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Family Euphorbiaceae
Tairas
Euphorbia dulcis Blanco
SWEET SPURGE

Hai bin da ji

Scientific names Common names
Euphorbia atoto Forst. f. Tairas (Iv.)
Euphorbia dulcis Blanco Lamiñgo (Bag.)
Euphorbia chamissonis (Kl et Garcke) Boiss. Beach spurge (Engl.)
Chamaesyce atoto (G. Forst) Croizat Sweet spurge (Engl.)
Anisophyllum atoto (G. Forst.) Kl & Garcke Hai bin da ji (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
INDIA: Mu pet.


Botany
Tairas is a slender, smooth herb, up to 36 centimeters in height, with ascending and prostrate stems. Leaves are oblong, 1.5 to 4.5 centimeters long, and 0.7 to 1.5 centimeters wide, with entire margins. Inflorescence is very short and borne on the upper axil of the leaf. Capsue is small, ovoid, about millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- A strand plant along sandy seashores throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to southern China and Formosa through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia.

Properties
Purgative, emmenagogue, abortifacient.

Parts used
Whole plant, sap.

Uses

Folkloric
- In Indo-China, the milky juice used as an emmenagogue, also as an abortifacient.
- Plant, cooked with honey over a water bath, used for tuberculosis.
- In New Caledonia, plant soaked and malaxated in sea-water used as purgative.
- In India, leaf paste is boiled in paraffin wax and applied on ulcers, sores, old cuts and wounds. Also, leaves mixed with leaves of Ipomoea pescaprae, boiled in coconut oil, and the extract rubbed on the body in rheumatism.
(2)

Studies
Tumor Promoter Activity:
In a Malaya study for long-term side-effects of herbal medications, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumor-promoter activity using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harboring the EBV genome. 27% (13/48) were found to be positive, and four, including E atoto, were found to have EBV-induciing activity at low concentrations in cell culture. The observation warrants study for an etiologic factor for the promotionn of tumors among rural Malaysian Malays. (1)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update September 2013

IMAGE SOURCES: GNU Free Documentation Licences / File:Euphorbia atoto.jpg / Euphorbia atoto; Chamaesyce chamissonis; Beach spurge / 4 June 2007 / Tau'olunga / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Euphorbia dulcis / Family: Euphorbiaceae / Credit: Photo by Leo Michels - Source: http://www.imagines-plantarum.de/ Public domain image / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae / A W Norhanom and M Yadav / British Journal of Cancer (1995) 71, 776-779
(2)
Traditional medicine of the Nicobarese / Chitralekha Verma, Shashi Bhatia, and Shuchi Srivastava / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9(4), Oct 2010, pp 779-785.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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