edible, with a tangy taste.
· In the Philippines, leaves used as salad ingredient.
· Juice of leaves used for cleansing wounds and for itches.
· Cold-fever, enteritis-diarrhea,
infection of the urinary tract, neurasthenia: Decoction of 30 to 60
gms of the prepared material.
· Sprains, bruises, poisonous snake bites: Apply poultice of
pounded fresh materials.
· Burns, dermatoses of the lower limb, skin eczema: Rub fresh
sap over afflicted area or use decoction of the fresh material as external
· Used for removing corns, warts, and other excrescences on the skin.
· Poultice of bruised leaves, with or without water, applied over inflamed parts.
· Fresh juice of leaves used to relieve intoxication produced by Datura.
· Juice of leaves also used as application to remove fiber over the cornea or opacities of the cornea.
· Expressed leaf juice, made into sherbet with sugar, used for dysentery and rectal prolapse, and to allay thirst.
· Leaves boiled in buttermilk, used for chronic dysentery and enteritis.
· Juice considered antidotal to mercurial and arsenical poisoning; also used for burns, insect and scorpion bites, and eruptions.
· Plant considered antiscorbutic in China and India.
· Paste from leaves pounded with a little rice-flour applied to prickly heat. Also used for mouth and gum sores.
· In Java, leaves mixed with onion and salt, used for stomachaches. Juice used for coughs.
· In Nepal, leaves used
ritually for stomachaches.
· In Zairean
pharmacopoeia, used as antivenom: (1) Paste of whole
plant of O corniculata rubbed on the wound; swallow the juice of the
masticated plant (2) Make paste with a salted mixture of O corniculata
and Aframomum sanguineum, and cover the bite.
· In traditional Indian medicine, used to treat epilepsy, dysentery and diarrhea, piles, ophthalmia, anemia, digestive disorders.
· In Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine, used for liver and digestive problems; also for piles, dyspepsia, anemia and skin diseases.
(1) In a study of the traditional medicinal plants from North East India,
OC showed antibacterial activity against E. coli. (2) In a study of aqueous extracts of leaves of 46 plants, Oxalis corniculata was one of only 12 that exhibited antibacterial activity against test pathogens.
• Antibacterial: Leaf material was tested for antibacterial activity against three important pathovars of Xanthomas and fourteen human pathogenic bacteria. Results revealed significant antibacterial activity attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. (7)
Report on the post-coital antifertility activity of the whole plant
of Oxalis corniculata in female albino rats.
Report on the abortifacient activity of O corniculata.
• Antifungal: Study
on the water extract of Oxalis corniculata showed it to be active against
Aspergillus niger. (4)
• Anti-Urolithiasis / Antibacterial: Of 17 plants studied, O corniculata was one of six with antibacterial efficacy that showed promising roles in the prevention and cure of urolithiasis. (6)
• Anti-Epileptic: Study
showed the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata increased the monoamines on rat brain, which may decrease the susceptibility to MES and PTZ-induced seizures in rats.
• Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study
of ethanol extract of Oxalis corniculata showed significant antitumor and antioxidant activities in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) induced in Swiss albino mice. There was effective inhibition of tumor growth in ascitic and solid tumor models. (10)
• Antibacterial / Cream Formulation: Study
of aqueous extract OC showed strong antibacterial activity especially with increased extract concentration. A cream formulation showed potential as a topical to protect the skin against S. aureus and E coli. (11)
• Cardioprotective: In vitro studies confirmed that O. corniculata extract could protect the myocardium against ischemic insult and the protective effect can be attributed to its antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities. (12)
• Novel Galacto-Glycerolipid / Anti-Amoebic / Anti-Giardia: Study of extracts identified several compounds that showed anti-amoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. Of the different compounds, the strongest anti-amoebic activity was found with GGL (galacto-glycerolipid). GGL was also found to be effective in killing Giardia lamblia, another protist pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. (13)
• Anxiolytic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for anxiolytic effect in mice using the open field test, elevated plus maze test, and anti-fighting test. Results suggest anxiolytic activity, consistent with the anxiolytic effects of diazepam. (16)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a methanol extract of whole plant. There was significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH and NO radicals and TBARS method. There was significant biphasic response in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. (17)
• Antibacterial: In a study of three medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, the leaves and seeds extracts of Oxalis corniculata showed high antibacterial activity against E coli and Bacillus subtilis. (18)
• Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant effect of O. corniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results showed free radical scavenging, and antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Effects were compared to glibenclamide as reference drug. (19)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4 and PHH Induced Toxicity: Study showed a hydroalcoholic extract of Hummaz (O. corniculata) counteracted the hepatotoxic effect induced by CCl4 and PHH. Although the protection by Silymarin seemed relatively greater, Hummaz can be used as hepatoprotective agent in some liver disorders. (20)
• Gastroprotective / Antiulcer: Study investigated a methanolic extract of O. corniculata in pylorus ligated and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerations in Wistar rats. Results suggest OC possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects. (21)
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective / Stem and Leaves: Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves lower oxalates on sequential extraction and showed good antioxidant activity by DPPH and ß-carotenenoleate models and in vivo hepatoprotective activity in isoniazid and rifampin-induced oxidative stressed rats (p<0.05). (24)
• Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of whole plant for acute and chronic toxicity in rats. On acute toxicity testing, the extract was safe at doses of 2000 mg/kbw orally, with no toxicity or deaths. In chronic toxicity study, no significant treatment changes were seen in hematologic, renal, and hepatic parameters. Results suggest the methanol extract of whole plant to not have significant toxicity, with a wide margin of safety for therapeutic use. (25)
• Antibacterial / Insecticidal: Study evaluated various extracts and fractions of Oxalis corniculata for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. Crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae, S. typhi and B. subtilis and significant activities against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, A. flexneri, and A. flavus. Crude extract and chloroform fractions showed high mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum. Of two isolated compounds, compound 2 (5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone) showed more activity than compound 1 against tested bacterial strains and insects. (26)
• Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide Intoxication: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed significant reductions in SGOT, SGPT, GGTP, ALP, and total bilirubin. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver showed dose-dependent reduction of necrosis. (27)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of whole plant showed hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. (28)
• Nutritional Benefits of Food Products Enriched by Sorrel Leaves: Study analyzed the proximate constituents of value added products from underutilized fresh Indian sorrel leaves. Results showed products enriched with fresh sorrel leaves are rich in protein, energy, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, and vitamin C. Incorporation of Indian sorrel leaves in various food items can improve nutritional qualities. (29)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study of ethanolic extract of O. corniculata leaves in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats showed significant (p<0.01) anti-inflammatory activity. (30)
• Proteinaceious Alpha Amylase Inhibitor / Antidiabetic Potential: Study evaluated the alpha amylase inhibitory potential from the leaves of Oxalis corniculata. A previous work with solvent extraction of leaves showed maximum inhibition against porcine pancreatic alpha amylase. The inhibitor AI-1 isolated from OC showed a molecular weight of 30kda. Further study can elucidate the complete structural structure of the inhibitor and prove important in the development of a plant based medication for treatment of T2DM. (31)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic action of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata in streptococci induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed antidiabetic effect with increased trend with increase in dose and gradual decrease in blood glucose levels with increase period of exposure to the test drug. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. (32)
• Neuroprotective / Antioxidant / Potential Benefit in Parkinsonism Disease: Study evaluated the effects of O. corniculata extract against MPTP induced oxidative stress in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Treatment showed significant restoration of peroxides and antioxidant levels to near normal in the brains of test animals. Standard drugs were L-dopa+ carbidopa combination also significantly restored the peroxides and antioxidant levels to near normal. (34)
• Amelioration of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity: Study investigated the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract of Oxalis corniculata against lung injuries initiated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats at histological and biochemical level. Treatment with the ME dose-dependently prevented the alterations in the measured parameters. The OCME protected via its intrinsic properties by scavenging of free radicals generated by CCl4. (35)