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Family Sterculiaceae
Kleinhovia hospita Linn.

Zhe gu ma

Scientific name  Common names 
Cattimarus hospitus (L.) Kuntze  Apung-apung (Sul.)
Grewia meyeniana Walp. Balansi (Mang.)
Kleinhovia hospita Linn. Bantana (P. Bis.)
  Bignon (Ilk.)
  Bikong (Ilk.)
  Biluan (P. Bis.)
  Binong (Ilk.)
  Bitanag (C. Bis., Mbo.)
  Bitnong (Ilk.)
  Hamitanago (Bik.)
  Lapnis (C. Bis.)
  Marakapas (Ilk.)
  Pampas (Ilk.)
  Panampat (Pamp.)
  Taag (Tag.)
  Tagnag (Chab.)
  Tamanag (Bag., Mag.)
  Tan-ag (Tag., Bik., S. L. Bis.)
  Tanak (Tag.)
  Tañgag (Tag.)
  Toloktok (Ilk.)
  Unapong (Sul.)
  Guest tree (Engl.)
Kleinhovia hospita L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ke lan shu, Man tou guo, Mian tou rou, Zhe gu ma.
HINDI: Bhola.
INDONESIAN: Katimaha, Katimanga, Tangkele, Balaroa.
MALAYSIA: Temahai.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Mato kea, Metakek, Matakara, Maroai..
SAMOAN: Fu'afu'a.
THAI: Chmphu-phuang, Hatsakhun-thet, Po-farang, Has-sa-khun-tade.
VIETNAMESE: Tra d[or], C[aa]y tr[af].

Tan-ag is a tree growing 8 to 15 meters high. Leaves are alternate, broadly ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with pointed tip and heart-shaped base, with petioles 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, about 8 millimeters long, borne on panicles 20 to 40 centimeters long, terminating the branches. Fruit is a thin-walled, inflated capsule about 2 centimeters long.

- Common in thickets, secondary forests, and deserted clearings at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to tropical Africa and to Malaya.

- Yields triterpenes (beta-amyrin, bauerenol, baurenol acetate, betulin, lupeol acetate), fatty acids, flavonol (kaempferol, nicotiflorin, quercetin, rutin, vitexin), coumarin (scopoletin), steroid (beta-sitosterol).
- Leaves and bark contain cyanogenic compounds that provide lice-killing properties.
- Extracts of leaves have shown anti-tumor activity against mice-sarcoma.
- Scopoletin, kaempferol and quercetin have been isolated from the leaves.

- Study isolated four cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids, kleinhospitines A-D. (see study below) (6)
- Study of chloroform extract of stem bark isolated scopoletin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin (1) together with β-sitosterol (2). (see study below) (11)

- Lice-killing.
- Considered anti-tumor, antibacterial (weak), chronotropic, histaminergic, spasmolytic.

- Studies have shown hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties.

Parts utilized
Bark and leaves.

Edibility / Nutritional
- Young leaves, sprouts, and flowers eaten as vegetable.
- Decoction of leaves used for scabies and itching and all forms of dermatitis.
- Used for psoriasis.
- Crush leaves rubbed on forehead to relieve headache.
- Bark and leaves used in Malaya as hair wash to destroy lice.
- In eastern Malaysia juice of leaves used as eyewash.
- In Malaya,
Indonesia and Papua, New Guinea, used to treat scabies.
- In Papua, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, a preparation from the cambium used to treat pneumonia. Leaves used as hair-wash to get rid of lice.
- In Indonesia, used for liver diseases.
- In Sulawesi, boiled leaves drunk for stomachaches, liver diseases, and various internal diseases. The leaves used as repellent against ticks. (12)
- Bark is scraped, mixed with water, filtered and drunk to relieve coughs and tuberculosis.
- Crushed leaf rubbed on skin diseases and rubbed on the forehead to relieve headaches.
- Juice from young leaves, mixed in water, drunk to treat bee stings.
- Fiber: Bast fibers used for tying or rope making used for tethering livestock. The rope is durable during rainy weather.
- Wood: Straight branches used for making ornamental pieces, house rafters, and poles for stakes. (10)
- Fuelwood: Considered a good fuel wood. Energy value of the wood is about 19,000 kJ/kg. (10)
- Poison: In Marinduque, bark is reportedly used to poison eels.
- Repellent: Leaves are used as rice field insects repellent.
- Ornamental:
Ornamental use for its pink-colored panicles.

Cycloartane Triterpenoids / Hepatoprotective: Study isolated four new cycloartane triterpenoids with known gardenolic acid from K hospita. The compounds showed promising hepatoprotective effects on nitrofuratoin-induced cytotoxicity in human liver-derived Hep G2 cells. (2)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity:
Study of leaf extracts of K hospita showed potent antioxidant activity (96% compared to vitamin C, 98 %) using DPPH assay and moderate dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells.
Kleinhospitines / Triterpenoid Alkaloids / Hepatoprotective: Study isolated Kleinhospitines A-D, four unprecedented cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids isolated as two mixtures of C-23 epimers. The two mixtures showed hepatoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative dames on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (6)
Cytotoxicity / Brine Shrimp Lethality Test: Study evaluated the mortality effects and Median Lethal concentrations of KH extracts on Artemia salina through the brine shrimp lethality test. Results showed weak to moderate toxicity with LC50 of 698.54 µg/mL for the decoction and 452.03 µg/mL for the ethanol extract. (9)
Scopoletin: Study of chloroform extract of stem bark yielded scopoletin and ß-sitosterol. Scopoletin showed moderate activity against Artemia salina with LD50 of 569.64 µg/ml. Scopoletin can also be used as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, and inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. (11) Scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, found K. hospita, was evaluated for hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. Results showed scopoletin at 1 mg/kg dose showed significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity. (13)


Last Update September 2016

Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Kleinhovia hospita Blanco2.328.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Kleinhovia hospitata, L. / The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines / T. H. Pardo De Tavera
Cycloartane Triterpenoids from Kleinhovia hospita
/ Li-She Gan et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2009, 72 (6), pp 1102–1105 • DOI: 10.1021/np900029z
Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Traditional Indonesian Medicine Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita L.) Extract / Arung E T et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 12/24/09 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60073-X
Kleinhovia hospita / MEDICINAL PLANTS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA / World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region
Kleinhovia hospita L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Kleinhospitines A-D, new cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids from Kleinhovia hospita. / Zhou CX, Zou L, Gan LS, Cao YL. / Org Lett. 2013 Jun 7;15(11):2734-7. doi: 10.1021/ol401066j. Epub 2013 May 24.
Kleinhovia hospita / Vernacular names and Uses / Proseanet
Kleinhovia hospita / Synonyms / The Plant List
Brine Shrimp Lethality Test of Kleinhovia hospita stem and bark from Agusan del Sur, Philippines / Lady Jane G. Morilla, Olga M. Nuņeza, Mylene M. Uy / ELBA BIOFLUX- International Journal of the Bioflux Society
Kleinhovia hospita / Useful Tropical Plants
Coumarin and steroid compound from stem bark of Kleinhovia hospita Linn / Nunuk H. Soekamto*, Alfian Noor, Iwan Dini, Rudiyansyah, Marry Garson / Proceeding of The International Seminar on Chemistry 2008 (pp. 231-234), Jatinangor, 30-31 October 2008
Knowledge Understanding and Utilization of Medicinal Plants by Local Community Tompu District of Kaili, Sigi Biromaru, Central Sulawesi / Slamet Ifandi, Jumari, Sri Widodo Agung Suedy / Biosaintifika 8 (1) (2016) 1-11 / DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v8i1.4529
Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Scopoletin (Coumarin Derivative) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Anchal Verma*, Priyanka Dewangan, Disha Kesharwani, Shailendra P. Kela / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 22(1), Sep – Oct 2013; no 17, 79-83

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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