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Family Hypoxidaceae
/ Amaryllidaceae
Taloangi
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.
GOLDEN EYE GRASS

Xian Mao

Scientific names Common names
Curculigo brevifolia Dryand. ex W.T.Aiton Sulsulitik (Bon.) 
Curculigo firma Kotschy & Peyr. Taloangi (Bag.) 
Curculigo malabarica Wight Tataluangi (Buk.) 
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Black musale (Engl.)
Curculigo pauciflora Zipp. ex Span. Black musli (Engl.)
Curculigo petiolata Royle Common curculigo (Engl.)
Curculigo stans Labill. Golden eye grass (Engl.)
Franquevillea major Zoll. ex Kurz  
Gethyllis acaulis Blanco  
Hypoxis dulcis Steud. ex Baker  
Hypoxis orchioides (Gaertn.) Kurz  
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Talmuli, Talusa.
CHINESE: Shan dang shen, Po lu men shen, Du mao, Xian mao shen, Di ziang, Ya guo zi, Hai nan shen, Xian mao.
HINDI: Kali musli, Krishna musli, Musali kand, Muslikand.
INDIA: Kali musali.
MALAYALAM: Nelappana.
MALAYSIA: Lemba.
SANSKRIT: Talmuli, Musikaparni, Talpatrika.

Botany
Taloangi is a small stemless herb with stout and elongated rootstock and with copious, spreading fibers. Leaves are sessile or petiolate, linear or narrowly lanceolate, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 1 to 2.5 centimeters wide and with pointed tip. Scape is very short, clavate. Flowers are distichous, bright yellow, with the lowest in the raceme perfect and the upper, male. Perianth produced above the ovary consists of filiform, hairy, very slender strips which are 10 to 25 centimeters long and which alone, with the perianth segments, appear above ground. Segments are 12 to 18 millimeters long, oblong-ovate, acute, and dorsally hairy. Stamens are small, with short filaments. Fruits are oblong, about 10 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are oblong and black with the testa deeply grooved in wavy lines.

Distribution
- In open grasslands, chiefly in Cogonales (Imperata) areas at low and medium altitudes.
- Found in Bontoc, Pangasinan, Rizal and Sorsogon provinces in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Palawan, Biliran, Panay and Mindanao.
- Occurs in India to Java.

Constituents.
- Yields active compounds: flavones, glycosides, steroids, saponins, triterpenoids and secondary metabolites.
- Tuberous root contains resin, tannin, mucilage, fat, starch, and ash with oxalate of calcium.
- Phytochemical study yielded starch, enzymes, tannins, ash; contains glycoside, orcinol-1-0-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, curculigoside, syringic acid.

- Fresh rhizomes yield yuccagenin, a sapogenin, and alkaloid lycorin.
- Rhizome yielded a phenolic glycoside, curculigoside.
- Chloroform extract of rhizome yielded hentriacontanol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, cycloartinol, sucrose.
- Study of ethanol extract of rhizome by GC-MS analysis yielded six compounds viz. decane 2,3,5,8-trimethyl (1), dodecane 2,6,11-trimethyl (2) hexadecane,5-butyl (3) benzoic acid, 4-ethoxy-,ethyl ester (4) docosanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester (Tribehenin) (5) and ethyl iso allocholate (6). (see study below) (25)

Properties
- Root is aromatic, slightly bitter, mucilaginous to taste, considered demulcent, diuretic, and restorative.
- According to Ayurveda, root is healing, demulcent, aphrodisiac, appetizer, alternative, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anticancer, tonic and antidiabetic.

- According to Unani, root is carminative, tonic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic.
- Studies have suggested anticancer, antihepatotoxic, and immunomodulatory activities.

Parts utilized
· Rhizome.
· Collect from early February to late October.
· Remove roots and rootlets, rinse, cut into pieces.
· Sun dry.

Uses
Folkloric
• For lumbago, weak kidney, neurasthenia, urine retention, chronic nephritis, impotency, bed-wetting.
• Hypertension among women at late ages, chronic arthritis.
• Weakening of the knees and lumbar regions, numbness of the 4 limbs, rheumatic arthritis.
• Given with milk and sugar for gonorrhea, leucorrhea, and menstrual derangements.
• In Ayurveda, increases kapha and reduces vata and pitta; used for treatment of piles, asthma, gonorrhea, biliousness, fatigue and blood disorders. Also considered a sexual tonic.
• In Unani, used for bronchitis, ophthalmic, indigestion, vomiting, diarrhea, lumbago, joint pains.
• In India, Pakistan and China, tuberous roots have been used for cancer, jaundice, asthma, wound healing. Rhizome juice extract has been used as tonic to overcome impotence.
• In India, plant rhizome has been used as an aphrodisiac.
Plant paste applied to skin for itchy afflictions; also applied to hemorrhoids to relieve pain and itching. Also used for gonorrhea, jaundice, vomiting.

Studies
Anti-osteoporosis: Curculigo orchioides ethanol extract showed a definite protective effect on bone loss in ovariectomized rats by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing S phosphorus and calcium levels. (2)
Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study showed the antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacity of CO in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in rats. (3) In a study of hepatotoxic rats, the co-administration of the methanolic extract of CO rhizomes showed a tendency to attain near normalcy in the biochemical and histopathologic parameters. • Study isolated curculignin A and curculigol screened for antihepatotoxic activity against thioacetamide and galactosomine-induced hepatotoxicity.
Anti-asthmatic: Ethanol extract of C orchioides showed to effective against histamine-induced contraction and indicated a usefulness of CO in the treatment of asthma. (4)
Antibacterial: Study showed the steam distilled extract of C orchioides has a potential as antiseptic for the prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections. (5)
Antimicrobial / Anti-tumor / Saponins: Study showed antibacterial (P aeruginosa, S aureus, K pneumonia), antifungal (Aspergillus niger and A flavus) and antitumor activities of different fractionated extracts of CO attributed to the presence of plant glycosides, saponins. (7)
Spermatogenic Activity: A study of ethanolic extract in albino rats showed pronounced effect of orientation of male towards female rates, increased anogenital sniffing and mounting, increased spermatogenesis, findings that support the folk use of the plant as an aphrodisiac. (8) Study of a hydroalcoholic root extract of black musli in experimental animal, Passer domesticus, showed spermatogenic enhancing properties. (34)
Immunostimulatory: The plant rhizomes have been used to treat declining strength, jaundice and asthma. The study of its methanolic extract showed significant immunostimulant activity in an isolated purified glycoside-rich fraction, acting on both lymphocytes and macrophages. (9) Methanol extract of CO exhibited a potential as a protective agent against cytotoxic drugs. In a study on humoral and cell mediated immunity in normal and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice, results showed a dose-dependent increase in humoral antibody titre and delayed-type hypersensitivity. (11)
Antidiabetic: In a study of alcohol and aqueous extracts tested with alloxan-induced diabetic rats, both produced significant hypoglycemic activity when compared with diabetic control. (10) Study of ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed antidiabetic activity in normal, glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats with a diabetic activity comparable to standard agent glimeperide. (23) A methanolic root extract of C. orchioides exhibited hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. (32)
Pharmacologic Properties: Studies have observed (1) oxytocic activity of a flavone glycoside. (2) Hepatoprotective activity against rifampin-induced hepatotoxicities. (3) Ethanolic extract exhibited estrogenic activity with increase in vaginal cornification, uterine net weight and proliferative changes in the uterine endometrium.
Aphrodisiac / Spermatogenic Effect: Ethanolic extract of rhizome have shown improved sexual behavior in male rats with observed changes in sexual performance as: penile erection, mating performance, mount frequency and mount latency, with pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect.
Effect on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oligospermia and Sexual Dysfunction: An aqueous extract was evaluated for benefits in rats against STZ-induced hyperglycemic stress and sexual dysfunction due to hyperglycemia. Results showed amelioration in damage caused by sustained hyperglycemia vis-a-vis male sexual behavior, sperm count, penile erection index and seminal fructose content. (14)
Curculigoside / Learning and Memory / Cognitive Benefits in Aged Rats: Study evaluated the ameliorating effects of curculigoside from C. orchioides on learning and memory in aged rats. Results showed curculigoside can improve cognitive function in aged animals, possibly by decreasing the activity of AchE in the cerebra and inhibiting the expression of BACE1 in the hippocampus. Results suggest a potential new drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (16)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: An ethanol extract of rhizome showed significant dose-dependent exhibited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and tannins. (17)
New Phenolic Glycosides / Weak Anti-HBV Activity: Study yielded three new phenolic glycosides, curculigosides F-H from the rhizomes of C. orchioides. Compound 1 exhibited weak anti-HBV activity in vitro. (18)
Acute Toxicity Study / Anti-Inflammatory: A hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome and its alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions were evaluated in a carrageenan-induced paw edema rat model. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity. On acute toxicity evaluation, no toxicity was noted up to 2000 mg/kg/p.o. (19)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Antiproliferative: Study evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of B. sensitivum, C. orchioides and C. dactylon. A petroleum ether extract of Curculigo orchioides showed significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of bacteria. A methanolic extract showed higher phenolic and flavonoid content and significant DPPH scavenging and reducing power activity. The methanolic extract also showed strong antiproliferative activity against HepG2 (hepatocellular liver carcinoma) with IC50 of 127.12 µg/ml. (21)
Anti-Cancer / Enhancement of Chemotherapeutic Effects: Study evaluated the tumor reduction capacity of cyclophosphamide (CTX) in combination with C. orchioides methanolic extract using Dalton's lymphoma ascites-induced solid tumor models. Results showed the extract in combination with CTX can result in enhanced anticancer properties and also ameliorate the toxic effects of CTX. (22)
Antimicrobial / Rhizomes: Study investigated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. orchioides for antimicrobial activity against Erwinia amylovora, K. pneumonia, E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. Among the two extracts, the ethanolic extract showed maximum antimicrobial activity against the six microorganisms. (24)
Bioactive Compounds / Rhizomes: Study of ethanol extract of rhizome by GC-MS analysis yielded six compounds. Compound 6, ethyl iso-allocholate, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antiasthma, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and diuretic properties. (see constituents above) (25)
Mucilage as Suspending Agent: Study evaluated mucilage from the roots of C. orchioides as a suspending agent, comparing it with standard suspending agents like sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Acacia. Results showed the mucilage to to be superior suspending agent than acacia indicating a potential source of a pharmaceutical adjuvant. (26)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports on the comparatively rapid and inexpensive synthesis of silver nanoparticles using C. orchioides plant extract with wide application in antibacterial therapy. (27)
Neuroprotective / Cyclophosphamide Neurotoxicity: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of C. orchioides in an animal mode of cyclophosphamide induced neurotoxicity. Curculigo orchioides significantly promoted restoration of catalase (p<0.005), superoxide dismutase (p<0.005), and glutathione (p<0.05) levels, together with a very significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels. Flavonoids and polyphenols content may be responsible for the neuroprotective effect. (28)
Anti-Inflammatory / Root Tubers: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of a methanolic extract of root tubers in a carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. Results showed statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 499 mg/kg, Standard drug was diclofenac sodium. (29)
Curculigoside / Ameliorative Effects on Learning and Memory: Study evaluated the ameliorative effects of curculigoside from C. orchioides on learning and memory in aged rats through step-down test and Y-maze test. Results showed curculigoside can improved cognitive function in aged animals, possibly by decreasing the activity of AchE in the cerebrum and inhibiting expression of BACE1 in the hippocampus. Results suggest a potential for the development of a drug for Alzheimer's disease. (30)
Antipyretic / Analgesic / Rhizomes: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of rhizomes for antipyretic (yeast induced pyrexia) and analgesic (Eddy's hot plate method, acetic acid induced writhing method, and head conduction method) activity. Results showed significant antipyretic (p<0.05) and analgesic (p<0.001) activity. (31)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Toxicity / Rhizomes: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of C. orchioides against paracetamol and ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. Results showed significant hepatoprotective activity, with reduction of elevated SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin, almost comparable to silymarin. Histopathology showed regeneration of hepatocytes. (33)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Extracts and pills in the cybermarket.


Last Update June 2016


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Creative Commons / Flower Insert / File:Curculigo orchioides.jpg / Yellow Ground Star (Curculigo orchioides) / Viren Vaz (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikispecies

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Kali Musli (Curculigo orchioides Gaetrn.) / Pankaj Oudhia
(2)
Curculigo orchioides, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats / Maturitas, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 373-380
(3)
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPATHY IN RATS / M R Venukumar and M S Latha / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2002, 17 (2) 80-87
(4)
Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Curculigo orchioides gaertn. rhizomes
/ Pranali Pandit et al / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 Jul–Aug; 70(4): 440–444. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.44590.
(5)
Antibacterial activity of Curculigo orchioides rhizome extract on pathogenic bacteria / K S Nagesh and C Shanthamma / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol 3(1) pp. 005-009, January, 2009 / ISSN 1996-0809 ©2009 Academic Journals
(6)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES IN CCl4 -TREATED MALE RATS / M R Venukumar and M S Latha / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2002; 34: 269-275
(7)
Antimicrobial and antitumor activity of the fractionated extracts of Kalimusli (Curculigo orchioides) / RESEARCH ARTICLE / Rajesh Singh, AK Gupta / Year : 2008 | Volume : 2 | Issue : 1 | Page : 34-36
(8)
Spermatogenic activity of rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn in male rats / Chauhan NS and Dixit V K / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products / Vol. 1(2), pp. 26-31, June/July 2008
(9)
Immunostimulant principles from Curculigo orchioides / Journal of ethnopharmacology ISSN 0378-8741 CODEN JOETD7 / 2003, vol. 89, no2-3, pp. 181-18
(10)
Antidiabetic Activity of Curculigo Orchioides. Root Tuber / V Madhavan et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 2007, Vol. 45, No. 1, Pages 18-20
(11)
Immunostimulatory effect of methanol extract of Curculigo orchioides on immunosuppressed mice / A R Bafna and S H Mishra / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 1-4
(12)
Curculigo orchioides: the black gold with numerous health benefits / Nagendra Singh Chauhan, Vikas Sharma et al / Journ of Chinese Integrative Medicine, July 2010, Vol 8, No 7.

(13)
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(14)
Effect of Curculigo orchioides on hyperglycemia-induced oligospermia and sexual dysfunction in male rats
/ M Thakur, N S Chauhan, V Sharma, V K Dixit and S Bhargava / International Journal of Impotence Research 24, 31-37 (January/February 2012) | doi:10.1038/ijir.2011.43
(15)
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Kali Musali): An endangered medicinal plant of commercial value
/ Saba Irshad, J Singh, S P Jain, and S P S Khanuja / Natural Products Radiance, Vol 5(5), 2006, pp 369-372.
(16)
Ameliorative Effects of Curculigoside from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn on Learning and Memory in Aged Rats / Xiu-Ying Wu, Jian-Zhong Li, Jian-Zheng Guo and Bao-Yuan Hou* / Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10108-10118; doi:10.3390/molecules170910108
(17)
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDIES OF THE ETHANOL EXTRACT OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN. RHIZOME / Mohammad Asif*, Ankush Kumar, Mujahidul Islam / Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology , Vol. 2010, 2010
(18)
Three new phenolic glycosides from Curculigo orchioides / G. Ai-Xue Zuo, Yong Shen, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Xue-Mei Zhang, Jun Zhou, Jun Lü, Ji-Jun Chen⁎ / Fitoterapia 81 (2010) 910–913
(19)
Acute Toxicity Study and In-vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Different Fractions of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Rhizome in Albino Wistar Rats / Mohammad Asif*, Ankush Kumar / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Summer 2010: 6(3): 191-198
(20)
Curculigo orchioides / Synonyms / The Plant List
(21)
Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Anti-Proliferative Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Medicinal Plants from Dasapushpam of Kerala / Sreena Raj, Manon Berthomier, Merlene Ann Babu, K M Gothandam / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 23(1) · November 2013
(22)
Enhancement of cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide by Curculigo orchioides Gaertn and its ameliorative effects on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress. / Murali VP, Kuttan G / Integr Cancer Ther. 2015 Mar;14(2):172-83. / doi: 10.1177/1534735414564424. Epub 2015 Jan 9.
(23)
A Review on Ethnomedicines of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali Musli): Black Gold / Jitendra Mehta and Krishnendra Singh Nama / Int. J. Phar. & Biomedi. Rese. 2014, 1 (1): 12-16
(24)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN RHIZOME, AN ENDANGERED MEDICINAL HERB / Susindran, P. and Ramesh, N. / International Journal of Current Research
(25)
GC-MS DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN / Daffodil E D, Uthayakumari F K, Mohan V R / Science Research Reporter 2(3):198-201, Oct. 2012
(26)
Evaluation of Curculigo orchioides Mucilage as Suspending Agent
/ Gaikar NV, Sandhya P*, Chaudhari CA / Int.J. PharmTech Res.2011,3(2)
(27)
Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from Curculigo orchioides and study their antimicrobial efficacy / S. Saranya* / International Journal of Phytopharmacy Vol. 5 (4), pp.58-64, Jul-Aug 2015 / DOI:10.7439/ijpp
(28)
Protective Effect of Curculigo Orchioides Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Neurotoxicity in Murine Model / Dipica Ramchandani, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Divya Bansal, Manvendra Singh Karchuli, and Nazneen Dubey / Toxicol Int. 2014 Sep-Dec; 21(3): 232–235. / doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.155323
(29)
STUDIES ON THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN. ROOT TUBERS / Anuj Kumar Agrahari*, Sanjaya Kumar Panda, Ashutosh Meher and Amiya Ranjan Padhan / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH (2012): 3.72; (2013): 2.61; (2014): 1.54 ,ICV 2012: / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.1(8-S).139-43
(30)
Ameliorative Effects of Curculigoside from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn on Learning and Memory in Aged Rats / Xiu-Ying Wu, Jian-Zhong Li, Jian-Zheng Guo and Bao-Yuan Hou / Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10108-10118; / doi:10.3390/molecules170910108
(31)
EVALUATION OF ANTI-PYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES GAERTN RHIZOMES. / PRANALI PANDIT*, P. BALARAJU, V. RAVIKANTH, M. SWETHA, M. SHIREESHA, K. NIKITHA REDDY / PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.2 (5 – 6 ) September – December -2011
(32)
A study on hypoglycemic activity of methanolic root extract of Curculigo orchioides / Anandakirouchenane Elumalai, Dr. Sarath Chandiran Irisappan*, Dr. Kadalmani Balamuthu / An International Journal 2013,1(9),899-902
(33)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Rhizomes of Curculigo Orchioides / D. Bargavi*, Anupam Kanti Bag, Sk. Karimulla, M. Gobinath / Pharma Research Library
(34)
EVALUATION OF ENHANCED SPERMATOGENIC ACTIVITIES OF BLACK MUSLI, CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES IN THE INDIAN SPARROW, PASSER DOMESTICUS
/ D V Tayade / Bioscience Discovery, 3(1):58-60, Jan. 2012

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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