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Family Solanaceae
Talong-talongan
Solanum incanum L.

BITTER APPLE
Huang shui qie

Scientific names  Common names 
Solanum bojeru Dunal Balbalusan (Ilk.)
Solanum incanum L. Malvalusa (Ibn.) 
Solanum sanctum L. Tabulak (Bang.)
  Tabulali (Pang.) 
  Taling-taling (Yak.)
  Talong-taloñgan (Tag.)
  Tarambulo (Tag.) 
  Tarong-ti-aso (Tag.) 
  Tarongbulongi-aso (Tag.) 
  Vahusa (Iv.) 
  Bitter apple (Engl.) 
  Bitter garden egg (Engl.)
  Bitter tomato (Engl.) 
  Grey bitter apple (Engl.) 
  Nightshade (Engl.)
  Sodom's apple (Engl.)
  Thorn apple (Engl.)
Talong-talongan (balbalusan, Solanum cumingii) shares common names with tandang-aso (talong-talongan. balbalusa, Solanum torvum).
Some compilations list Solanum melongena (talong) and Solanum cumingii (talong-talongan) as synonyms. Quisumbing's compilation lists them as separate species.
Solanum sanctum L. (talong) is a synonym of Solanum incanum L. (The Plant List)
Solanum incanum L. is an accepted name. (The Plant List)

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Mazg, Mazi.
AYURVEDA: Velvazhuthina.
CHINESE: Huang shui que.
EAST AFRICA: Entengotengo, Mutongu, Mtula, Mtunguja mwitu, Ochok, Omoratora.
FRENCH: Aubergine sauvage, Pomme de Sodome.
KENYA: Mutungu.
SOUTH AFRICA: Gifappel, Grysbitter-appel, Dinjinsa, Morola, Thola.

Botany
Talong-talongan is an ascending or spreading weed, somewhat branched, hairy herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Stems, petioles, and leaves are armed with scattered, sharp, rather stout spines, 3 to 6 millimeters in length. Leaves are oblong-ovate, 4 to 12 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, inequilateral at the base, with irregularly undulate-lobed margins. Flowers, 1 to 5, are borne in racemes in the axils of leaves. Calyx is green, with a slightly spiny tube. Corolla is violet or purplish, rotate, and shallowly 5 -lobed, about 2 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Found in waste places throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes.

Constituents
- Fruit yields solanine and related glycoalkaloids.
- Phytochemical screening yields crude protein, lipids, crude fiber, flavonoids, saponins, and oxalate.
- A rich source of mineral elements, sodium and zinc being the most abundant.
- Methanol extract of roots yielded alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, triterpenes, tannins, and steroids. (15)
- Phytochemical screening of roots yielded alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, triterpene, tannins and steroids. (16)
- Some phytochemicals isolated from S. incanum are
Incanumine, solasodine, carpesterol, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, khasianine, adenosine, kaempferol 3-O-b-D glucopyranosyl, quercetin3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, benzyl O-b-D-xylopyranosyl, quercetin, astragalin, isoquercitrin, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, baicalin, solasonine, solamargine, diosgenin, yamogenin, dimethylnitrosamine, vitamin B2, among others. (19)
- Mineral analysis of Solanum incanum fruits yielded a moisture content of 91.40%, crude fiber 7.10%. Other parameters yielded ash 21.20%, crude lipid 12.50%, crude protein 7.80%, carbohydrate 51.74%, and 308.90 kcal of energy. (22)
- Mineral analysis of fruits yielded (mg/100g) phosphorus 1082.50 mg, magnesium 38.99 mg, potassium 215.45 mg, manganese 147.00 mg, copper 256.05 mg, sodium 147.00 mg, iron 325.75 mg, calcium 15.00 mg, ascorbic acid 6.28 mg. (22)
- Phytochemical screening of fruits yielded alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, oxalates, and cyanogenic glycosides. (22)
- Study of aerial parts yielded 16 nonsteroidal constituents viz. ten flavonoids (1-10), chlorogenic acid (11), adenosine (12), benzyl-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and three phenylalkanoic acids (14-16). (26)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of leaves (L), stem (S), roots (R) and fruit (F) yielded alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins (SRF), phenols, polyphenols (SR), phytosterols with anoids (SRF), glycosides (RF), triterpenoids, tannins (LS), carbohydrates (R), steroids (LSR), with absence of anthraquinones. Maximum amount of phytochemicals and phytonutrients (Na, Al, Mg, Mn, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn) was recorded in fruit compared to leaves, stem, and root. (32)
- Qualitative phytochemical screening of fruit yielded alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, oxalates, and cyanogenic glycosides, with absence of anthraquinone. Proximate analysis (%) of fruit yielded moisture 91.40 ± 0.56, ash 21.20 ± 0.42, crude fat 12.50 ± 0.07, crude protein 7.80 ± 0.21, crude fiber 7.10 ± 0.38, carbohydrate 51.74 ± 0.32, and estimated calorific value 308.90 kcal. Mineral analysis yielded (mg/100g) phosphorus 1082.5 ±3/35, magnesium 38.99 ± 0.01, potassium 215.45 ± 0.63, manganese 147.00 ± 0.01, copper 256.05 ± 1.23, sodium 147.00 ± 0.42, iron 325.75 ± 0.32, calcium 15.00 ± 0.03, and ascorbic acid 6.28 ± 0.01. (35)
- Analysis of leaves showed very high protein content equal to 44.96% of total composition. Potassium was highest element at 1910 mg/kg and calcium in second with 668 mg/kg. (41)

Properties
- Leaf poultice resolvent.
- Seeds are sedating.

- Fruit is bitter, reducing its palatability, and may be due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides.
- Studies have shown antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antispasmolytic, hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-schistosomal, anti-melanoma, acaricidal, anti-malarial, anti-protozoal, wound healing, glucose-lowering, and anticancer activities.

Parts utilized
Leaves, fruit, seeds.

Uses
Edibility
- Unripe fruit eaten raw or cooked.
- In Africa, fruit is used as a vegetable. Its bitter taste reduces its palatability. Salting and rinsing the preboiled fruit can soften and remove some of its bitterness.
- Leaves used as flavoring in soups.
- Fruit and seed used to curdle milk and to make cheese. (11)
(12)
Folkloric
· Seeds used as sedative; also used for toothaches.
· For toothaches, root infusion used as mouthwash; also roots or fruits rubbed on gums.
· Poultice of leaves are mitigating and resolvent; used for swelling and inflammation.

· Leaf paste, root infusions and pounded fruits applied to scarifications. (11)
· Mixture of ash of burned leaves and salt licked to suppress hiccups. Maceration of leaves used for ophthalmia. Fruit sap used for conjunctivitis. Decoction of roots drunk for snakebites. (11)
· In Kenya, fruits used for treatment of cutaneous mycotic conditions. Roots used for fever, wounds, toothache and stomach aches.
· In Ethiopia, roots used for amoebic dysentery; as vermifuge, anti-protozoal and antifungal.
· Used in treatment of venereal diseases.
· In eastern and southern Africa used as remedy for abdominal pains, dyspepsia, fever, stomachache, and indigestion. Also used for warts, snakebite wound, ringworm.
- In Kenya, stem or fruits cut into small pieces, sun-dried, pounded and powdered, and applied to snake bites. Sap of fruit also applied directly to snake bites. (42)
Others
· Soap / Tanning: Boiled fruits used as soap and in tanning leather. (Protabase: Plant resources of Tropical Asia)   (11) (12)
· Veterinary: In African veterinary medicine, fruit juice instilled into sheep's nostrils as cure for cough.   (13)

Studies
Antibacterial / Fruits: Study of berries isolated an antimicrobial substance with phosphorylated structure similar to purine adenine isolated from the berries. The crystals showed to be effective inhibitors of the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes and some pathogens of agricultural produce. (1)
Hypoglycemic: Study of three vegetables (Solanum incanum, V amygdalina and G latifolium) showed significant reductions of blood glucose levels at most post-prandial points
. The bioactive antioxidant substances naturally occurring in stems, roots and leaves may possess an insulin-like effect. The rich NSP content of Solanum incanum is also likely to be a reducing factor. (2)
Unripe Fruit Toxicity / Veterinary Study: Study on ripe fruits of S incanum showed no toxicity effect in sheep and goats. Unripe fruits, however, showed toxicity, more in sheep than in goat, the goats probably having a way of reducing the toxic effects of the unripe fruits. (3)
Anti-Malarial: In a study of nine Ethiopian plants for anti-malarial activity, S incanum exhibited moderate activity. (4)
Solamargine / Anti-Lung Cancer: Solamargine has be found to be a powerful cytotoxic agent in four human lung cancer cell lines through SM-induced apoptosis of cells. SM was also found to increase the binding activities of TNF-alpha and TNF-beta to lung cancer cells. (5)
Solamargine / Anti-Cancer: Solamargine (SM), a steroidal glycoalkaloid, has been isolated from the Chinese herb Solanum incanum, and has shown inhibition in the growth of some cancer cell lines and induced significant apoptosis. Study showed SM effectively triggers apoptosis in MDR (multidrug resistant) tumor cells, which is associated with actin disruption and downregulation of MDR1 expression. (7)
Immunological Effects / Antischistosomal Effects: Study evaluated the effectiveness of Solanum incanum and Carica papaya extract as possible antischistosomal agents. In Swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, both extracts had immunological effects. However, S. incanum extracts had the greatest effect on worm reduction, worm recovery and IgG specific immunological responses compared to C. papaya. (7)
Antinociceptive / Antipyretic: Study of root extract showed significant antipyretic effect and significant antinociceptive activity. Results support the folkloric use of root extracts for pain and fever. (8)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a dichlormethane extract root extract of Solanum incanum. Results showed both acute anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory effect may involve inhibition of edema formation and leukocyte migration while the analgesic effect may be partly due to inhibition of stimulation of nociceptors as well as anti-inflammatory and neurogenic effects. (13)
Acute Toxicity Study / Fruit: Study evaluated the acute toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of fruit of Solanum incanum in female mice. Results suggest safety in oral administration—the highest dose administered was 2000 mg/kbw without producing mortality or changes in general behavior of the test animals. (14)
Acute, Sub-Acute and Chronic Toxicity Study / Toxic to Sheep / Fruit: Study evaluated the toxicity of unripe fruits of Solanum incanum in sheep at doses varying from 1,200 mg to 3,600 mg/day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs started on day 2 with bloating. Manifestations of cerebellar hyperplasia were noted in groups 2, 3, and 4. Mortality rate was 25% in group 2, and 100% for groups 3 and 4. Histopath showed necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and Wallerian degeneration of neurons, renal tubular and hepatocyte necrosis, among others. Results indicate S. incanum to be highly toxic to sheep and grazing should be prevented. (17)
Anti-Schistosomal Effects / Roots: Study evaluated the the antischistosomal activity of Solanum incanum roots and Carica papaya seed extracts in BALB/c mice infected with S. mansoni. S. incanum showed effects close to the drug of choice PZQ (Praziquantel), greatly reducing the number of worms which is crucial in schistosomes infection. Study verified the ethnic use of seeds of C. papaya and roots of S. incanum. Results form a strong basis for potential anti-schistosomal agents. (17)
Antioxidant / Fruits: Study evaluated the antioxidant and total phenol and total flavonoid content of two fruits, Solanum anguvi and solanum incanum, by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, iron chelation, anti-lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Solanum incanum showed higher antioxidant activity, with significant correlations between free radical scavenging capacity and TFC, indicating the flavonol group of metabolites as chief performers of antioxidant activity. (18)
Spasmolytic / Roots: Study evaluated the spasmolytic activity of aqueous extract of roots of S. incanum on contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine, and compared with the effect of atropine. The extract inhibited the response to acetylcholline in a concentration-dependent manner similar to atropine. The extract also inhibited charcoal travel in mice intestine. (Assefa et al. 2006) (19)
Variations in Cytotoxic Glycoalkaloids / Solamargine and Solasonine: Solanum incanum is a rich source of important cytotoxic glycoalkaloids, such as solamargine and solasonine, and a potential source of compound for steroid synthesis. Study highlights the importance of developmental stages of particular organs and the overall age of the plant when harvesting these GAs from S. incanum plants. (20)
Acaricidal / Cattle Ticks / Fruits: Study evaluated the efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. Treatments were applied as surface sprays (5, 10 and 20% w/v). A 5% Solanum incanum treatment showed higher efficacy ration (p<0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Results indicate S. incanum and S. spinosa both have acaricidal effect. (21)
Anticancer / SR-T100 / Solamargine: Solanum incanum extract (SR-T100), containing the active ingredient solamargine, can induce apoptosis via upregulation of TNF receptor expression and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Study evaluated the novel molecular mechanisms underlying SR-T100-regulated stemness and chemoresistance. In the study, SR-T100 increased the sensitivity of chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel in vitro. SR-T100 downregulated the expression of stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), Notch 1, and FoxM1, and reduced sphere formation in ovarian cancer cells. Results suggest SR-T100 can enhance cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs and a potential against chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. (23)
Effect of Heat Treatment on Nutritive and Mineral Value / Fruit: Study examines the effect of heat on phytoconstituents, composition, and mineral elements of S. incanum. Results showed heat treatment reduces the proximate and flavonoid composition of fruit; however, such treatment does not affect the mineral composition. (24)
Leaf Composition: Study evaluated the organic compound and element composition of Solanum incanum. Analysis revealed the leaves contain high protein content equal to 44.96% of total composition of leaves. Potassium yield was 1910 mg/kg and calcium, 668 g/kg. (25)
• Antiprotozoal / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study assessed the in vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of S. incanum extract of leaves and fruit against Plasmodium falcifarum, Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei and MRC-5 cell lines. Results showed S. incanum leaves has promising activity against T. cruzi, the effect contributed to by active constituents like flavonoid, solasonine, and solamargine. T. cruzi infection is inhibited by antioxidant effects through NRF2 upregulation. Possibly, the extracts inhibited T. cruzi through antioxidant activity. (28)
• Bioactivity of Fruit Extracts Against Oral Cavity Microorganisms: Tooth decay is an infection due to demineralization and destruction of hard tissues of the teeth by oral microbes, which results from acid production brought about by bacterial fermentation of food debris on the tooth surface. Study evaluated the effect of various concentrations of fruit extracts on the growth of oral microbes. Results showed no significant difference on inhibitory effects of both betadine mouth wash and Solanum incanum fruit extract on oral microbes. Closer observation of regression analysis models suggested betadine had more inhibitory effects than S. incanum. (29)
• Antimicrobial / Fruit: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of S. incanum ethanol extract of fruit. Results showed MIC if 500 µg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. paratyphi and V. cholera, and MIC of 250 µg/ml against B. subtilis, and zone of inhibition by ethanol extract ranged from 10-26 mm at concentration of 100 µg/disc. (30)
• Enhancement of Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration in Burn Model: Study evaluated the topical efficacy of S. incanum for treatment of partial-thickness burn in mice model. The treated group showed 81% reduction in wound area compared to 22% in control. Histological analysis confirmed tissue regeneration and reepithelization. (31)
• In-Vitro Antioxidant Potential / Fruit: An ethanolic extract of fruit was tested for in-vitro free radical scavenging activity by DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and reducing ability. The extract effectively scavenged free radicals and showed potent antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene). (33)
• Nematicidal / Antimicrobial: Of methanol extract of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants from the Arabian Peninsula screened for nematicidal, antibacterisl, and antifungal activities, Steinernema feltiaeStaphylococcus carnosusEscherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Solanum incanum was one of five that exhibited most active with very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. (34)
• Effect on Postprandial Blood Sugar of Normoglycemic Nigerians: Study evaluated the effect of S. incanum on postprandial blood glucose levels of normoglycemic Nigerians. Solanum elicited significant reductions (p<0.05) in blood glucose levels at most postprandial time points. The bioactive antioxidant substances that occur naturally inn stems, roots, and leaves of African plants may possess insulin-like effect. The rich NSP (non-soluble polysaccharide) content of S. incanum is also likely a reducing factor. (36)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of orally administered aqueous fruit extract of S. incanum on serum lipid profile of Wistar albino rats. Results suggest S. incanum was hypolipidemic and may be beneficial in the dietary management of cardiovascular complications associated with humans. (37)
• Regression of Vulvar Condyloma Acuminatum / Autophagic and Apoptotic Responses in HPV-Infected Cells: Solanum species have been used in the treatment of warts, tumor, and cancer in folk medicine. A pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of S. incanum extract for treatment of human condyloma and its anti-condyloma mechanisms. Nineteen (73%) of 26 patients using the SR-T100 gel exhibited a response, and 16 (61.5%) of patients achieved total clearance. One patient showed severe (grade 3-4_ skin-related side effects. The SR-T100 cell induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HPV-infected cells. Results suggest SR-T100 is effective for treatment of human vulvar condylomata, with few side effects. Patients with low-risk HPVs were more sensitive to SR-T100 treatment. Autophagy played a protective role in SR-T100-induced apoptosis in HPV-infected cells. (38)
• Acaricidal / Cattle Ticks / Fruit: Study evaluated S. incanum and Strychnos apinosa fruit extracts against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. Results indicate that both S. incanum and S. spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect. (39)
• Antibacterial / E. coli / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous methanol extracts of S. incanum leaves for antibacterial activity. Activity detected was against E. coli, with highest activity against in KL16, HFRC and Y1090 followed by KL96, DH5a and C sub(2)H sub(5)a. Extracts were bacteriostatic at higher concentrations. (40)
• Induces Melanoma Cell Apoptosis / Inhibition of Established Lung Metastasis / SR-T100: Melanoma is one of the most chemoresistant cancers and has a tendency to metastasize. Study evaluated the efficacy of ST-T100 against melanoma and established metastasis. Results showed SR-T100 induces apoptosis, DNA damage, and G0G1 cell cycle arrest in murine B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Study highlights SR-T100 as a potential novel treatment for established tumors from regional and metastatic melanoma. (43)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated July 2019 / August 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Solanum sp Blanco1.49-original.png / Solanum coagulans / Solanum cumingii / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antibiotic Action of Solanum incanum Linnaeus / Vertistine Mbaya and S I Muhammed / Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1976 June; 9(6): pp 920–924 / PMID: 945715Sahle
(2 )
Investigation of the Effect of Solanum incanum on Postprandial Blood Glucose Concentration of Normoglycemic Nigerians / Y Uchenna Okolie, E Chinwe Okeke et al /
(3)
Experimental solanum incanuml poisoning in sheep and goats / University of Nairobi 2010.
(4)
In vivo antimalarial activities of plants used in Ethiopian traditional medicine, Delomenna, southeast Ethiopia / Ashenafi Assefa, Kelbessa Urga et al /
(5)
Induction of actin disruption and downregulation of P-glycoprotein expression by solamargine in multidrug-resistant K562/A02 cells / LI Xia, ZHAO Ying, JI Mei, LIU Shan-shan, CUI Min, LOU Hong-xiang / Chinese Medical Journal, 2011, Vol. 124 No. 13 : 2038-2044
(6)
Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of lung cancer / Yang Zhou, Wenyuan Gao, Kefeng Li / Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of lung cancer / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2008, 3 ( 1 )
(7)
Immunological Effects of Solanum incanum and Carica papaya Extracts in Swiss Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni / John Mokua Mose / JKUAT Abstracts of PostGraduate Thesis
(8)
THE ANTINOCICEPTIVE ANTIPYRETIC EFFECTS OF SOLANUM INCANUM (Linneaus) IN ANIMAL MODELS / Mwonjoria J. K, Kariuki H N, and Waweru FN / International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2011, 2(1), 22-26.
(9)
NUTRITIVE VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSED Solanum incanum
(BITTER GARDEN EGG).
/ AUTA, R.: JAMES, S. A.: AUTA, T. & SOFA, E. M./ Science World Journal Vol 6 (No 3) 2011
(10)
Solanum incanum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Solanum incanum / Useful Tropical Plants
(12)
Solanum incanum / Protabase: Plant resources of Tropical Asia
(13)
Suppression of nociception by Solanum incanum (Lin.) Diclomethane root extract is associated anti- inflammatory activity / Mwonjoria J. K., Ngeranwa J.J., Githinji C.G., Kahiga T., Kariuki H.N., Waweru F.N. / The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2014; 3(3): pp 156-162
(14)
ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOLANUM INCANUM. L FRUIT / INDHUMATHI. T, S. MOHANDASS, SHIBI. A / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 7, Issue 2, 2014
(15)
Phytochemical Investigation on the Roots of Solanum Incanum, Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia / Habtamu Abebe, Tamene Gebre, Adane Haile / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 2
(16)
Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya / AG Thaiyah, PN Nyaga, JM Maribei, TA Ngatia, JPM Kamau, JM Kinyuru / Kenya Veterinarian, Vol 35, No 1 (2011)
(17)
Antischistosomal Effects of Solanum incanum and Carica papaya Crude Extracts on Schistosoma mansoni in BALB/c mice / Muchika, Susy / Thesis / 2010 / Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
(18)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SELECTED ‘BIHI’ FRUITS USED AS VEGETABLES IN DARJEELING HIMALAYA / MITALI GHOSAL, PALASH MANDAL* / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 2, 2012
(19)
Ethno medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of solanum incanum (lin.)
/ John K. Mwonjoria, Joseph J. Ngeranwa, Helen N. Kariuki, Charles G. Githinji, Micah N. Sagini, Stanley N. Wambugu / International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2 (2) (2014) 17-20
(20)
Variations in the cytotoxic glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine in different parts of the Solanum incanum plant during its growth and development in Oman / Sana S. Al Sinani, Elsadig A. Eltayeb, Y.T. Kamal, Masood S. Khan, Sayeed Ahmad / Journal of Taibah University for Science, Sept 2016; 10(6): pp 813-822 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2014.11.013
(21)
Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks / James Madzimure & Emmanuel T. Nyahangare & Humphrey Hamudikuwanda & Thokozani Hove & Steve R. Belmain & Philip C. Stevenson & Brighton M. Mvumi / Trop Anim Health Prod, vol 45, No 3: March 2013 / DOI 10.1007/s11250-013-0367-6
(22)
Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral Analyses of Solanum incanum Fruit / Haruna Sarah Sambo, Ahmed Olatunde, Abdullahi Salihu Kiyawa / International Journal of Chemical, Material and Environmental Research 2016, 3 (1): 8-13
(23)
Solanum Incanum Extract Downregulates Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1-Mediated Stemness and Inhibits Tumor Formation in Ovarian Cancer Cells / Yi-Hui Wu, Wen-Tai Chiu, Ming-Jer Young, Tzu-Hao Chang, Yu-Fang Huang, Cheng-Yang Chou / J Cancer, 2015; 6(10): pp 1011-1019. / doi:10.7150/jca.12738
(24)
NUTRITIVE VALUE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSED Solanum incanum (BITTER GARDEN EGG) / Auta, R.; James, S. A.; Auta, T.; Sofa, E. M. / Science World Journal;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 3, September 2011
(25)
Leaves value of Solanum incanum L. at Khartoum North-Sudan / Dr. Ismail Mohamed Fangama Abdalla / International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015
(26)
Nonsteroidal Constituents from Solanum Incanum L. / Yun-Lian Lin, Wan-Yi Wang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chieh-Fu Chen / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society / DOI: 10.1002/jccs.200000029
(27)
Pharmacognostical And Phytochemical Comparison of Roots of Solanum Species Used in Ayurvedic Formulations / Jayanthy A. Sulaiman C.T. and Rema Shree A. B. / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(1): pp 28-37
(28)
Pharmacological Investigation of Solanum Incanum Against P. Falciparum, L. infantum, T. cruzi and T. brucei : A Role of Antioxidant Effect and Clinical overview / Sirajudheen Anwar / Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, June 2018; 11(2) / DOI: 10.13005/bpj/1418
(29)
A Study of Bioactivity of Solanum incanum L. Fruit Extracts on Microorganisms of the Oral Cavity / Njeru Asunta Mukami, Wycliffe Wanzala / Oral health and dental management, July 2017; 16(3)
(30)
Efficacy of Ethanolic extract of Solanum incanum fruit extract for its antimicrobial activity / T. Indhumathi and S. Mohandass / International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014; Volume 3 Number 6: pp. 939-949
(31)
Solanum incanum extract enhances wound healing and tissue regeneration in burn mice model / Zainab Qureshi, Taous Khan, Abdul Jabbar Shah, Fazli Wahid / Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 2019; 14(2) / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3329/bjp.v14i2.40098
(32)
Bioprofiling of phytochemicals and phytonutritional potentials of Solanum incanum L.
/ Kaliyamoorthy Kumar, Darwin Christdhas Henry and Kathiresan Sivakumar / World Scientific News, 2019; 128(2): pp 328-347
(33)
Study on In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Solanum Incanum Fruit Extract / T. Indhumathi, Dr. S. Suja / Pharma Research Library
(34)
Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula / Adel Al-Marby, Chukwunonso ECC Ejike et al / J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. , 2016 Mar-Apr; 5(2): pp 114–121 /  doi:  10.5455/jice.20160217040157
(35)
Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral Analyses of Solanum incanum Fruit / Haruna Sarah Sambo, Ahmed Olatunde, Abdullahi Salihu Kiyawa / International Journal of Chemical, Material and Environmental Research, 2016; 3(1): pp 8-13
(36)
Investigation of the Effect of Solanum incanum on Postprandial Blood Glucose Concentration of Normoglycemic Nigerians. / V. Uchenna Okolie, E. Chinwe Okeke, O. Ijeoma Ehiemere and O. Pauline Ezenduka / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009; 8: pp 1631-1635. / DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.1631.1635
(37)
Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Solanum incanum on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats
/ Tsenum J L / Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access, 2018; 7:2 / DOI: 10.4172/2329-6607.1000239
(38)
Solanum incanum extract (SR-T100) regresses vulvar condyloma acuminatum and induces distinct autophagic and apoptotic responses in different types of HPV-infected cells /  and  / Translational Medicine Communications, 2017; 2:8 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s41231-017-0017-5
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Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks / James Madzimure & Emmanuel T. Nyahangare & Humphrey Hamudikuwanda & Thokozani Hove & Steve R. Belmain & Philip C. Stevenson & Brighton M. Mvumi / Trop Anim Health Prod. / DOI 10.1007/s11250-013-0367-6
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Antibacterial activity of Solanum incanum L. leaf extracts / Britto, SJ; Senthilkumar, S  / HERO: Health and Environmental Research Online, 2001; 3(1-2): pp 85-66
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Leaves value of Solanum incanum L. at Khartoum North-Sudan / Dr. Ismail Mohamed Fangama Abdalla / International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT), Jan 2015; Volume 4, Issue 1
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Snake Venom Neutralization Effects of African Medicinal Plants & Their Impact on Snakebites: / Atul Kaushik, Anghesom Ambesajir, Jeevan Jyoti Kaushik, Berhane Girmay / Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013; 3(24): pp 01-06.
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Solanum incanum extract (SR-T100) induces melanoma cell apoptosis and inhibits established lung metastasis / Sebastian Yu, Hamm-Ming Sheu and Chih-Hung Lee / Oncotarget. 2017; 8:103509-103517. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21508

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