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Family Boraginaceae
Takad
Rotula aquatica Lour.
AQUATIC ROTULA

Lun guan mu

Scientific names Common names
Rotula aquatica Lour. Bongtal (Tag.)
Rhabdia lycioides Mart. Buntut-buaya (Tag.)
  Kulatai (Tag.)
  Takad (Tag.)
  Aquatic rotula (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Lun guan mu.
HINDI: Pashanabhed.
KANNADA: Paashaanabheda.
MALAYALAM: Kallurvanchi.
MARATHI: Machim.
SANSKRIT: Ashmahabhedah, Mutrala, Pashanabhedah.

Botany
Takad is a shrub or bush that grows to a height of 2 to 3 meters. Leaves are alternate, imbricate, ovate-oblong, usually 0.8 to 1.5 centimeters in length, and short-stalked. Flowers are small and crowded, and borne on terminal inflorescences. Sepals are five, about 4.5 millimeters long, and narrow with sharp points. Corolla is purple or pink, 5 to 6 millimeters long, and five lobed. Fruit is an orange or red drupe, somewhat rounded, fleshy, about 4 millimeters in diameter, and containing four seeds.

Distribution
- Grows characteristically among rocks crevices and trailing over gravel bars in stream beds at low altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Bulacan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.
- Pantropic.

- Also native to China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.

Constituents
-
Phytochemical study yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, and nutrients (amino acids and protein).

- Roots have yield allantoin and a sterol, rhabdiol.

Properties
- Bitter, astringent, diuretic, sudorific, antilithic.
- Root considered laxative and diuretic. The diuretic action of the root is attributed to allantoin.

Parts used
Stems, roots.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of stems used as sudorific and diuretic.
- In Ayurveda, plant used for piles, diabetes, venereal diseases, kidney and bladder stones.
- Root decoction is used as diuretic and laxative.
- In Indian traditional system, used for cancer treatment.
- Root tuber is astringent, bitter and diuretic; used for treating coughs, heart problems, dysuria, blood disorders, fever, poisonings, ulcers and uterine diseases.

Studies
Antilithic Effect / Crystal Dissolution Activity: Study screened the decoction of Rotula aquatica for antilithic activity in male Wistar rats with induced-nephrolithiasis. Results showed reduction of calcium and oxalate ion concentration in urine, confirming a stone inhibitory effect. The decoction showed no toxicity over a 45-day treatment period. (3)
Antilithic Effect: In a study of three plants, the aqueous extracts of Rotula aquatica and C wightii showed crystal dissolving activity against monosodium urate. (5)
Polyphenols / Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study yielded polyphenols, and polyphenols in polar extracts showed stronger antioxidant activity compared to non-polar phytoconstituents. Study suggests the herb may be used as protective measure in caner patients undergoing radiotherapy. (6)
Antimitotic / Anticancer: Study evaluated the antimitotic activity of R. aquatica. The mitotic index of the root tips markedly decreased with increasing concentration of the aqueous extract. Results showed extract of R. aquatica were extremely effective in the prevention of cell proliferation of the pancreatic cancer cell lines. (2)
Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated the anthelmintic effect of an aqueous extract on earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent activity compared to standard drug piperazine citrate. (7)
Analgesic / Antipyretic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of alcoholic extract of root showed significant antipyretic activity. It also showed significant activity on a carrageenin-induced paw edema model. The action was attributed to possible inhibition of lipooxygenase pathway. The tail immersion and hot plate tests revealed high analgesic activity. (8)
Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica showed significant antidiarrheal activity in different models. (9)
Urolithic: Study evaluated the antiurolithic effect of an alcoholic extract against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Histopathological studies confirmed reduction of lithiasis after treatment with the extract. (10)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of roots in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant decrease in blood glucose, with good activity at dose of 400 mg/kbw. (11)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous stem extract of Rotula aquatic for antioxidant activity. Results showed the stem extract to possess phenolic and flavonoid constituents that are responsible for antioxidant activity. (12)
Anthelmiintic / Bark: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of bark for anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed wormicidal activity with both dose-dependent spontaneous paralysis (vermifugal) and killing of earthworms (vermicidal). (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update January 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Boraginaceae (forget-me-not family) ยป Rotula aquatica / Dinesh Valke / November 9, 2008 / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Rotula aquatica Lour. [as Rhabdia viminea (Wallich) Dalziel ex Hook.] / Hooker's Icones Plantarum, vol. 9: t. 823 (1852) [W.H. Fitch] / Plant Illustrations

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Rotula aquatica / Wikipedia
(2)
Evaluation Of Antimitotic Activity Of Rotula Aquatica (Lour): A Traditional Herb Used In Treatment Of Cancer / Patil S, Narayanan S, Eibl G, Jolly CI. / ndian J Exp Biol. 2004 Sep;42(9):893-9.
(3)
Studies on the antilithic effect of Rotula aquatica lour in male Wistar rats / Christina A J M, Priya Mole, Moorthy P / Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2002, 24(6): 357 / DOI: 10.1358/mf.2002.24.6.693068
(4)
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION ON THE ROOT OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. / Mamta K, Abhishek B, Rohit / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences V1(2)2010
(5)
Preliminary study on crystal dissolution activity of Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii and Boerhaavia diffusa extracts / Ashwinikumar A Raut, Sudha Sunder et al /
Fitoterapia, Vol 79, Issues 7-8, December 2008, Pages 544-547 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2008.06.001
(6)
Free radical scavenging activity of Acacia Catechu and Rotula Aquatica: Implications in cancer therapy / Patil S, Jolly C, Narayanan S / Indian Drugs, 2003, vol. 40, no6, pp. 328-332
(7)
Evaluation of aqueous extract of R. aquatica for In vitro Anthelmintic Activity / Sunder Singh et al / Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research 2:184-188(2011)
(8)
ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR ROOT / Manish Kumar Gupta, Kenganora Mruthunjaya, Laxmi Saini, Shiv Kumar Garg, A Agrawal, S Goyal / Inventi Rapid: Planta Activa , Vol. 2011 , Article ID- " Inventi:ppa/37/11 " , 2011
(9)
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Rotula aquatica in rats / Sunder singh*, Rai AK, Praveen Sharma, Yogesh Barshiliya, Mohini Sihare, Anju Negi / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)
(10)
Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. / Gilhotra Umesh Kr. *, Christina A.J.M. / Int J. Drug Dev & Res., Jan-Mar 2011, 3(1)L273-280.
(11)
Antidiabetic Activity of Rotula aquatica Lour Roots in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Tulliballi Shyam*, Seru Ganapaty, P Balakrishnaiah / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 1(7), 2013, pp 530-535.
(12)
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF STEMS OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. / Bhanu Priya*, Sarika R. Zade, Anish Shaikh, Manoj Gahlot and Punam Joshi / IJPSR, 2013; Vol. 4(9): 3608-3614.
(13)
IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR BARK / Lakshmi V.K*, Triveni K B, Anitha S, Shashidhara S / Pharma Science Monitor, Vol-3, Issue-4, Suppl-1, Nov 2012


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