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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Tambalisa
Sophora tomentosa Linn.
NECKLACE POD

Rong mao huai

Scientific names Common names
Sophora tomentosa Linn. Bangil (Tag., Bis.)
Sophora glabra Hassk. Baraumarau (Tag., Bis.)
Sophora occidentalis L. Gison (Tag., Bis.)
  Golonaktau (Bag.)
  Kabai-kabai (Tag.)
  Kapon (Iv.)
  Kauai (Tag., Bis.)
  Mangguiau (Bik., Tag.)
  Mantala (Tag., Bis.)
  Olaomag (Bis.)
  Pangalangan (Tag., Bis.)
  Roknohan (Bis.)
  Sandalaitan (Tag.)
  Tambalagisa (C. Bis.)
  Tambaleta (Tag.)
  Tambalisa (Tag., S. L. Bis., P. Bis.)
  Tambalisi (Tag.)
  Tambiligisa (Tag.)
  Tanbalisa (Bik.)
  Necklace pod (Engl.)
  Yellow necklace pod (Engl.)
  Silverbush (Engl.)
  Rong mao huai (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Hai nan dou shu, Ling nan huai shu.
INDONESIA: Lolang Badjo, Lolang pante.
KENYA: Utupa wamwitu.
MALAYSIA: Pelotok, Pelochok.
SOUTH PACIFIC: Pofatu'ao'ao, Runa.
SRI LANKA: Mudu-murunga.
WEST INDIES: Sophora, Haricot bastard, Micar, Tambalista.

Botany
Tambalisa is a gray, hairy shrub. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, about 15 to 30 centimeters in length, with 11 to 17 leaflets which are oval, 2.5 to 4 centimeters in length and extremely hairy. Flowers are bright yellow, about 1 centimeter long, borne on terminal racemes about 15 centimeters long. Pods are 10 to 15 centimeters in length, containing 6 to 8 seeds. Pods are characteristically rounded where the seeds occur, very narrow in the portions between the seeds.

Distribution
- Abundant along the seashore throughout the Philippines.
- Pantropic strand plant.

Constituents
- Contains an alkaloid, sophorine, identical to cytisine from Cytisus laburnum and ulexine from Ulex europaeus. Cytisine resembles nicotine in its action.
- Study yielded a thick, red-brown fluid from the seeds, physiologically resembling the alkaloid cytisine from C laburnum seeds. Study also showed both ulexine and sophorine to be identical to cytisine. (Q)
- Study isolated two flavonoid compounds, sophoraisoflavanone A and sophoraflavanone B, together with sophoronol, isosophoranone and isobavachin from the aerial parts.
- Study of fresh leaves yielded three lupin alkaloids: (−)-epilamprolobine, (+)-epilamprolobine N-oxide and 5-(3′-methoxycarbonylbutyroyl)aminomethyl-trans-quinolizidine N-oxide, along with (+)-matrine, (+)-matrine N-oxide, (+)-sophocarpine N-oxide, (−)-anagyrine, (−)- baptifoline, (−)-cytisine, (−)-N-methylcytisine, (−)-N-formylcytisine, (−)-N-acetylcytisine and (±)-ammodendrine. (3)

Properties
- Roots are yellow.
- Bark is bitter; the seeds more so.
- Plant considered diuretic, stomachic, sudorific, purgative, febrifuge.
- Seeds considered anticholeric, purgative, febrifuge, stomachic.
- Seeds are dangerously emetocathartic due to the cytisine-like alkaloid that is released.

Parts used
Oil, roots, stems, seeds.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, plant used as a common remedy for stomach disorders; seeds used for stomach affections.
- Decoction of root, stem or seeds considered anticholeric. Seeds considered purgative; as little as two seeds may provide a drastic purgative action.
- Seeds used as febrifuge and stomachic.
- Oil from seeds applied externally for bones aches associated with colds. Also, used as expectorant.
- In New South Wales, seeds are used for bilious sickness.
- In Eastern Malaysia, plant used for cholera and diarrhea; also, as antidote for eating poisonous fish and other marine animals.
- Powdered seeds used by the Malays as astringent for diarrhea; leaves and roots also so employed.


Studies
Pterocarpans / Weigteone / Antifungal:
Studies yielded two pterocarpans, sophoracarpans A and B, with three known isoflavonoids, eighteone (erythrinin B), sophoraisoflavanone A and I-maackianin. Wighteone is a known antifungal phytoalexin in several genera of leguminous plants. (1)
Phenylflavanones: Prenylflavanones from S tomentosa exhibited tumor-specific cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity.

Phenylflavanones / Radical Scavenging / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study was done on the biologic activity of ten phenylflavanones purified from S tomentosa and S moorcroftiana. Some of the flavanones showed tumor-speclfic cytotoxic activity, antimicrobial activity, and anti-HIV activity, radical generation, and 02- scavenging activity. (2)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update August 2013

IMAGE SOURCE / Seedpods at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui - Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution / click on image to go to source page / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Leaves, Seeds, Flowers / Sophora tomentosa / Flowers and leaves at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui - Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / click on image to go to source page / Creative Commons Attribution / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Sophora heptaphylla Ypey81.jpg / Adolphus Ypey, Vervolg ob de Avbeeldingen der artseny-gewassen met derzelver Nederduitsche en Latynsche beschryvingen, Eersde Deel, 1813 / published by Kurt Stüber / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Seeds / Sophora tomentosa L. yellow necklacepod / Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical Studies on Sophora tomentosa : the Isolation of a New Class of Isoflavonoid / Kinoshita Takeshi, Ichinose Koji, Takahashi Chiho et al / Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 38(10), 2756-2759, 1990-10-25
(2)
In vitro biological activity of prenylflavanones / Shirataki Y, Motohashi N, Tani S, Sakagami H et al / Anticancer-Res. 2001 Jan-Feb; 21(1A): 275-80
(3)
(−)-Epilamprolobine and its N-oxide, lupin alkaloids from Sophora tomentosa / Isamu Murakoshi, Eiji Kidoguchi, Minako Nakamura et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 20, No 7, 1981, Pages 1725-1730 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)98564-9
(4)
Cytotoxicty and Radical Modulating Activity of Isoflavones and Isoflavanones from Sophora Species / Yoshiaki Shirataki, Mari Wakae, Yukiyo Yamamoto et al / ANTICANCER RESEARCH 24: 1481-1488 (2004)
(5)
Sophora tomentosa L. (accepted name) /
Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Sophora tomentosa / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED


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