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Family Moraceae

Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr.

Scientific names Common names
Ficus aspera var. nota Blanco Dalit (Tag.)
Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. Ipo (Tag., Bis.)
  Dita (Ibn., Ap.)
  Lata (Neg.)
  Mananau (S. L. Bis.)
  Salogon (Tag.)
  Tambuyog (Bik.)
  Tibey (Pamp.)
  Tebey (Pamp.)
  Sacking tree (Engl.)
Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
JAVA: Upas.

Tibig is an erect, spreading, dioecious perennial tree, growing to a height of 8-10 meters. Branchlets are hairy. Leaves oblong to elliptic-obovate, 15 to 35 centimeters long and 8 to 12 centimeters wide; soft and pubescent beneath, the margins irregular and distinctly toothed, the apex abruptly acute, and the base auriculate. Midrib of leaves is stout, with 7 to 9 pairs of ascending, curved nerves. Petiole is brown, tomentose, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Tubercles are mostly cauline, occasionally from larger branches, clustered, rebranched, rigid, 20 centimeters long, bracteate. Figs are subglobose, 2 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter, glabrous, fleshy, pedunculate, green, becoming yellowish-white at the base, the umbilical scales exerted. Peduncle is acute, 2 centimeters long, with three bracts.

- In thickets and forests, especially in areas saturated with water, at low and medium altitudes.
- Used as live fence.
- Occurs in Batan Island, Polilio, Mindoro, Culion and Balabac regions of Palawan, Panay, Samar, Leyte.
- Also occurs in North Borneo.

- Dichlormethane extract of unripe fruits yielded 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 2-methoxyphenol (1), a mixture of meso-2,3-butanediol (2a), (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol (2b) and (2S,3S)-2,3- butanediol (2c) and β-sitosterol (3). (2)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of fruit and leaves yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and anthraquinones. (see study below) (6)
- Ethanolic leaf extract yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, and tannins. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were 348.3 ± 3.2 mg GAE/g and 2.64 ± 0.06 mg QE/g, respectively. (see study below) (9)
- Study of leaves isolated six diarylbutanoids, ficusnotins A-F. (10)

Parts used
Bark, fruit, leaves and seeds.

- Ripe fruits are edible but rather tasteless; usually eaten with sugar.
- Young leaves eaten as vegetable.
- Water extracted from standing tree drunk three times daily for fever.
- Extracted water applied to relieve muscle pain.
- Decoction of roots and bark used for urinary tract inflections, hypertension, and diabetes.
- Water from cut branches used for urinary infections.
- The Mansaka tribe of the Compostela Valley used a bark decoction to treat asthma, cough, and other respiratory conditions.
- The Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga use the stem of the plant species as repellent against hematophagous insects. (4) Used for toothache and stomachache. (5)


- Wood: Used as firewood or charcoal.

Dichlormethane extract of unripe fruits yielded 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)- 2-methoxyphenol (1), a mixture of meso-2,3-butanediol (2a), (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol (2b) and (2S,3S)-2,3- butanediol (2c) and β-sitosterol (3). (2)
Cytotoxicity / Stems: Study evaluated the potential cytotoxicity of stems of Ficus nota in brine shrimp lethality assay. Water and absolute ethanol extracts of stems showed activity against the brine shrimp with LC50 of 991.00 ppm and 852.22 ppm, respectively. (4)
• Antibacterial / Fruit and Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract of Ficus nota fruit and leaves against pathogenic pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Salmonella typhimurium. Results showed significant antibacterial activity when compared to standard Chloramphenicol. Cytotoxicity results showed higher toxicity with fruit compared with leaf extract. (see constituents above) (6)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: In a study of Philippine medicinal plants for antioxidant activity, a leaf decoction of Ficus nota showed
88.19% at 500 ppm against DPPH, 216.64 mg GAE, 55.52 AAE, and 77.05 BHTE. Results suggest potential of F. nota as an important source of natural antioxidants. (7)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of various extracts of Ficus nota leaves. An aqueous extract showed active to very active levels of inhibition against three bacteria viz., B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli and activity against two fungi, S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. All plant extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 <1000 g/ml) against brine shrimp lethality assay, with the crude ethanol and chloroform extracts showing LC50 values of less than 250 g/ml. (8)
• Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents / Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Study of ethanol leaf extract showed concentration dependent inhibitory effect on DPPH, ABTS, ad NO radical with EC50 of 970.6, 269.8 and >5000 ppm, respectively. It also showed high dose dependent reducing capacity (EC50=548.3 ppm) and metal chelating potential (EC50=27.53 ppm) towards iron. Results suggest a dual potential in biological and pharmaceutical applications beneficial for treatment and prevention of various diseases i.e., diabetes, cardiovascular, cancer, and aging. (see constituents above) (9)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated April 2018 / December 2015

Photo ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Ficus nota / Fruit at Near Ala Moana Blvd, Oahu / Forest & Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution / click on image to go to source page / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Forest tree species with medicinal uses / Compiled by Maximo Lanting and Concepcion Palaypayon / DENR Recommends, Vol 11

Chemical constituents of Ficus nota / Consolacion Y. Ragasa*, Agnes B. Alimboyoguen and Chien-Chang Shen / Der Pharma Chemica, 2014, 6(4):98-101
Ficus nota / The Plant List
Evaluating the Potential Cytotoxic Activity of Ficus nota Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test / Cindy D. Arquion, Olga M. Nuñeza*, Mylene M. Uy / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 4 [12] November 2015: 40-44
Useful Plants of Selected Ayta Communities from Porac, Pampanga, Twenty Years after the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo / Elena M. Ragragio*, Cynthia Neri Zayas** and Jasper John A. Obico* / Philippine Journal of Science, 142: 169-181, Special Issue
Antibacterial, Histochemical and Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxicity Activity of Tubog, Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr Leaf and Fruit Extracts / Levitah C. Mapatac / Reciketis Multidisciplinary Research Journal, Vol 3, No 2
Screening of the Antioxidant Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Philippine Medicinal Plants Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr., Metroxylon sagu Rottb., Mussaenda philippica A. Rich., Inocarpus fagifer, and Cinnamomum mercadoi Vidal / Felmer S. Latayada, Mylene M. Uy* / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 5, Issue 3, February 2016: pp18-24
Antimicrobial Activities and Toxicities of the Leaf Extracts of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. / Felmer S Latayada, Mylene M Uy / Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, Sept-Dec 2016; Vool 5, Issue 3
Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and free radical scavenging components of Ficus nota Merr. (Moraceae) ethanolic leaf extract / Santiago LA, Saguinsin SGC, Reye AML, Guerrero RP, Nuguid AMN, and Santos ACN / International Food Research Journal 24(5): pp 2050-2058 (Oct 2017)
Ficusnotins A-F: Rare diarylbutanoids from the leaves of Ficus nota. / Latayada FS, Uy MM, Akihara Y, Ohta E, Nehira T. Omura H, Ohta S / Phytochemistry, 6 June 2017; 141: pp 98-104 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2017.05.016

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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