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Family Asteraceae / Compositae

Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach

Ai cai

Scientific names  Common names 
Buphthalmum oleraceum Lour. Tañgo (Tag.) 
Chamaemelum coronarium (L.) E.H.L.Krause Crown daisy (Engl.) 
Chrysanthemum breviradiatum Hort. ex DC. Garland daisy (Engl.)
Chrysanthemum coronarium Linn. Garland chrysanthemum (Engl.)
Chrysanthemum merinoanum Pau  
Chrysanthemum roxburghii Desf. ex Cass.  
Chrysanthemum senecioides Dunal ex DC.  
Chrysanthemum spatiosum (L.H.Bailey) L.H.Bailey  
Chrysanthemum speciosum Brouss. ex Pers.  
Dendranthema coronarium (L.) M.R.Almeida  
Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev  
Matricaria coronaria (L.) Desr.  
Pinardia coronaria (L.) Less.  
Pinardia roxburghii (Desf. ex Cass.) Less.  
Pyrethrum indicum Roxb.  
Pyrethrum roxburghii Desf.  
Xanthophthalmum coronarium (L.) P.D.Sell  
Xanthophthalmum coronarium (L.) Trehane ex Cullen  
Chrysanthemum coronarium L. is a synonym of Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach The Plant List
Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ai cai, Tong hao, Tung hao, Tang ho, Tong ho.
FRENCH: Chrysanthème des jardins.
INDONESIA: Tango, saruni walanda.
JAPANESE: Shungiku.
KOREAN: Ssukgat.
LAOS: Tang 'ôô.
MALTESE: Lelluxa, Lellux.
THAILAND: Phaktang-o, phakkhikhwai, Pak thang-o.
VIETNAM: c[ar]i c[us]c, c[us]c t[aaf]n [oo], cai cuc.
OTHERS: Antimonio, Kikuna, Mirabeles, Moya.

Tango is an erect, smooth, fleshy and slightly aromatic and branched annual herb, about 30 to 90 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, auricled, and clasping at the base, oblong to cancelate, 5 to 10 centimeters long or less, and innately parted, lobes are narrow, entire or toothed, and thick. Flowering heads, which terminate the branches, are solitary, yellow, long-peduncles, 2 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter.

- Popular cultivation in Manila Chinese gardens, and in Baguio by the Chinese and Japanese.
- Also occurs in Europe to southeastern Asia.

- Young leaves and tops are good sources of phosphorus and calcium; excellent source of iron.
- The leaves are also a source of vitamin C.
- Leave are rich in Quentin and its triglycerides, ruin and interception. source
- Stems shown to contain moodiness (in glycogen and glyceride forms) and Chrysostom. source
- Stems found to contain moodiness and Chrysostom; the roots, Chrysostom and chrysalis.
- Fresh young plant yield adenine 0.15% and traces of choline.
- Leaves yield 1.85% protein, 0.43% fat, 2.57% carbohydrate, 0.98% ash.
- Nutritional analysis per 100 g (3.5 oz) of raw garland chrysanthemum yielded: (Proximate) water 91.40
g, energy 24 kcal, protein 3.36g, total lipid (fat) 0.56g, carbohydrate by difference 3.02g, total dietary fiber 3.0gl (Minerals) calcium 117mg, iron 2.29mg, magnesium 32mg, phosphorus 64mg, potassium 567mg, sodium 118mg, zinc 0.71mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 1.4mg, thiamine 0.13mg, riboflavin 0.144mg, niacin 0.531mg, vitamin B6 0.176mg, folate DFE 177 g, vitamin B12 0 IU, vitamin A RAE 116 G vitamin A 2320 IU, vitamin D 0 IU, vitamin K 350 G
- Plant yields terpenoids, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, sesquiterpenes, lactone, dihydrochrysanolide derivatives, phenolic, campesterol compounds and sterols. (18)
- Study of essential oil of flowers by GC-MS yielded a total of 105 different constituents representing 97.71-99.95% of total oil composition. Higher concentrations were noted for
cis-chrysanthemol (7.98%) and bornyl acetate (7.96%), and then for cis-chrysanthenyl isovalerate (6.61%) and camphor (5.68%). The oil obtained from flowers propagated conventionally yielded varying concentrations of constituents compared to oil obtained from flowers propagated in vitro. (20)
- Study yielded a polyphenol content of 235 mg/g of extract.
- Mineral content analysis (g per 100 g dry matter) yielded sodium 1.38 ± 0.06, potassium 1.80 ± 0.09, calcium 1.65 ± 0.11, magnesium 0.22 ± 0.02, phosphorus 0.12 ± 0.02. (23)
- GC and GC-MS study of essential oil from aerial parts of CC from two different localities yielded 68 constituents, amounting to 89.0% to 91.6% of oil. Main components were trans-spiroketal–enol ether 2-(2,4-hexadiynylidene)-1,6-dioxaspiro[4,4]non-3-ene (trans-tonghaosu) with chrysanthenyl and lyratyl esters and camphor. (24)
• Study of aerial parts for essential oil yielded
main components of capillene (54.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%). (see study below. (25)

- Reported not poisonous, but excessive use may result in intoxication.
- Dried flowers, like pyrethrum, impart a prickling sensation to the tongue.
- Roots are pellitory; chewed, imparts a tingling sensation to the tongue.
- Considered digestive, sedative, stimulant.

- Leaves considered expectorant and stomachic.
- Considered to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiangiogenic, insecticidal, anti-atherosclerotic, nematicidal, hepatoprotective properties

Parts used
Bark, leaves.

Culinary / Nutrition
- Young shoots and stems are eaten, raw or cooked.
- A leafy vegetable; gathered while young, imparting a spicy taste, used as a condiment for pansit luglog.
- Flowers eaten raw or briefly blanched.
- Flowers and leaves used in salads and soups.
Flowers are sometimes used as a tolerable substitute for chamomile.
- The bark is purgative.
- Topically, the leaves are used for inflammatory afflictions.
- People of the Deccan use the plant in conjunction with black pepper for gonorrhea.
- Root is chewed for the pellitory tingling sensation in the tongue.
- The Yunanistas consider the bark as a useful purgative in syphilis. The leaves are also applied to lessen inflammation.

- In Mecca, Saudi Arabia, women use leaves and flowers as digestive. (26)

Campesterol / Antiangiogenic / Anticancer: Campesterol, a plant sterol , known for cholesterol lowering and anticarcinogenic effects. Isolated from C coronarium, the study results supported its potential antiangiogenic action through inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and capillary differentiation. (1)
Pyrethrosin Derivatives / Cytotoxic:
Study yielded three sesquiterpene lactones. Two compounds showed cytotoxic activities against human cancer lines.
Heterocycle / Hypolipidemic:
Study of methanol extract of aerial parts of CC isolated one new heterocycle, 5, 5'-dibuthoxy-2,2'-bofuran and five known compounds: methyl trans-ferulate, prunasin, sambunigrin, pterolactam and adenosin. Results showed inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation.
Study results on the aqueous extracts of C. coronarium suggest hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats equivalent to that of glibenclamide.
Study of extracts from flower and leaves of C coronarium showed insecticidal activity. Sesquiterpene lactones, toxic to insects have been isolated from the flower head of CC. (4)
Antibacterial / Antifungal:
Study of extract of C. coronarium flowers showed inhibition of gram positive organisms.
Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study showed activity of C. coronarium against Alternaria sp, Aspergillus flavus and Phthium ultimum.

Phytochemical studies yielded compounds emodin, chrysopanol, chrysazin, quercetin and isoquercetin, high amounts of vitamin C and carotenoids – all together suggesting possible usefulness in cardiovascular preventive therapy.
Antijuvenile Hormone / Insecticidal:
Studies confirm the antihormone as acetylenic sulfoxide, compound C. Biological assays indicate significant insecticidal activity in a number of fractions. Anti-juvenile hormone activity was not expressed until the pure major constituents were tested individually. (8)
Antimicrobial :
Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species. Findings showed that some Chrysanthemum extracts exhibited antimicrobial and/or anti-HSV activities. (9)
Nematicidal :
Study showed significant reduction nematode infection of tomato roots and improved plant-top fresh weight, both in the greenhouse and in microplots. Only mature plants, in their flowering stage, exhibited nematode control activity. The green plant parts were more effective than the flowers. (12)
Insecticidal :
Study showed the flower extract to have insecticidal activity on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. Major constituents were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). Because of its safety profile, it presents as a promising alternative to integrated pest management. (13)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Fertility Effects:
Study evaluated the biologic activity of an ethanol extract of C. coronarium and its fractions. Results showed antioxidant oxidant activity, highest in the ethyl acetate fraction. It also showed hepatoprotective activity and improvement of fertility. (14)
Biosorption of Cadmium (II) and Cobalt (II):
Study reports on the removal ability of cadium (II) and cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by natural and low cost biosorbents developed from Diplotaxis harra and Glebionis coronaria. Results showed the biosorption process to be very rapid with the biosorption yield increasing with increase in biosorbent dosage. (17)
Antiproliferative / Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition / Essential Oil:
Study of essential oil for antioxidant activity by DPPH method showed moderate radical scavenging activity. The oil also exhibited cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was more pronounced against Gram-positive strains. On in vitro antiproliferative evaluation, EO demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which colon cancer was the most sensitive. (19)
In a study of eight selected plant extracts, Chrysanthemum coronarium was one of seven extracts that showed promising anti-inflammatory property. Extracts decreased NO and TNFa synthesis in cells of monocyte origin activated with LPS. The extracts decreased cytokine or LPS-stimulated iNOS mRNA levels in both cell types. (22)
• Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts:
Previous studies of the plant essential oil yielded major components of chrysanthemyl acetate )24.4%), chrysanthemol (21.8%), chrysanthenyl acetate (7.6%), camphor (.7.3%), ß-farnesene (5.9%), and a-bisabol9ol (5.6%) An ethanolic extract showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus). The oil also showed moderate antioxidant activity, weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, and potent antiproliverative activities. This study evaluated the essential oil of aerial parts. Main components were capillene (54.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.8%). The essential oil showed growth=inhibitory activity against E. coli (53.3%) and S. aureus (17.1%). The antimicrobial effects were more pronounced against gram-negative bacteria. (25)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Teas, supplements, seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated September 2019 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Chrysanthemum coronarium May 2008.jpg / Author: Laitche - Website / Cropped & Modified by G. Stuart / Click to see source image / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Leaves / Flowers / Chrysanthemum coronarium / alterVISTA / Click on graphic to see source image
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Seeds / Glebionis coronarium (L.) Tzvelev / Chrysanthemum coronarium L. - CHCO7 / Steve Hurst, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Adtional Sources and Suggested Readings
Identification of campesterol from Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and its antiangiogenic activities / Jun-Min Choi et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research . 2007, vol. 21, no10, pp. 954-959 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2189
Heterocyclic compounds from Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their inhibitory activity on hACAT-1, hACAT-2, and LDL-oxidation / Myoung-Chong Song et al /Archives of Pharmacal Research / Volume 31, Number 5 / May, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s12272-001-1195-4
Hypoglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Four Korean Medicinal Plants in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / Kim, Ji Su et al / American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2 (4): 154-160, 2006 ISSN 1553-3468
Insecticidal Activity of Flower and Leaf Extracts from Chrysanthemum Species Against Tribolium confusum / Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection Vol. 3, No. 2, 2008
Secondary metabolites of Chrysanthemum genus and their biological activities / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2005
Hydroxyanthraquinones and flavonoids of garland chrysanthemum / Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology . Vol 36, Number 3 / May, 2000 / DOI 10.1007/BF02742584
Isolation of Pyrethrosin Derivatives from the Flower ofChrysanthemum coronarium L / Kyung Dong Lee et al / Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 46(2), 76-79 (2003) /
Discovery and Indentification of an Antijuvenile Hormone from Chrysanthemum coronarium / Wm Bowers and M Aregullin / Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol 82, Suppl. III, 51-54, 987
Antimicrobial activities of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species / Ahlem Ben Sassi et al / Indian J Med Res 127, February 2008, pp 183-192
Chrysanthemum coronarium L / Catalogue of Life, China
Chrysanthemum coronarium L. / Vernacular names /GLOBINMED
Nematicidal Activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium / Meira Bar-Eyal, Edna Sharon and Yitzhak Spiegel / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, Volume 114, Number 4 (2006), 427-433, DOI: 10.1007/s10658-006-0011-7
Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition / Mourad L. Shonouda, Salah Osman, Osama Salama and Amal Ayoub /
Journal of Applied Sciences, 8: 1859-1866. / DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.1859.1866
Biological Activity of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Extracts / Abd El Raheim M. Donia* / Annual Research & Review in Biology 4(16): 2617-2627, 2014
Glebionis coronaria / Synonyms / The Plant List
Chrysanthemum, garland, raw / National Nutrient Database / USDA
Biosorption potential of Diplotaxis harra and Glebionis coronaria L. biomasses for the removal of Cd(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions / Hanane Tounsadi, b, Abderrahim Khalidia\, Mohamed Abdennouri, Noureddine Barka / Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 822–830
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON Chrysanthemum coronarium L.: A REVIEW / Sudheer Kumar Dokuparthi, Penumudi Manikanta / Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics, Volume 3, Issue 27, 2015, 11-16
Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil / Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, and Rasha M. Bashatwah / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2015 (2015) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/790838
GC–MS Analysis of the Essential Oil from Flowers of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Propagated Conventionally and Derived from In Vitro Cultures / A. WESOŁOWSKA*, M. GRZESZCZUK, AND D. KULPA / Acta Chromatographica 27(2015)3, 525–539 / DOI: 10.1556/AChrom.27.2015.3.9
Volatile oil profiles of the aerial parts of Jordanian garland, Chrysanthemum coronarium
/ K. Tawaha & M. Hudaib / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 48, 2010 - Issue 10
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF ANNUAL PLANTS GROWING WILD IN THE SOUTHERN OF TUNISIA / Ahmed Akrout*, Hajer El Jani, Tarek Zammouri, Hédi Mighri, Mohamed Neffati / Journal of Phytology 2010, 2(1): 034–040
Composition of the essential oil from flowerheads of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae) growing wild in Southern Italy / Felice Senatore, Daniela Rigano, Raffaele De Fusco, Maurizio Bruno / Flavour and Fragrance Journal / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1285
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach essential
oil / Esra Yildirim, Hüseyin Servi, Betül Eren Keskin, Kaan Yılancıoğlu / Facta Universitatis, Series Physics, Chemistry, and Technology, 2018; 16(1)
Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban Muslim and gendered knowledge /
Afnan Algethami, Julie Hawkins and Irene Texidor-Toneu / J Ethnobiol Ethnomed, 2017; 13:62 / doi: 10.1186/s13002-017-0193-4

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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